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WlMm'ymM 


I 


ANNALS 


OF 


The  Entomological  Society  of  America 


VOLUME    VI,    1913 


EDITORIAL  BOARD 

J.  H.  COMSTOCK,  L.  o.  HOWARD, 

ITHACA,  N.  Y.  Washington,  D.  C. 

C.  J.  S.  BETHUNE,  W.  M.  WHEELER, 

GuEi,PH,  Ontario,  Canada.  Boston,  Mass. 

C.  W.  JOHNSON,  P.  p.  CALVERT, 

Boston,  Mass.  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

V.  L.  KELLOG,  j.  w.  FOLSOM, 

Stanford  Univ.,  Cal.  Urbana,  Ills. 

HERBERT  OSBORN,  Managing  Editor, 
Columbus,  Ohio. 


PUBLISHED  QUARTERLY  BY  THE  SOCIETY 
COLUMBUS.  OHIO 


JAN  10  1914 


CONTENTS  OF  VOLUME  VI. 


PAGE 

An  Entomologist  in  Costa  Rica.     P.  P.  Calvert ; 1 

Determining  the  Flight  of  Mosquitos.     James  Zetek 5 

A  Revision  of  the  North  American  Species  of  the  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona. 

M.  C.  VanDuzee 22 

An  Interesting  Feature  in  the  Venation  of  Helicopysche,  the  Molannidae, 

and  the  Leptoceridae.     Cornelius  Betten 65 

Homologies  of  the  Wing  Veins  of  the  Membracidae.     W.  D.  Funkhouser.  ...     74 

The  Wing  Venation  of  the  Jassidae.     Z.  P.  Metcalf 103 

A  New  Hymenopterous  Parasite  on  Aspidiotus  Perniciosus  Comst.     D.  G. 

Tower 125 

Officers  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  America 127 

Resolutions:     On  the  Death  of  John  B.  Smith 128 

On  the  Death  of  Thomas  H.  Montgomery 129 

Proceedings  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  America — Cleveland  Meeting. .  130 
A  Revision  of  the  North  American  Species  of  Megastigmus  Dalman.     C.  R. 

Crosby 155 

The  Neuropterous  Genus  Palpares.     Nathan  Banks 171 

Stomoxys  Calcitrans  Linn.     Part  II.     Chas.  K.  Brain 197 

The  Biology  of  Perla  Immarginata  Say.     Lucy  W.  Smith 203 

The  Life-History  of  a  Bee-Fly  (Spogostylum  Anale  Say)  Parasite  of  the  Larva 

of  a  Tiger  Beetle  (Cicindela  Scutellaris  Say  Var.  Lecontei  Hald). 

Victor  E.  Shelford 213 

A  New  Application  of  Taxonomic  Principles.     Chas.  H.  T.  Townsend 226 

A  Study  in  Antennal  Variation.     Edith  M.  Patch 233 

A  Study  in  Variation  in  the  North  American  Greenbottle  Flies  of  the  Genus 
Lucilia,    with    Systematic    Notes    on   the  Species  Involved.    John 

K.  Tothill 241 

Observations  on  the  Chaetotaxy  of  Calliphorinae.     Phineas  W.  Whiting 257 

A  Revision  of  the  Species  in  Agromyza  Fallen,  and  Cerodontha  Rondani. 

J.  R.  Malloch 269 

The  Wing  Venation  of  Fulgoridae.     Z.  P.  Metcalf 341 

The  Princeton  Collection  of  Fossil  Beetles  from  Florissant.    H.  F.  Wickham  359 

A  Contribution  to  the  Biology  of  May-Flies.     Anna  H.  Morgan 371 

The  External  Anatomy  of  the  Squash  Bug,  Anasa  Tristis,  De  G.     Daniel 

G.  Tower 427 

The  Dipteran  Fauna  of  Bermuda    Chas.  W.  Johnson 443 

The  Taxonomic  Value  of  the  Characters  of  the  Male  Genital  Armature  in 

the  Genus  Tetranychus,  Dufour.     H.  E.  Ewing 453 

A  Synopsis  of  the  Described  North  American  Species  of  the  Dipterous  Genus 

Tipula  L.     W.  G.  Dietz 461 

Some  Pemphiginae  Attacking  Species  of  Populus  in  Colorado.     C.  P.  Gillette.  485 


"^^'^^^  '^^-  Number 


ANNALS 


The  Entomological  Society  of  America 


MARCH.    191  3 


EDITORIAL    BOARD 

J.  H.  COMSTOCK,  L.  q.  HOWARD, 

ITHACA,  N.  Y.  ^  Washington,  D.  C. 

C.   J.  S.  BETHUNE,  W.  M.  WHEeIeR, 

GuEi,PH,  Ontario.  Ganada.  Boston,  Mass. 

C.  W.  JOHNSON,  P.  p.  CALVERT 

Boston,  Mass.  Phii^adelphia,  Pa. 

V.  L.  KELLOGG,  j.  w.  FOLSOM, 

Stanford  Univ.,  Cai..  Urbana,  Ii.i,s. 

HERBERT  OSBORN,  Managing  Editor, 
Columbus,  Ohio. 


PUBUSHED  QUARTERLY  BY  THE  SOCIETY 
COLUMBUS,  OHIO 


Entered  at  second  class  matter  April   1 1.  1908.  at  the  Post  Office  atColumbu..  Ohio, 
under  the  Act  of  Congress  of  March  3,   1879. 

APR  18  J 


The  Entomological  Society  of  America. 

FOUNDEB  1906. 


OFFICERS     1913. 

President — C.  J.  S.  Bethune Guelph,  Ont.,  Canada 

First  Vice-President — P.  P.  Calvert Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania 

Second  Vice-President — Wm.  M.  Marshall Madison,  Wisconsin 

Secretary-Treasurer— A.   D.   MacGillivray Urbana,    Illinois 

Executive    Committee — The   Officers,    and    Herbert   Osborn,  C.  P.  Gillette, 

V.  L.  Kellogg,  J.  G.  Needham,  C.  T.  Brues,  Nathan  Banks. 
Committee  on  Nomenclature — H.  T.  Fernald,  E.  P.  Felt,  T.  D.  A.  Cockerell. 


Price  List  of  Publications. 

Annals,  Vols.  I,  II,  III,  IV  and  V,  complete,  each $3,00 

Annals,  Separate  Parts  except  as  below,  each 1 .00 

Annals,  Vols.  I  and  II,  Part  3,  each 50 

Annals,  Vol.  IV,  Part  IV,  each 1.50 

REPRINTS    FROM    VOLUME    I. 

Proceedings   of  first  three  meetings;   Constitution,   By-Laws  and  List  of 

Members 26 

Wheeler,  Wm.  M. — Polymorphism  of  Ants 30 

Osborn,  Herbert — The  Habits  of  Insects  as  a  Factor  in  Classification 20 

Severin,  H.  H.  and  Severin,  H.  C. — Anatomical  and  Histological  Studies 
of  the  Female  Reproductive  Organs  of  the  American-Saw  Fly,  Cimbex 

Americana,  Leach 25 

Felt,  E.  P. — Some  Problems  in  Nomenclature 10 

Hammar,  a.  G.^On  the  Nervous  System  of  the  Larva  of  Corydalis  comuta  L     .25 
Bradley,  J.   C. — A  case  of  Gregarious  Sleeping  Habits  among  Aculeate 

Hymenoptera 10 

Davis,  J.  J. — 'Notes  on  the  Life  History  of  the  Leafy  Dimorph  of  the  Box- 
elder  Aphid,  Chaitophorus  negundinis  Thos .10 

Hambleton,  J.  C. — The  Genus  Corizus,  with  a  Review  of  the  North  and 

Middle  American  Species 25 

Girault,  a.  a. — Biological  Notes  on  Colorado  Potato  Beetle 25 

GiRAULT,  A.  A.— A  Monographic  Catalogue  of  the  Mymarid  Genus  Alaptus..     .25 
Severin,  H.  H.  and  Severin,  H.  C. — Internal  Organs  of  Reproduction  of 

Male  Saw-fly 15 

Smith,  C.  P. — A  Preliminary  Study  of  the  Aranag  Theraphosae  of  California..     .75 

Davis,  J.  J. — Studies  on  Aphididas 20 

Riley,  W.  A.— Muscle  Attachment  of  Insects 15 

Needham,  J.  C. — Critical  Notes  on  the  Classification  of  the  Corduliinas 

(Odonata) 15 

Howard,  L.  O.— A  Key  to  the  Species  of  Prospaltella  with  Table  of  Hosts 

and  Descriptions  of  Four  New  Species 15 

Hood,  J.  D. — Two  New  Species  of  Idolothrips 10 

Address 

ANNALS  ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  AMERICA, 
Biological  Building,  State  Univ.,  Columbus,  Ohio. 


ANNALS 


OF 


The  Entomological  Society  of  America 

Volume  VI  MARCH,     1913  Number 


AN  ENTOMOLOGIST  IN  COSTA  RICA.* 

By  Philip  P.  Calvert,  Ph.  D., 
University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

Until  the  separation  of  Panama  as  an  independent  state 
from  Colombia,  Costa  Rica  was  the  southernmost  of  the  five 
republics  of  Central  America.  It  lies  between  Nicaragua  on  the 
north  and  Panama  on  the  south,  from  latitude  11°  to  8°  North. 
Its  general  trend  is  from  northwest  to  southeast,  and  through  its 
entire  length  runs  a  series  of  peaks,  many  of  them  volcanoes, 
whose  greatest  altitude  is  above  12,000  feet.  North  of  the  10th 
parallel,  this  chain  divides  into  two  branches  one  of  which, 
extending  in  a  more  easterly  direction  toward  the  Atlantic,  is 
composed  chiefly  of  the  volcanoes  Poas  (8786  ft.),  Barba 
(9508  ft.),  Irazu  (11326  ft.)  and  Turrialba  (10965  ft.).  The 
other  branch,  retaining  the  southeastward  trend,  is  continued 
by  the  Cordillera  of  Chiriqui  in  Panama  and  includes  the  highest 
elevations  in  the  country.  Along  the  10th  parallel  the  distance 
from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific  is  185  miles,  but  if  we  measure 
to  the  eastern  shore  of  the  Gulf  of  Nicoya,  that  is  from  the  port 
of  Limon  to  Puntarenas,  125  miles.  The  railroad  in  making 
this  transit  climbs  to  5000  feet  and  this  ascent  together  with  its 
windings  increases  the  actual  distance  to  175  miles. 

The  prevailing  easterly  trade  winds  coming  from  the  Carib- 
bean, laden  with  moisture,  strike  against  the  lofty  mountains 
and  cause  a  heavy  precipitation  on  the  Atlantic  slope  throughout 
much  of  the  year.  Sheltered  by  the  same  peaks  the  Pacific 
slopes  and  even  some  localities  on  the  Atlantic,  like  Cartago, 
receive  a  smaller  precipitation  until  southerly  winds  bring 
moisture  from  April  to  November. 


*Abstract  of  address  before  the  Entomological  Society  of  America,  Cleveland, 
Ohio,  Jan.  1,  1913.  The  address  was  illustrated  by  a  very  fine  series  of  lantern 
views  from  photographs  of  insects  and  localities  of  scientific  and  scenic  interest. 
—Ed. 


2  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

Passing  from  east  to  west,  the  average  annual  rainfall  at 
Limon  is  126.8  inches,  Juan  Vinas  85.6,  Cartago  60.7,  with 
minimal  average  monthly,  precipitations  of  5,  2.5  and  1  inch 
respectively  (all  these  on  the  Atlantic  slope),  while  correspond- 
ing figures  on  the  Pacific  slope  are  76  inches  for  Tres  Rios,  76.4 
for  San  Jose  and  62.1  for  Nuestro  Amo,  the  minimal  average 
monthly  rainfalls  being  .12,  .43  and  0  inches  respectively. 

The  abundant  rainfall  gives  rise  to  many  streams  of  all 
sizes.  Erosion  and  the  undermining  of  the  loose  soil  have  cut 
the  surface  of  the  land  into  many  deep  ravines  and  canyons, 
producing  a  rugged  topography  and  making  travel  difficult 
and  time-consuming.  Within  short  horizontal  distances  are 
great  differences  of  elevation.  This,  in  turn,  has  affected  the 
character  of  the  vegetation  and  of  the  fauna.  Pronounced 
segregation  of  many  living  things  is  consequently  often  the 
case,  and  the  richness  of  the  biota,  as  estimated  by  the  number 
of  species,  is  greatly  increased. 

Pittier,  in  1908,  gave  the  number  of  species  of  flowering 
plants  of  Costa  Rica  as  3441 ;  the  corresponding  number  for 
New  Jersey  is  1351  (Stone,  1910).  Carriker,  in  1910,  listed 
753  species  and  subspecies  of  birds  from  Costa  Rica,  or  more 
than  half  the  total  number  (1196)  for  America  north  of  Mexico 
in  the  A.  O.  U.  check  list  of  the  same  year,  and  twice  as  many  as 
have  been  recorded  in  recent  years  for  Maine  (327),  Colorado 
(392)  or  Washington  (372) ;  the  smallest  of  these  three  has  an 
area  at  least  a  third  greater  than  that  of  Costa  Rica  which  is 
only  23,000  square  miles.  Rehn,  in  1905,  gave  a  partial  list 
of  195  species  of  Costa  Rican  Orthoptera,  as  against  154  species 
in  the  far  more  thoroughly  explored  state  of  New  Jersey. 
Godman  and  Salvin,  in  1901,  enumerated  236  genera  of  Costa 
Rican  butterflies;  Dyar,  in  1902,  recognized  152  genera  for 
America  north  of  Mexico.  Schaus  has  found  150  Costa  Rican 
species  of  the  butterfly  genus  Thecla,  as  contrasted  with  56 
species  in  America  north  of  Mexico. 

All  of  these  characteristics  make  Costa  Rica  a  Paradise  to 
the  naturalist.  Its  variety  of  altitude  offers  variety  of  temper- 
ature. The  short  distance  from  the  shores  of  the  Atlantic  to 
those  of  the  Gulf  of  Nicoya,  an  arm  of  the  Paciflc,  and  the  exist- 
ence of  the  transcontinental  railroad  render  it  possible  to  pass 
from  one  to  the  other  in  ten  hours;  a  comparison  of  conditions 
at  similar  altitudes  on  the  two  slopes  of  the  divide  may  be  easily 


1913]  An  Entomologist  in  Costa  Rica  3 

and  quickly  made.  In  the  higher  parts  of  the  country  the  cHmate 
is  salubrious  and  invigorating,  and  with  a  little  care  one  may 
safely  investigate  the  heated  lowlands.  Proximity  to  South 
America,  with  no  intervening  barrier,  has  permitted  the  invasion 
of  many  denizens  of  the  Southern  Continent,  while  not  a  few 
cases  of  continuous  distribution  from  North  America  are  also  in 
evidence.  The  most  orderly  of  Central  American  countries 
holds  its  presidential  elections  with  as  much  enthusiasm  and 
with  less  disturbance  than  those  of  the  United  States.  A 
peaceful  and  hospitable  people  and  an  enlightened  government 
render  the  stranger's  visit  an  event  to  be  remembered  by  him 
with  delight  throughout  a  lifetime. 

In  one  or  other  of  these  qualities,  Costa  Rica  is  excelled  by 
Mexico,  Colombia  or  Brazil,  but  by  none  in  the  totality  of  the 
advantages  which  it  offers  to  the  students  of  all  the  branches 
of  ecology  in  its  widest  sense.  One  shadow,  indeed,  hangs  over 
the  fair  land — that  of  the  earthquakes  which  within  two  centuries 
have  thrice  destroyed  the  town  of  Cartago,  lying  on  the  southern 
slopes  of  the  volcano  Irazu,  the  latest  destruction  being  that  of 
May  4,  1910,  when  it  was  serving  as  our  own  headquarters. 

During  the  year.  May  1909,  to  May,  1910,  insects,  especially 
Odonata  (dragonfiies)  were  collected  and  studied  at  the  following 
fourteen  groups  of  places  and  at  intervals,  in  order  to  obtain 
data  on  seasonal  distribution. 
On  the  Atlantic  slope : 

Banana  River  region,  50  feet,  November. 

Guapiles,  984  feet,  June,  November. 

Peralta,  1088  feet,  August,  March. 

Turrialba,  2000  feet,  July. 

Juan    Vifias,    2500-4000    feet,    June,    August,    October,, 
December,  February,  March  April. 

Cachi,  3600  feet,  March. 

Cartago,  4750  feet,  every  month. 

Volcano  Irazu,  4750-11300  feet,  July,  September,  March- 
On  the  Pacific  slope: 

Tres  Rios  and  La  Carpintera,  4260  to  5700  feet,  Decem- 
ber, March. 

Alajuela,  3100  feet,  September,  December. 

Turrucares,  1800-2200  feet,  August,  December,  ApriL 

Surubres,  800  feet,  October. 

Puntarenas,  10  feet,  February. 

Guanacaste,  0-2200  feet,  January. 


4  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

Four  of  these  localities  are  here  described  briefly. 

Juan  Vinas,  on  the  Atlantic  slope,  was  particularly  fruitful 
as  a  collecting  ground  owing  to  its  combination  of  many  of  the 
advantages  mentioned  above.  The  railroad  station,  73  miles 
from  Limon,  and  at  an  altitude  of  3300  feet,  is  on  the  bottom 
of  an  old  crater  the  rim  of  which,  at  the  general  level  of  the 
country,  is  700  feet  higher;  the  village  of  Juan  Viiias  is  at  this 
latter  elevation.  From  the  railway,  in  half  an  hour,  one  may 
reach  the  Rio  Reventazon,  800  feet  below.  The  canyon  of  this 
river  thus  has  a  depth  of  1500  feet,  and  presents  a  great  variety 
of  slow-  and  of  swift-flowing  brooks,  cascades,  waterfalls,  forest, 
swamp,  bare  rock  and  dense  vegetation.  It  was  productive  of 
material  illustrating  previously  unknown  life-histories  of  inter- 
esting Odonata  (Cora,  Mecistogaster,  Thaumatoneura,  Philo- 
genia,  Palaemnema,  etc.). 

Surubres,  on  the  Pacific  side,  at  an  altitude  of  about  800  feet, 
was  a  favorite  with  the  late  Professor  Paul  BioUey,  where  he 
gathered  much  insect  material  subsequently  sent  to  entomolo- 
gists in  the  United  States  and  in  Europe.  A  week  was  spent  in 
the  hacienda,  which  he  occupied  on  several  occasions,  but  at  a 
different  time  of  year,  to  secure  data  to  supplement  those  which 
he  obtained. 

The  northwestern  province  of  Costa  Rica,  Guanacaste,  has 
been  little  visited  by  entomologists.  Thanks  to  Professor  J.  F. 
Tristan,  the  writer  accompanied  an  official  educational  commis- 
sion thither,  and  collections  and  observations  were  made  at 
Filadelfia,  Liberia,  Santa  Cruz,  and  Hacienda  Guachipelin. 
The  last  named,  at  an  altitude  of  1700  feet,  is  not  far  from 
the  still  unexplored  Volcano  Rincon  de  la  Vieja. 

Cartago,  near  the  top  of  the  Atlantic  slope  of  the  railroad, 
was,  until  its  destruction,  alluded  to  above,  a  convenient  center 
for  visits  to  various  parts  of  the  country  and  served  as  the 
breeding  place  of  living  material  collected  on  these  excursions. 

(Other  aspects  of  this  visit  to  Costa  Rica  have  been  described 
in  Entomological  News,  vol.  XXI,  pp.  334-337,  July,  1910,  and 
in  Old  Penn  Weekly  Review  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania, 
vol.  IX,  pp.  165-170,  Nov.  12,  1910.  Some  of  the  results 
obtained  from  studies  on  Costa  Rican  Odonata  have  been  pub- 
lished in  Entomological  News  for  1910,  1911  and  1912,  and  will 
probably  be  continued  in  subsequent  volumes  of  the  same 
journal.) 


DETERMINING  THE  FLIGHT  OF  MOSQUITOS. 

By  James  Zetek,  Entomologist. 
Isthmian  Canal  Commission,  Ancon,  Canal  Zone. 

Introduction. 
Description. 

A.  General  Considerations. 

1.  Physical  Factors. 

2.  Biotic  Factors. 

3.  Historic  Factors. 

B.  Detailed  Description. 

1.  Collection  and  Care  of  Larvae  and  Pupae. 

A.  Collection. 

B.  Transportation. 

C.  The  field  laboratory. 

D.  Breeding-out  methods. 

2.  Care  of  Adults. 

A.  At  the  laboratory. 

B.  Transporting  adults. 

3.  Coloring  of  Adults. 

A.  Anilin  dyes  used. 

B.  Staining  the  adults. 

4.  Liberating  Colored  Adults. 

5.  Collection   and   Examination   of  Adults  found   in   buildings. 

A.  Collection  by  hand. 

B.  Collection  by  traps. 

C.  Collection  by  tents. 

D.  Collection  by  sweeping  nets. 

E.  Examination  of  adults  for  presence  of  color. 
Summary. 

Acknowledgements. 
References. 

INTRODUCTION. 

This  report  presents  a  method  for  determining  the  flight 
factors  of  mosquitos.  The  scheme  was  developed  and  tried 
out  on  the  canal  zone  and  has  given  results  which  warrant  its 
publication.  Apart  from  its  purely  scientific  standpoint,  the 
knowledge  of  the  flight  of  Culices  enables  us  to  direct  better  our 
efforts  toward  the  eradication  of  these  insects  from  our  habita- 
tions, and  thus  greatly  reduce  the  possibilities  for  transmission 
of  such  diseases  as  yellow-fever,  malaria,  dengue,  etc.,  and  to 
a  large  measure  do  away  with  the  insect  as  a  pest. 

DESCRIPTION. 

Briefly  stated,  adult  mosquitos  are  bred,  colored  with  an 
anilin  dye  and  then  liberated  at  stations  about  the  town  selected 
for  study.  Systematic  collections  of  adults  are  made  in  the 
buildings  of  this  town,  and  these  adults  are  tested  for  the 
presence  of  color. 


Annals  E?itomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


A.       GENERAL   CONSIDERATION. 

Dispersal  includes  everything  involved  in  the  movements  of 
animals  from  one  place  to  another.  It  is  a  more  or  less  eccentric 
movement  because  the  paths  taken  are  usually  those  of  least 
resistence  and  economy.  In  mosquitos,  dispersal  is  limited  to 
four  general  means:  (1)  flight  of  the  adult,  (2)  the  adults  may 
be  carried  by  the  wind,  (3)  they  may  be  carried  in  trains,  other 
vehicles,  on  the  clothing  of  man  or  on  other  animals,  and  (4)  the 
eggs,  larvae,  pupas  and  to  some  extent  the  adults,  may  be  carried 
down  stream  or  across  a  pond  by  current  or  wind  action. 

Such  mosquitos  as  transmit  diseases  to  man,  especially 
when  they  serve  as  intermediary  hosts  in  such  transmission, 
are  usually  limited  in  their  breeding  area  to  the  vicinity  of 
human  habitations.  This  is  well  illustrated  by  Aedes  calopiis 
Meigen  which  transmits  yellow  fever,  and  Anopheles  albimanus 
Wiedemann,  responsible  for  E.  A.  malaria.  Such  mosquitos 
(verified  by  us  in  the  two  cited  species)  are  not  distant  travellers, 
and  if  they  do  come  from  distant  places,  it  is  through  gradual 
infiltration.  Some  species  of  Culex  are  powerful  fliers;  others 
apparantly  remain  only  near  their  breeding  place. 

To  merely  liberate  colored  adults  is  almost  futile.  The 
study  is  an  ecological  one  and  requires  a  knowledge  of  all  the 
physical,  biotic  and  historic  factors  that  in  any  way  enter  into 
the  environment  of  the  species  studied.  The  statements  given 
under  the  three  subheads  following  are  not  intended  to  be 
exhaustive,  and  they  must  be  amplified  according  to  the  species 
selected. 

1.     Physical  Factors. 

A  good  map  of  the  region  selected  for  experimentation  is 
necessary.  It  must  indicate  with  fair  accuracy  the  topography, 
commercial  projects,  habitations,  streets,  roads,  and  inlets  of 
oils  or  poisonous  refuse  into  streams  or  ponds  and  the  extent 
of  this  pollution. 

A  recording  anemometer  should  be  in  operation  at  the  central 
station,  and  in  addition  to  the  velocity  per  hour  intervals, 
should  give  the  eight  main  directions.  If  more  than  one  such 
instrument  is  available,  the  others  may  be  distributed  at  stations 
where  decided  wind  deviations  take  place.  Small  portable 
anemometers  will  greatly  augment  the  data.  A  self-recording 
rain  guage  is  a  valuable  addition. 


1913] 


Determining  the  Flight  of  Mosguitos 


The  necessity  of  a  well-kept,  tabulated  record  for  the  data 
should  not  have  to  be  mentioned.  The  following  reproduction 
of  an  arrangement  found  satisfactory  in  our  work  may  be  of 
help  to  other  investigators.     This  method  gives  the  investigator 


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8  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

at  a  glance  four  distinct  data,  graphically  placed  in  proper 
relation  to  each  other,  viz:  (1)  the  velocity  and  direction  of 
the  wind  per  hour  intervals,  for  six  or  more  days,  according  to 
the  size  of  paper  used;  (2)  the  quantity,  species,  and  sex  of 
mosquitos  liberated,  time  and  place  of  liberation  and  the  color 
used;  (3)  the  quantity,  species,  sex,  source  and  color  of  recovered 
adults,  and  (4)  the  total  mosquito  catch  in  all  buildings.  A 
simple  system  of  cross-reference  to  data  sheets  containing 
details  will  save  time  and  energy. 

Tracing  cloth,  so  ruled  that  the  ordinates  correspond  to  the 
above  form,  can  have  recorded  thereon  the  quantity  and  dura- 
tion of  rainfall,  cloudbursts,  fogs,  barometric  pressure,  frosts, 
etc.  By  superposition  on  the  above  tabulated  form,  the 
relation,  if  any,  of  these  factors  to  flight,  will  be  seen.  A  similar 
tracing,  made  to  correspond  to  the  map,  should  indicate  the 
extent  of  prairies,  forests,  forest  fires,  drainage,  marshes,  the 
geology  of  the  region,  etc. 

Porcelain  cup  evaporimeters  should  be  installed  at  many 
stations  to  determine  the  relative  humidity, 

2.     Biotic   Factors. 

Weekly  or  biweekly  surveys  of  the  entire  area  should  be 
made  for  the  purpose  of  locating  mosquito  breeding  areas. 
These  should  be  charted  on  smaller  maps.  If  portions  of  this 
area  are  oiled,  treated  with  larvacides,  or  subjected  to  noxious 
fumes,  the  extent  of  such  pollution  should  be  clearly  indicated 
on  the  maps.  It  is  necessary  to  know  the  time  interval  from 
oviposition  to  the  adults  for  the  species  studied.  When  search- 
ing for  Anopheles,  particularly  the  malaria-transmitter,  a  safe 
rule  is  to  go  to  unfrequented  places,  small  puddles  in  grass 
land,  etc. 

Most  mosquitos,  particularly  the  blood-suckers,  are  most 
active  during  and  after  dusk.  It  is  evident,  then,  that  an 
investigator  should  be  detailed  for  night  observations.  A 
sweep-net  should  be  used  for  beating  the  grass  and  shrubbery 
for  mosquitos,  traps  may  be  set  out  to  intercept  or  attract 
adults,  or  the  observer  may  remain  quiet,  expose  his  arm,  and 
note  the  ferocity  of  the  biting. 

The  abundance  or  scarcity  of  such  predacious  animals  as 
dragon  flies,  robber  flies,  ants,  toads,  frogs,  fish,  bats,  etc., 
should  be  noted.     Marked  oscillations  in  the  numbers  of  mos- 


1913]  Determining  the  Flight  of  Mosqiiitos  9 

quitos  will  occur  through  the  ravages  of  these  animals.  Collec- 
tions of  these  forms  must  be  made  and  the  stomachs  examined. 
The  best  time  for  such  collection  is  at  or  just  after  dusk  when 
they  feed  upon  these  dainty  morsels.  Unless  the  stomachs 
are  examined  that  evening,  they  should  be  preserved  in  95% 
alcohol,  containing  about  one  percent  of  thymol,  the  latter  to 
arrest  enzymic  action. 

Life  history  studies  should  be  made  at  the  laboratory  and  all 
possible  data  bearing  on  the  ecological  problem  collected. 

3.     Historic    Factors. 
This  includes  the  geology  of  the  region,  the  plant  and  animal 
association    and    their    past    history    and    present    trend,    past 
human  disturbances  still  exerting  an  influence  on  the  biota, 
and  the  past  history  of  the  mosquitos  studied. 

B.       DETAILED    DESCRIPTION. 

Mosquitos  are  delicate  organisms,  the  majority  of  the 
species  unable  to  endure  intense  dry  heat,  absence  of  water  or 
shelter,  high  winds,  heavy  rains,  etc.  They  are  dainty  morsels 
to  hosts  of  alert  forms.  So  far  as  our  experiments  are  concerned, 
additional  factors  enter  to  lessen  the  number  of  released  adults 
which  may  be  recovered.  First,  the  female  almost  exclusively 
is  able  to  suck  blood.  Second,  mosquitos  are  not  dependant 
upon  human  blood  alone.  We  have  noted  mosquitos  sucking 
the  blood  of  horses,  mules,  dogs,  cats,  monkeys  and  fowls. 
The  need,  then,  for  releasing  large  numbers  of  colored  adults 
is  evident.  Better  results  will  follow  if  thousands  of  mosquitos 
are  liberated. 

1.     Collection  and  Care  of  Larvce  and  Pupce. 

A.  Collection:  Mature  or  nearly  mature  larvae  and  all 
pupae,  of  the  species  selected  for  study,  should  be  collected. 
Young  larvae  thrive  poorly  in  the  field  laboratory.  All  preda- 
cious larvae  must  be  excluded  from  the  receptacles  containing 
larvae  and  pupae. 

A  white  enameled  or  porcelain  saucer  is  very  satisfactory  in 
"dishing-up"  water  and  algas  to  note  whether  mosquito  larvae 
are  present.  The  larvae,  if  there,  stand  out  in  bold  relief 
against  the  white  back-ground.  If  the  larvae  and  pupae  are 
abundant,  a  large  white  enameled  dressing  bucket  (such  as  is 
used  by  hospitals)  should  be  used  to  dip  up  quantities  of  the 


10  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

water  and  algae.  This  prevents  frequent  disturbance  of  the 
water,  and  allows  the  frightened  mosquitos  to  regain  their 
equilibrium.  When  dishing-up  the  water,  a  shadow  should  not 
pass  over  the  surface  of  the  pond,  as  this  causes  the  larvae  to 
wriggle  away.  The  alg£e  in  the  bucket  should  be  removed  after 
the  larvae  clinging  to  them  have  been  dislodged.  The  contents 
of  the  bucket  may  then  be  strained  through  a  clean  piece  of 
surgical  gauze.  In  this  manner  the  larvae  and  pupae  are  not 
lost,  while  the  very  young  larv^,  small  debris,  etc.,  are  allowed 
to  wash  into  the  pond  or  stream.  The  gauze  should  be  inverted 
over  a  wide-mouthed  jar,  and  water  applied  very  carefully 
with  a  pipette  to  the  larvse.  These  are  thereby  released  from 
the  gauze  and  placed  in  the  jars.  Small  pails  are  as  servicable 
as  jars. 

The  receptacles  containing  the  larvae  and  pupae  must  be 
kept  in  a  cool,  shaded  spot,  otherwise  the  water  will  quickly 
foul.  Not  more  than  one  and  a  half  inches  of  water  should  be 
allowed  in  these  jars.  The  larvae  should  not  be  left  in  these 
containers  for  more  than  one  half  a  day.  Overcrowding  must 
be  avoided  and  at  least  once  each  half  day  the  water  should  be 
aerated.  A  Paquelin  Cautery  bulb,  with  a  capillary  tube 
attached,  serves  well  this  object,  and  one  or  two  bulbfuls  will 
be  found  ample. 

B.  Transportation:  The  larvae  in  these  wide-mouthed  jars 
should  be  taken  each  half  day  to  the  field  laboratory,  and  here 
emptied  into  plates  or  larger  receptacles.  Prior  to  transporta- 
tion, the  jars  should  be  placed  into  a  basket  and  separated  from 
each  other  with  excelsior  or  cotton  wadding,  and  while  carried, 
shaking  must  be  reduced  to  a  minimum.  Constant  shaking 
prevents  the  larvae  from  reaching  the  surface  of  the  water  to 
breathe  and  hence  repeated  unsuccessful  attempts  to  reach  the 
surface  bring  fatigue  and  a  large  percent  if  not  all  of  the  larvae 
succumb  as  a  result.  Protection  from  heat  and  direct  light 
must  be  considered.  The  jars  themselves  must  be  covered 
with  a  close-mesh  gauze  to  prevent  the  escape  of  adults  emerged 
en  route.  If  larvae  or  pupae  are  transported  in  trains  or  vehicles, 
extra  precaution  should  be  taken  regarding  shaking,  and 
additional  precaution  to  prevent  inquisitive  people  from  hand- 
ling these  jars  and  shaking  them  "to  see  the  wrigglers  wriggle," 


1913]  Determining  the  Flight  of  Mosquitos  11 

Mosquito  larvae  and  pupae  must  be  considered  as  delicate 
organisms  and  rough  treatment  en  route  makes  nil  the  whole 
day's  work  and  gives  but  little  encouragement  for  further  work. 

C.  The  Field  Laboratory:  The  field  laboratory  is  a  necessity, 
but  it  need  not  consist  of  more  than  a  small  screened  house, 
about  eight  feet  square,  protected  from  direct  sunlight  and  heat. 
If  located  convenient  to  the  breeding  places,  the  collected  larvae 
will  suffer  but  little  from  jarring  en  route.  Several  such  houses 
may  be  erected  at  convenient  places,  however,  for  all  purposes 
■one  such  house  will  suffice.  It  means  a  concentration  of  the 
collected  larvae  at  one  place  and  one  attendant  can  give  these 
his  undivided  attention.  No  staining  of  adults  should  be  made 
.at  the  laboratory  as  this  would  involve  transferring  of  colored 
adults  and  the  possible  escape  en  route  of  some  of  these. 

D.  Breeding-out  Methods:  As  soon  as  the  larvae  and  pupae 
in  the  wide-mouthed  carrying  jars  reach  the  field  laboratory, 
they  should  be  transferred  into  a  large  pan.  The  pupae  should 
be  picked  out  by  means  of  a  pipette  and  confined  in  jars,  these 
covered  with  gauze. 

White  enameled  or  porcelain  soup  plates  gave  the  best 
results  as  breeding  receptacles  for  the  larvee.  If  the  plates  are 
tilted  slightly,  both  shallow  and  deep  water  is  afforded  to  the 
larvae.  Debris  and  filamentous  algae  should  be  reduced  to  a 
minimum.  The  food  of  the  larvae  should  be  known;  if  diato- 
maceous,  a  few  pebbles  covered  with  diatoms  will  suffice. 
Predacious  larvae  of  all  sorts  must  be  eliminated.  Some  species 
of  mosquitos  prefer  sunlight,  others  do  not,  or  there  is  prefer- 
•ence  for  foul  water,  etc.  These  peculiarities  must  be  known. 
Successful  breeding  depends  upon  a  careful  attendance  to  the 
peculiar  environmental  factors  of  each  species. 

Unless  the  water  in  the  dishes  is  changed  weekly,  fouling 
will  ensue  and  cause  heavy  mortality.  This  is  obviated  by 
pouring  the  contents  of  the  dishes  over  a  piece  of  clean  surgical 
guaze  and  then  inverting  over  a  clean  plate  containing  fresh 
water.  The  larvae  when  in  contact  with  the  water  will  free 
themselves  from  the  meshes  of  the  cloth.  Sudden  additions  of 
fresh  water  were  found  to  be  detrimental;  best  results  were 
obtained  with  water  which  had  been  standing  in  the  room  for 
twenty-four  hours.  Careful  observance  to  these  environmental 
requirements  has  reduced  mortality  among  our  own  larvae  from 
ten  percent  to  less  than  one  percent. 


12 


Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


The  water  in  the  breeding  dishes  must  be  aerated  twice 
daily.  The  Paquelin  Cautery  bulb  method  referred  to  on  page 
10  does  well  when  the  number  of  places  is  few.  When  these 
plates  are  numerous,  it  is  better  to  construct  an  aerating  device 
such  as  shown  in  figure  2,  using  old  tins,  tubing,  etc.     There 


Fig.  2.  Aerating  Device.  A,  water  reservoir,  open  at  top;  B,  air  chamber; 
C,  stop-cock  regulating  flow  of  water  into  B;  R,  tee  unions  made  of  cork;  T, 
terminal  capillary  tubes. 

should  be  as  many  feeders  as  there  are  dishes  to  aerate.  To  set 
the  apparatus  into  operation,  adjust  feeders  to  plates,  fill 
chamber  "A"  with  water  and  open  stop-cock  leading  to  the 
air  chamber. 

The  writer  noted  on  four  occasions  a  large  roach  drinking 
water  from  breeding  pans,  at  the  same  time  devouring  larvae. 
On  seven  occasions  ants  were  seen  reaching  after  such  larv^ 
as  were  near  the  edge  of  the  plates  and  while  under  observation, 
two  larvae  were  successfully  withdrawn  from  the  water.  These 
observations  suggest  strongly  the  need  of  protection  against 
these  inroads.     Keep  lookout  for  mice. 


1913] 


Determining  the  Flight  of  Mosquitos 


13 


Frequently  through  chemical  or  physical  changes  in  the 
water,  produced  by  excess  of  heat  or  food,  improper  food  or 
foreign  substances,  waste,  etc.,  the  larvae  become  sluggish  and 
pupation  is  greatly  retarded.  If  the  cause  is  not  due  to  fouling 
of  the  water,  then  table  salt  added  not  in  excess  of  three  percent, 
will  make  the  larvae  active  and  accelerate  pupation.  The 
dead  or  sick  larvae  in  such  pans  should  be  eliminated. 

Pupae  should  be  segregated  from  the  breeding  dishes  daily, 
preferably  morning  and  evening.  They  should  be  confined  in 
wide-mouthed  jars,  the  depth  of  water  not  exceeding"  one  and 
one  half  inches,  and  the  number  of  pupae  not  more  than  two 
hundred  and  .fifty.  The  mouths  of  these  jars  should  be  pro- 
vided with  paper  cones,  the  tip  truncated,  and  both  cone  and 
neck  of  the  jar  inserted  into  a  screen  cage  as  shown  in  figure  3. 


Fig.  3.  Breeding-out  Cage.S,  screen  cage,  hinged  back;  A,  wooden  "H"  sup- 
ports; R,  lofts  for  wetted  waste;  T,  jar  containing  pupae;  E,  truncated  paper  cone 
trap. 

The  cone  acts  as  a  trap,  thus  preventing  the  adults  which  enter 
the  cage  from  returning  into  the  jar  and  being  drowned.  All 
crevices  about  the  jars  and  in  the  cages  must  be  stopped  with 
cotton  waste. 

It  is  advisable  to  place  moist  cotton  on  the  floor  of  the  screen 
cage,  also  to  fill  cavities  "A"  of  the  "H"  supports  with  wet 
waste.  The  top  ought  to  be  covered  with  a  wet  cloth.  These 
simple  measures  keep  the  inside  of  the  cage  cool  and  sweet, 
and  adults  can  be  kept  in  good  condition  for  at  least  six  days. 
The  cages  must  be  protected  from  direct  sunlight,  heat  and  rain. 
If  ants  are  present,  isolation  by  water  barriers  is  necessary. 


14  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

Several  times  the  writer  noted  roaches  in  the  cages,  and  the 
crops  of  the  dissected  roaches,  as  well  as  the  appearance  of  the 
adults  in  the  cages,  showed  the  "why"  of  their  presence. 

2.      The  Care  of  Adults. 

A.  At  the  Field  Laboratory:  It  is  necessary  each  morning 
to  remove  the  jars  containing  pupae  from  the  screen  cages.  It 
will  be  found  that  no  few  adults  remain  on  the  sides  of  the  glass 
jars.  These  are  readily  transferred  into  the  screen  cage  by 
holding  the  cage  in  direct  sunlight  and  tapping  the  jar  briskly 
with  the  hand.  When  the  jars  are  removed,  the  holes  in  the 
cage  which  served  to  receive  them,  must  be  plugged  snugly  with 
cotton  waste  to  prevent  the  escape  of  any  adults.  The  cage 
must  now  be  placed  in  a  sheltered  corner  and  left  for  several 
hours,  or  until  the  chitinous  portions  of  the  exoskeleton  have 
hardened  and  the  wings  stiffened.  Precaution  must  be  taken 
against  the  invasions  by  ants  and  roaches.  Avoid  rapid  evap- 
oration and  direct  sunlight. 

B.  Tra7isporting  Adults  to  Stations:  Colored  adults  should 
not  be  carried  to  several  localities,  the  danger  of  the  accidental 
escape  of  a  colored  one  en  route  being  too  great.  Adults, 
unstained,  are  best  transported  in  the  morning  or  evening,  and 
each  cage  should  be  securely  closed  and  partly  encased  in  a 
damp  cloth.  The  uncovered  side  should  be  underneath.  An 
oil  cloth  cover  is  neccessary  during  showers.  In  two  instances, 
when  no  covers  were  used,  and  the  cages  carried  through  light 
showers,  all  the  adults  were  killed.  Protection  from  wind  was 
found  necessary.  Air  currents  cause  rapid  evaporation  which 
the  mosquitos  cannot  withstand. 

3.     Coloring  of  the  Adults. 

A.  Dyes  Used:  Aqueous  solution  of  eosin,  fuchsin,  gen- 
tian-violet, bismarck-braun,  methylene-blue  and  orange-g,  were 
used  with  good  success,  the  proportions  of  dry  stain  to  water 
being  about  one  gram  to  fifty  cc.  It  is  best  to  make  small 
quantities  at  a  time  as  stock  solutions  may  deteriorate.  All 
stains  should  be  kept  locked  up.  Likewise  staining  operations 
should  be  known  only  to  a  few.  Curiosity  too  frequently  gives 
birth  to  trouble. 

It  may  not  be  amiss  to  state  under  this  section  two  other 
"markers"  which  may  be  used  effectively  with  larger  diptera. 
In  our  work  they  were  not  as  serviceable  as  the  dyes.     The 


1913]  Determining  the  Flight  of  Mosquitos  15 

first  is  a  1  :  20  aqueous  solution  of  phenolphthalein.  It  was 
found  satisfactory  on  typhoid  flies  and  is  detected  readily  when 
a  drop  or  two  of  one  percent  solution  of  ammonium  or  sodium 
hydroxide  is  added  to  the  suspected  specimen.  A  deep  red 
color  indicates  presence  of  the  drug.  The  second  agent  is 
corn  starch  and  it  is  detected  by  applying  tincture  of  iodin,  a 
purple  color  ensuing  in  its  presence.  We  had  no  opportunity 
to  give  this  latter  method  a  fair  trial. 

B.  Staining  the  Adults:  The  mosquitos  in  the  rectangular 
screen  cages  should  be  stained  preferably  toward  evening, 
about  two  hours  before  they  are  to  be  released,  and  always  at 
the  station  where  they  will  be  liberated.  A  shelter  must  be 
provided  for  these  cages.  The  stains  must  be  applied  lightly 
and  must  be  dry  on  the  insects  before  they  may  be  allowed 
freedom.  Small  globules  of  water  on  the  wings  weight  these 
down  to  such  an  extent  that  the  mosquito  cannot  fly,  and  it  is 
then  easily  captured  by  ants,  roaches  or  more  alert  forms. 

The  aqueous  solution  of  the  anilin  dyes  is  converted  unto 
a  very  fine  spray  through  a  vaseline-nebulizer,  or  a  fine  atom- 
izer, and  this  spray  is  allowed  to  fall  upon  the  mosquitos. 
Direct  and  forceful  projection  of  the  stain  against  the  sides  of 
the  mosquito  is  productive  only  of  death  to  the  insects.  Too 
concentrated  solutions  must  be  avoided.  The  idea  is  not  to 
encrust  the  mosquito  with  the  stain,  but  to  place  a  minute  speck 
only  upon  the  body.  Hundreds  of  tests,  using  mere  specks  of 
the  stain  gave  perfect  results  when  tested  for  color.  The 
danger  of  too-protracted  a  staining  is  that  spiracles  become 
sealed  with  the  stain,  mouth  parts  glued  together,  sensory 
areas  covered,  wings  folded,  etc. ;  in  other  words  the  mosquitos 
are  no  good. 

After  the  mosquitos  have  been  liberated,  the  cage  should  be 
washed  in  clear  water  to  dissolve  all  superfiuous  stain  adhering 
to  the  screening  or  sides  of  the  cage.  Such  crusts,  if  allowed  to 
remain,  create  a  foulness  about  the  cage  which  is  detrimental  to 
the  mosquitos  confined  therein.  It  is  best,  though  the  statement 
seems  hardly  necessary,  to  keep  separate  cages  for  each  color 
used. 

To  remove  stains  from  fingers  and  hands,  received  during 
the  coloring  operations,  wash  hands  in  acid  alcohol.  The  best 
way  is  to  use  rubber  post-mortum  gloves  when  staining 
mosquitos. 


16  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


4.     Liberating    Colored   Adults. 

The  experiments  conducted  on  the  canal  zone  suggest  the 
advisability  of  liberating  adults  at  or  about  dusk,  or  from  then 
on  till  midnight.  The  stations  selected  may  be  few  or  many, 
depending  upon  the  complexity  of  the  physical  and  biotic 
factors  presented  at  the  time.  All  that  is  necessary  for  libera- 
tion is  for  someone  to  open  the  lid  of  the  cage  containing  the 
colored  mosquitos.  This  observer  should  note  the  time  when 
he  liberated  the  mosquitos,  the  climatic  conditions  at  the  time, 
and  the  direction  taken  by  the  mosquitos.  If  people  move 
about  near  the  place  of  liberation,  particularly  after  dusk,  and 
go  to  the  town  from  there,  this  should  be  carefully  noted.  The 
person  delegated  for  this  duty  should  be  a  keen  observer, 
and  honest,  too. 

The  habits  of  the  mosquitos  vary  with  the  species — not  all 
cry  for  the  warm  blood  of  man.  Then  there  are  some  that 
can't  be  without  it.  The  writer  liberated  in  the  bush,  about 
one  quarter  miles  from  Corozal,  Canal  Zone,  at  eleven  a.  m., 
about  fifty  stained  Anopheles  albimanus  Wiede.,  and  noted 
three  of  these  soon  clinging  to  his  dark  colored  trousers,  and  by 
walking  slowly — just  as  the  natives  do — he  brought  these  with 
him  into  the  town  of  Corozal.  This  illustrates  one  of  the 
avenues  of  dispersal,  practically  independant  of  wind,  and  we 
must  reckon  with  it,  especially  since  this  species  is  responsible 
for  most  of  the  malaria  on  the  canal  zone. 

A  precaution,  based  on  the  above  observation,  was  found 
necessary.  Brush  your  clothing  carefully  after  liberating  colored 
mosquitos,  and  if  possible,  wear  a  light  colored  suit.  The  latter 
suggestion  proved  very  helpful.  Note  also  if  people  passing 
along  the  highways,  walk  toward  or  from  the  townsite,  and 
whether  they  saunter  or  walk  fast,  or  are  quiet  or  boisterous. 

5.     Collection  and  Examination  of  Adults  in  Buildings. 

The  recovery  of  liberated  mosquitos  in  the  buildings  will 
demand  thorough  search  and  great  precaution.  Unless  this  is 
done,  much  fruit  cannot  be  expected  for  the  labors  and  patience 
expended. 

A.  Collection  by  Hand:  Hand  collections  in  the  buildings 
are  best  made  at  dawn  and  just  at  dusk,  the  mosquitos  at  these 
two  periods  trying  to  get   out   and  into,   respectively,  of  the 


1913] 


Determining  the  Flight  of  Mosquitos 


17 


buildings.  The  men  selected  for  this  work  should  be  provided 
with  a  killing-tube  made  of  a  heavy  walled  test  tube,  6  inches 
by  IM  inches,  containing  a  four  inch  cotton  plug  saturated  with 
chloroform,  over  which  are  a  few  circular  pieces  of  blotter  paper. 
The  collector  merely  superimposes  the  mouth  of  his  tube  over 
the  mosquito  he  sees  on  the  wall  or  clothing,  the  chloroform 
vapor,  readily  generated  by  the  aid  of  the  heat  of  his  palm, 
quickly  kills  the  insect.  A  few  days'  work  will  render  the  novice 
an  expert.  All  the  mosquitos  caught  in  one  day  in  one  building 
should  be  placed  by  the  collector  into  a  circular  pill  box,  of 
which  he  should  have  a  good  supply.  This  box  should  be 
labeled,  giving  the  date,  house,  and  the  initials  of  collector.  At 
the  close  of  day,  these  boxes  should  be  turned  over  to  the  person 
in  charge,  who  should  check  them  and  rectify  any  existing 
errors.  The  next  step  is  to  examine  these  captured  mosquitos 
for  color.     (See  pp.    19-20). 

B.  Collection  by  Traps:  If  the  buildings  are  well-screened 
and  holes  and  crevices  blocked,  mosquito  traps  may  be  used  to 
excellent  advantage.     This  is  being  done  on  the  canal  zone, 


Fig.  4.  Mosquito  /m/>,  in  section,  s,  inner  "V"  section;  u,  middle  "V"  sec- 
tion; a,  slits  in  the  "V"  sections;  e,  semicircular  outer  envelope;  o,  sill  of  build- 
ing.  The  "V"  sections  are  detachable. 


18  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

and  the  trap  illustrated  was  developed  by  Mr.  Chas.  H.  Bath, 
sanitary  inspector.  Such  or  similar  traps  greatly  add  to  the 
data,  and  if  placed  to  buildings  that  harbor  a  large  number  of 
people  asleep,  will  attract  many  mosquitos,  save  them,  and  in 
regions  of  malaria,  greatly  reduce  the  number  of  such  cases. 
The  traps  should  be  numbered  and  recorded  on  charts  where 
their  location  with  respect  to  the  wind  is  seen  at  a  glance. 

Traps  should  be  taken  down  each  morning,  at  about  nine 
o'clock  was  found  best,  and  the  adults  in  these  killed  and  placed 
into  pill-boxes,  one  box  for  each  trap,  and  each  box  properly 
labeled.  There  is  no  apparent  need  for  blocking  up  the  open- 
ing in  the  wall  when  the  traps  are  removed.  During  five  months 
with  these  traps,  the  writer  never  found  a  single  mosquito  that 
entered  during  the  daytime.  The  method  used  was  to  place 
a  new  trap  in  the  place  of  the  one  taken  out. 

A  very  satisfactory  and  quick  way  to  kill  the  mosquitos  in 
the  traps  is  to  place  the  trap  into  a  closed  chamber  and  fumigate 
with  sulphur  dioxide.  The  question  arises  whether  or  not  this 
gas  combines  with  the  moisture  in  the  mosquito  to  form  sul- 
phurous acid  (H2SO3),  and  whether  or  not  this  will  bleach  what 
color  is  on  the  mosquitos.  The  data  following,  of  a  series  of 
tests  made,  indicate  the  negative  is  true : 

50  Culex  sp.  Stained  lightly  with  eosin,  left  in  SO2  chamber 
for  3  hrs. ;  no  bleaching. 

100  Culex  sp.  Stained  lightly  with  eosin;  100  Culex  sp. 
with  gentian-violet,  exposed  13  hrs.;  no  bleaching. 

30  Culex,  70  Anopheles  albimanus  et  malefactor  stained 
lightly  with  methylene-blue,  exposed  to  burning  sulphur  and 
generated  steam  for  33^2  hrs. ;  O.  K. 

10  Culex  sp.  each  slightly  stained  with  all  stains  cited, 
exposed  15  minutes;  no  bleaching. 

Paper  and  blotters,  wetted  and  colored,  exposed  for  6  hrs.; 
no  bleaching;  no  acid  reaction  to  litmus. 

Vials  containing  1  :  10000  aqueous  solutions  of  bismarck- 
braun,  methylene-blue,  gentian-violet  and  eosin,  exposed  3^2 
hrs. ;  no  bleaching;  no  acid  reaction. 

C.  Collection  in  Tents.  If  patient  and  honest  men  are 
procurable,  army  tents  may  be  pitched  at  suitable  places 
radiating  from  the  releasing  point,  and  these  men  placed,  one  to 
a  tent,  with  a  lantern,  killing  tube  and  boxes,  to  catch  all 
mosquitos  that  enter  the  tent.     The  lamp  should  burn  dimly, 


1913]  Determining  the  Flight  of  Mosquitos  19 

and  the  men  cautioned  to  be  as  quiet  as  possible,  and  if  they 
must  move  about,  to  so  do  with  little  commotion.  Contrary 
behavior  shews  mosquitos  away.  It  seems  these  gnats  wait  at 
the  door  till  the  occupant  is  quiet.  The  mosquitos  caught  in  a 
given  tent  during  each  hour  interval,  should  be  placed  in  a  pill- 
box, and  this  one  properly  labeled,  containing  in  addition  to 
what  had  already  been  indicated,  the  particular  hour's  catch 
represented. 

D.  Collections  with  a  Beating  Net:  Important  clues  bearing 
directly  upon  the  movements  of  adult  mosquitos  will  be 
obtained  by  systematic  sweeping  in  the  grass  and  shrubbery, 
using  for  this  purpose  a  large  entomological  beating  net.  The 
adults  thus  captured  should  be  placed  into  pill-boxes,  these 
labeled  to  show  the  place  where  caught,  character  of  the  vege- 
tation, and  hour  when  captured.  The  note  book  should 
contain  data  concerning  the  temperature,  wind  direction, 
velocity,  humidity,  cloudiness,  smoke,  etc.  The  writer  noted 
from  a  series  of  sweepings  that  Anopheles  albimanus  Wiede.  and 
certain  Culices  (C  qninquefasciatus  Say  et  Mansonia  titillans 
Walker)  were  more  abundant  in  the  grass  when  the  winds  were 
above  four  miles  per  hour,  than  when  these  winds  were  less.  Its 
bearing  upon  the  problem  can  only  be  determined  after  a  series 
of  careful  tests. 

E.  Examination  of  Adults:  The  mosquitos  in  a  single  pill- 
box should  be  emptied  upon  a  piece  of  glass  plate  under  which 
is  a  white  blotter  or  paper.  With  a  camel's  hair  brush  these 
are  spread  over  the  plate  and  each  specimen  is  wetted  with  a 
testing  solution  containing  three  parts  of  glycerine,  three  of 
alcohol  and  one  of  chloroform.  If  any  color  is  present  upon  any 
mosquito,  it  will  be  revealed  as  soon  as  the  testing  solution 
reaches  it,  diffusing  outward.  Thus  each  colored  specimen 
becomes  a  distinct  nucleus  of  diffusion — hence  non-colored 
adults  cannot  receive  through  accident  some  of  the  diffusing 
color  and  thus  confuse  the  observer.  The  number,  species,  sex, 
date  and  where  captured,  of  all  recovered  mosquitos,  should 
appear  on  the  data  sheets  and  charts.  In  addition,  a  record 
should  be  kept  of  the  total  mosquito  catch,  properly  tabulated. 

It  is  advisable  that  only  one  person  be  detailed  for  this 
examination,  and  care  must  be  exercised  to  select  a  man  free 
from  either  amnesic  or  general  color  blindness.  His  working 
table  must  be  kept  clean.     He  should  make  preliminary  tests 


20  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

to  note  the  action  and  peculiarity  of  each  color  when  tested. 
Accidental  rupture  of  the  abdomen  of  a  mosquito,  thus  extruding 
the  contained  blood,  should  cause  no  confusion  as  this  blood 
does  not  diffuse  as  does  a  stain,  and  furthermore,  after  a  few 
minutes  in  the  solution,  it  turns  brown.  If  a  spectroscope  is. 
available,  all  colors  recovered  should  be  confirmed.  As  a  pre- 
caution, all  tested  mosquitos  should  be  destroyed  daily.  It  is 
advisable  that  each  day's  catch  be  examined  as  soon  as  possi- 
ble, and  whenever  delay  is  necessary,  afford  protection  from  ants. 

SUMMARY. 

1.  It  is  essential,  first  of  all,  to  have  a  good  map  of  the 
territory,  to  keep  a  record  of  climatic  conditions,  to  know  the 
topography  and  plant  associations,  the  species  of  mosquitos 
studied,  etc. 

2.  Larvce  and  pupae  must  be  collected  in  large  numbers, 
cared  for  at  a  field  laboratory  and  the  adults  that  emerge  kept 
in  first  class  condition  until  ready  to  be  colored  and  released. 

3.  These  adults  must  be  stained  lightly  and  carefully, 
without  injury  to  the  insect,  and  the  stain  allowed  to  dry  on 
the  mosquitos  before  they  are  released.  Color  at  liberating 
station. 

4.  Release  the  adults,  noting  conditions  under  which  this 
is  done.     Brush  your  clothing. 

5.  Collect  daily  as  with  a  fine  comb,  the  mosquitos  that 
entered  the  buildings,  tents,  and  traps.  Test  these  for  any 
color  present. 

6.  Lastly,  interpret  rightly  your  results. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

The  writer  is  particularly  indebted  to  Colonel  W.  C.  Gorgas, 
Chief  Sanitary  Officer,  Isthmian  Canal  Commission,  for  permis- 
sion to  contribute  and  publish  this  paper. 

He  also  extends  his  gratitude  to  the  following  gentlemen 
who  favored  him  in  many  ways:  Mr.  J.  A.  Le  Prince,  Chief 
Sanitary  Inspector;  Dr.  A.  J.  Orenstein,  Assistant  Chief  Sani- 
tary Inspector;  Dr.  S.  T.  Darling,  Chief,  Board  of  Health 
Laboratory,  Ancon  Hospital;  Messrs.  A.  R.  Proctor,  C.  H. 
Bath,  J.  B.  Shropshire,  W.  S.  Chidester  and  Geo.  Parker, 
Sanitary  Inspectors. 

November  25,  1912. 


1913]  Determining  the  Flight  of  Mosquitos  21 


REFERENCES. 

The  titles  appearing  below  will  aid  the  experimentor  mainly 
by  giving  the  taxonomy  and  behavior  of  mosquitos. 

Darling,  Dr.  S.  T.  1910.  Studies  in  Relation  to  Malaria.  Isthmian  Canal  Com- 
mission, Washington,  D.  C.  This  report  contains  important  observations 
upon  the  habits,  habitats  and  control  of  Anopheles  spp. 

Dyar,  Harr.  G.,  and  Knab,  Fred.  1906.  The  Larvae  of  Culicidae  Classified  as  Inde- 
pendent Organisms.  Journ.  N.  Y.  Ento.  Soc,  Vol.  XIV,  No.  4.  Particularly- 
helpful  in  separating  the  larvae. 

Giles,  G.  M.    IQQQ.  A  Handbook  of  the  Gnats  or  Mosquitos.    N.Y.    Wm.Wood&Co. 

Howard,  Dr.  L.  O.    1902.    Mosquitos.    McClure  Phillips  &  Co.,  N.  Y. 

1906.     Key  to  the  Known  Larvae  of  Mosquitos  of  the  United  States.     U.  S.  Dept. 
Agric.  Bur.  Ento.  Circ.  72.  Washington,  D.  C. 

Knab,  Fred.    See  D3'-ar  Harr.  G.  and  Knab,  Fred.     1906. 

LePrince,  J.  A.  1909.  Mosquito  Destruction  in  the  Tropics.  Journ.  Am.  Med. 
Asso.  Vol.  LI.,  pp.  2203-2208.  A  good  summary  to  date  of  anti-malarial  work 
on  the  Zone,  and  containing  valuable  data  concerning  the  habits  of 
Anopheles  spp. 

Orenstein,  Dr.  A.  J.  1912.  Sanitary  Inspection  of  the  Canal  Zone.  Am.  Journ. 
Public  Health.    Mar.,  '12. 


A  REVISION  OF  THE  NORTH  AMERICAN  SPECIES  OF 

THE  DIPTEROUS  GENUS  NEURIGONA. 

(DOLICHOPODIDiE.) 

M.  C.  Van  Duzee. 

The  Dipterous  genus  Neurigona  was  established  by  Rondani 
in  Dipt.  Ital.  prodromus  in  1856,  with  one  species,  quadrifasciata 
Fabr.,  which  is  therefore  the  type  of  the  genus.  In  1829 
Thomas  Say  described  an  American  species  as  Medeterus 
lateralis.  Dr.  Loew  in  1864  pubhshed  three  others,  dimidiata, 
rubella,  and  tenuis,  and  in  1869  a  fourth,  carbonifer.  In  1899 
W.  M.  Wheeler  added  two  more,  floridida  and  lienosa,  thus 
giving  us  seven  described  species  from  America  north  of  Mexico. 
From  farther  south  Prof.  Aldrich  has  described  decora  and 
signijer  from  Grenada  and  St.  Vincent,  and  J.  R.  Schiner  has 
given  us  brasilie?tsis  from  Brazil.  These  are  all  the  species 
previously  described  from  America  so  far  as  I  can  learn. 

The  genus  Neurigona  as  characterized  by  Dr.  Loew  under 
the  name  Saucropus  in  his  Monograph  of  the  Dolichopodidae  of 
North  America  are: 

"First  joint  of  the  antennae  without  hair  on  the  upper  side;  arista 
dorsal ;  thorax  with  a  sloping  area  upon  the  middle  of  its  posterior  end ; 
feet  very  long  and  slender;  hind  tibia?  elongated,  the  first  joint  of  hind 
tarsi  without  bristles,  shorter  than  the  second;  abdomen  elongated  and 
narrow,  especially  in  the  male;  hypopygium  disengaged,  short  and  stout, 
inflected,  with  short  very  little  developed  appendages;  color  of  the 
body  principally  or  at  least  partially  yellow;  hairs  and  bristles  mostly 
black. " 

The  above  characters  serve  to  define  the  genus  as  I  use  it  in 
the  present  paper  but  there  are  some  exceptions  that  should  be 
noted.  The  bristles  of  the  dorsum  of  the  thorax  are  always 
black,  thus  separating  the  species  of  this  genus  from  those  of 
the  genus  Chrysotimus  where  they  are  yellow,  but  those  of  the 
abdomen  are  often  pale  as  are  also  the  hairs  especially  in  the 
male.  There  is  a  group  of  western  species  which  are  entirely  or 
almost  entirely  blackish;  the  first  joint  of  the  hind  tarsi  is 
sometimes  longer  than  the  second,  as  is  the  case  in  siiperbiens 
Loew,  which  is  synonymous  with  lateralis  Say,  and  fully  as 
long  in  the  male  of  tenuis  Loew,  also  longer  in  australis  n.  sp. 

In  the  table  of  genera  of  the  Dolichopodidae  in  Williston's 
Manual  of  the  North  American  Diptera  under  No.  28  we  have 
to  take  fourth  vein  converging  towards  the  third  in  order  to 


1913]         North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Nenrigona  23 

run  a  specimen  through  to  the  genus  Neurigona.  In  most  of 
our  species  this  is  true  but  there  are  several  exceptions.  Dr. 
Loew  in  his  Monograph  of  the  Dohchopodidas  says  that  in  the 
South  African  species  the  third  and  fourth  veins  are  parallel, 
which  is  also  the  case  with  N.  signifer  Aldrich,  and  in  one  or 
two  of  the  species  described  in  this  paper.  I  might  add  that 
the  abdomen  of  the  female  is  prolonged  into  more  or  less  of  an 
ovipositor,  as  this  character  is  of  importance  in  separating  this 
genus  from  Xanthochlorus  where  the  female  abdomen  is  blunt 
or  rounded  at  the  tip. 

Fred  Kowarz  in  Wiener  Entomoiogische  Zeitung,  II,  p.  51, 
uses  the  following  characters  in  taking  a  specimen  through  to  the 
genus  Neurigona:  "Acrostichal  bristles  present,  in  two  rows; 
Arista  dorsal;  Fourth  longitudinal  vein  not  forked;  hind  coxae 
with  a  single  erect  bristle  on  the  outside;  body  color  not 
metallic."  These  characters  hold  good  in  all  of  the  species 
included  in  this  paper  that  I  have  seen  except  that  in  N.  albo- 
spinosa  n.  sp.  there  are  several  weak  and  one  stronger  bristle  on 
the  outside  of  the  hind  coxae;  and  the  last  character  given  would 
have  to  be  used  in  a  qualified  sense. 

There  are  a  few  characters  which  are  common  to  most  if  not 
all  of  our  species:  The  lateral  and  lower  orbital  cilia  are  always 
pale,  as  are  also  the  cilia  of  the  tegulae.  The  hind  coxae  have  a 
single  large  black  bristle  on  the  outside,  except  in  albospinosa 
n.  sp.  which  has  one  large  and  several  weaker  whitish  bristles 
on  the  outside  of  the  hind  coxae.  There  are  two  large  black 
bristles  on  the  margin  of  the  scutellum,  and  in  most  of  our 
species  there  is  a  pair  of  weak  bristles  or  hairs  outside  of  these. 
In  all  of  our  species  that  I  have  examined,  and  in  the  two 
European  species  that  I  have  seen,  {4-fasciata  Fab.  and  suturalis 
Fall.),  there  are  one  or  more  pale  yellowish  bristles  above  the 
front  coxae;  and  often  a  black  bristle  on  the  middle  and  hind 
trochanters.  The  hairs  on  the  legs  are  arranged  in  longitudinal 
rows,  and  the  lower  surface  of  the  femora  are  usually  bar?. 
The  males  of  many  of  our  species  have  a  ventral  extension  of 
the  fifth  segment  of  the  abdomen  into  which  the  hypopygium 
partly  fits  when  bent  under  the  abdomen  as  it  is  ordinarily 
carried,  I  have  called  these  extensions  sheaths,  they  are  bilobed, 
and  form  characters  that  can  sometimes  be  used  in  separating 
the  species. 


24  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

Most  of  our  species  of  Neiirigona  are  found  on  the  trunks  of 
trees  but  I  sometimes  take  specimens,  mostly  of  the  riihella 
group,  while  sweeping.  In  most  cases  these  insects  will  fly  to  a 
tree  and  alight  instantly  and  rest  in  one  position  until  they  are 
disturbed  or  wish  to  change  their  location  when  they  make  a 
quick  short  flight  alighting  generally  a  little  distance  higher  up 
or  sometimes  to  one  side,  seldom  or  never  lower  down.  I  have 
often  seen  them  start  near  the  ground  and  work  upwards  in 
short  flights  until  they  disappeared  from  view  at  a  height  of 
perhaps  eighteen  feet.  The  male  often  comes  to  a  tree  and 
flies  upward  in  a  perfectly  vertical  line  about  two  inches  from 
the  trunk  until  it  disappears  from  sight  or  alights  about  twelve 
feet  or  more  above  the  ground ;  it  may  be  looking  for  the  female 
or  possibly  seeking  its  prey.  In  several  instances  I  have  seen 
individuals  feeding  on  Psocid  larva. 

I  have  watched  the  courtship  of  the  males  a  number  of 
times,  they  hover  over  the  female  for  a  few  seconds  and  then 
try  and  alight  upon  her,  but  only  once  did  I  see  the  union 
consummated,  in  all  other  cases  the  female  darted  away. 

As  far  as  I  can  learn  the  only  species  in  our  fauna  that  has 
been  bred  is  N.  viridis  n.  sp.  Mr.  James  Angus,  of  West  Farms, 
N.  Y.,  makes  the  following  note  on  this  species:  "Larva  feeding 
in  rotten  wood  of  hickory."  We  have  no  description  of  this 
larva  or  pupa,  but  a  pupa  case  is  mounted  with  Mr.  Angus' 
specimen  in  the  National  Museum  collection. 

The  sexes  of  this  genus  seem  to  be  unevenly  distributed. 
At  one  time  I  will  take  nearly  all  males,  at  another  mostly 
females.  One  afternoon  I  took  seven  males  and  thirty-five 
females  of  tenuis,  while  the  next  morning  in  woods  a  mile  and  a 
half  distant  I  took  twenty-two  males  and  but  nine  females  of 
the  same  species.  At  another  time  I  took  fourteen  males  of 
floridula  var.  injuscata  and  no  female,  but  with  them  were  sev- 
eral males  and  females  of  deformis  n.  sp.  At  another  time  I  took 
many  males  of  tarsalis  in  one  spot  with  females  of  two  other 
species,  and  a  half  mile  farther  on  found  both  males  and  females. 

The  drawings  for  this  paper  were  made  with  a  camera 
lucida  by  Mr.  William  Wild,  of  East  Aurora,  N.  Y.  The  draw- 
ings of  the  hypopygiums  give  a  good  idea  of  the  general 
appearance  but  no  attempt  was  made  to  go  into  anatomical 
details. 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neiirigona  25 

I  wish  to  acknowledge  my  indebtedness  to  those  who  have 
sent  me  material  for  study,  and  thereby  made  the  revision  of 
this  genus  possible.  To  Prof.  J.  M.  Aldrich  for  the  loan  of  his 
material,  and  his  help  during  the  preparation  of  this  paper;  to 
the  authorities  of  the  National  Museum  for  the  loan  of  spec- 
imens, and  to  Mr.  Knab  for  his  help  in  looking  up  references  in 
the  National  Museum  hbrary;  to  Mr.  Nathan  Banks,  Prof.  C. 
W.  Johnson,  Prof.  A.  L.  Melander,  and  Mr.  V.  A.  E.  Daecke,  for 
the  loan  of  their  material;  and  to  Mr.  E.  T.  Cresson  for  the  loan 
of  the  material  of  the  American  Entomological  Society. 

TABLE  OF  SPECIES. 

MALES. 

1.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  mostly  black,  green  or  blue 2 

Dorsum  largely  yellow 17 

2.  Hypopygium  yellow 3 

Hypopygium  black  or  testaceous 7 

3.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  bright  blue.   (West  Indies) 16  decora 

Dorsum  black  or  greenish •. 4 

4.  Abdomen  with  black  bands 5 

Abdomen  marked  with  green 6 

5.  Front  tibiae  with  a  row  of  bristles  above,  front  tarsi  plain 27  tibialis 

Front  tibiae  plain,   third  joint  of  front  tarsi  white,  fourth  and  fifth  joints 

black   23  tarsalis 

6.  Adbomen  marked  with  brilliant  green,  appendages  of  the  hypopygium 

small.    (Eastern   species) 25   lateralis 

Abdomen  marked  with  darker  green,  appendages  long  .well  developed. 
(Western  species) 26  setosa 

7.  Abdomen  yellow  with  black  bands 8 

Abdomen  nearly  uniform,  color  blackish 15 

8.  Costa  strongly  arcuated.    (Figs.  17  and  18) . , 9 

Costa  normal 10 

9.  Front  tarsi  with  the  second,  third  and  fourth  joints  flattened  and  fringed 

with    hairs 18    deformis 

Front  tarsal  joints  not  flattened,  fifth  black  and  bent  at  a  right  angle. 

17  arcuata 

10.  Thorax    bright    shining    green.  15    viridis 

Thorax  if  green  dull 11 

1 1 .  Front  tarsi  plain 14 

Front  tarsi  ornamented 12 

12.  Front  tarsi  black,  fringed  on  each  side  with  short  hairs 28  ciliata 

Front  tarsi  with  an  oval  tip 13 

13.  Front  tarsi  two- thirds  as  long  as  their  tibiae 20  pectoralis 

Front  tarsi  about  as  long  as  their  tibiae 19  tenuis 

14.  Plurse  and  dorsum  blackish 21  aestiva 

Plurae  and  sides  of  dorsum  yellow,  most  of  dorsum  black  and  polished. 

5  nitida 

15.  Front  tarsi  plain 31  albospinosa 

Front  tarsi  with  an  oval  tip 16 

16.  Front  tibiae  longer  than  their  tarsi 29  perbrevis 

Front  tibiae  shorter  than  their  tarsi 30  australis 

17.  Front  tarsi  ornamented 18 

Front  tarsi  plain 19 

18.  Front  tarsi  with  an  oval  tip 4  carbonifer 

Front  tarsi  with  the  second  joint  flattened  and  widened  at  the  tip,  other 

joints  cylindrical 12  aldrichii 


2G  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

19.  Abdomen  yellow  with  black  bands 22 

Abdomen  yellow  without  black  bands 20 

20.  Fourth  joint  of  front  tarsi  nearly  two-thirds  as  long  as  third,  last  four  joints 

infuscated 14  disjuncta . 

Fourth  joint  only  about  one-third  as  long  as  third,  fifth  joint  black 21 

21.  Wings  hyaline,  tinged  with  yellow,  veins  yellow 9  floridula 

Wings  with  a  cloud  at  tip,  tinted  with  brownish,  veins  brownish 

10  floridula  var.  infuscata 

22.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  with  the  flattened  space -before  the  scutellum  yellow.. 23 
Dorsum  with  the  flattened  space  blue  or  black 24 

23.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  yellow,  immaculate 14  disjuncta 

Dorsum  with  two  or  three  black  spots 8  maculata 

24.  Flattened  space  before  the  scutellum  a  beautiful  greenish  blue   (West 

Indies) 7   signifer 

Flattened  space  black 25 

25.  All  the  hairs  and  bristles  of  the  front  and  middle  coxae  yellow.  .  .  .3  dimidiata 
Hairs  and  bristles  of  the  middle  coxae  mostly  black 26 

26.  Front  tibiae  with  a  row  of  bristles 27  tibialis 

Front  tibiae  plain 27 

27.  Front  metatarsi  about  one  and  one-fourth   times  as  long  as  their  tibiae. 

1  rubella 
Front  metatarsi  about  equal  to  their  tibiae 2  perplexa 

FEMALES. 

1 .  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  largely  yellow 16 

Dorsum  mostly  blue,  green,  or  blackish 2 

2.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  bright  shining  blue.   (West  Indies) 3  decora 

Dorsum  green  or  blackish 3 

3.  Dorsum  bright  shining  green 15  viridis 

Dorsum  dull  greenish  or  blackish 4 

4.  Dorsum  dull  greenish 5 

Dorsum  black  or  gray 14 

5.  Tip  of  the  fourth  vein  ending  distinctly  before  the  apex  of  the  wing 6 

Tip  of  the  fourth  vein  ending  in  the  tip  of  the  wing,  or  nearly  so 7 

6.  Tergum  of  the  last  two  segments  of  the  abdomen  dull  green,  middle  and 

hind  femora  each  with  a  bristle  near  the  tip 26  setosa 

Tergum  with  more  or  less  brilliant  green,  femora  without  a  bristle  near 
the  tip 25  lateralis 

7.  Abdomen  f asciate 9 

Abdomen  of  nearly  uniform  color 8 

8.  Large  species,  4.5  mm.  (New  Mexico) 30  australis 

Smaller  species,  2  mm.  (Eastern  species) 32  minuta 

9.  Wings  strongly  tinged  with  yellow  on  the  costal  edge 10 

Wings  nearly  uniform  grayish  hyaline 11 

10.  Wings  with  distinct  clouds  at  the  tips  of  third  and  fourth  veins.  .18  deformis 
Wings  evenly  tinged  along  the  front,  not  darker  at  tip 17  arcuata 

11.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  covered  with  brown  pollen  which  nearly  hides  the 

ground-color.     (Calf.) 24    lienosa 

Dorsum  with  grayish,  or  white  pollen 12 

12.  Pleurae  and  dorsum  without  yellow,  except  the  humeri  and  sometimes  the 

lateral  edges  and  posterior  angles 13 

Pleurae  and  dorsum  with  considerable  yellow 19  tenuis 

13.  Pleura  and  dorsum  without  yellow  except  the  humeri 20  pectoralis 

Dorsum  with  the  humeri,  lateral  edges  to  the  base  of  the  wings,  and  the 

posterior  angles  yellow 23  tarsalis 

14.  Dorsum  black  with  the  humeri,  lateral  edges,  and  two  stripes  extending 

forward  on  each  side  of  the  flattened  space  yellow 6  tridens 

Dorsum  of  the  thorax  gray 15 

15;     Dorsum  of  the  thorax  with  three  metallic  brown  vittae 31  albospinosa 

Dorsum  with  two  nonmetallic  brown  vittae 22  bivittata 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona  27 

16.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  with  the  flattened  space  before  the  scutellum  black, 

gray,  green,  or  blue 17 

Dorsum  with  the  flattened  space  yellow 25 

17.  Flattened  space  on  the  dorsum  a  beautiful  greenish  blue 7  signifer 

Flattened  space  black,  gray,  or  dull  green 18 

18.  Flattened  space  on  the  dorsum  and  more  or  less  of  the  dorsum  dull  green. 

19  tenuis 
Flattened  space  black  or  gray 19 

19.  Flattened  space  and  most  of  the  dorsum  gray 22  bivittata 

Flattened  space  black 20 

20.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  and  the  black  central  line  shining 5  nitida 

Dorsum  less  shining,  and  without  distinct  central  line 21 

21.  Dorsum  with  the  anterior  half  and  three  stripes  extending  backward 

black 6  tridens 

Dorsum  with  only  the  flattened  space  black 22 

22.  Front  metatarsi  only  three-fourths  as  long  as  their  tibiae 4  carbonifer 

Front  metatarsi  about  equal  to  their  tibiae 23 

23.  First  and  second  joints  of  hind  tarsi  equal 3  dimidiata 

Second  joint  of  hind  tarsi  longer  than  the  first 24 

24.  Posterior  cross- vein  rectangular 1  rubella 

Posterior  cross- vein  a  little  oblique 2  perplexa 

25.  Abdomen  f asciate  with  black 26 

Abdomen  not  distinctly  fasciate 27 

26.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  without  black  spots.     Length  3  mm 12  aldrichii 

Dorsum  with  three  black  spots.    Length  4.5-5  mm 8  maculata 

27.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  dull  with  thick  yellow  pollen 28 

Dorsum  shining,  only  thinly  pollenose,  pollen  whitish 29 

28.  Dorsum   evenly  and   thickly  pollenose 11    flava 

Dorsum  with  pollenose  vittas 18  transversa 

29.  Tips  of  third  and  fourth  veins  widely  separated 14  disjuncta 

Tips  of  third  and  fourth  veins  approximated 30 

30.  Veins  yellow 9  floridula 

Veins  brownish 10  floridula  var.  infuscata 

1  Neurigona  rubella  Loew. 

Figure  1. 
Saucropus  rubella  Loew,  Neue  Beitr.,  viii,  p.  76,  1861;  Mon.  N.  Am.  Diptera, 
ii,  p.  226,  1864. 

Thorax  and  abdomen  yellow,  the  former  with  the  flattened  space 
before  the  scutellum  black,  the  latter  with  black  bands;  hypopygium 
black;  front  metatarsi  about  one  and' one  fourth  times  as  long  as  their 
tibife,  with  bristles  below.     Length  5  mm. 

Male :  Face  very  narrow,  almost  linear,  and  with  the  palpi  silver}^ 
white;  proboscis  yellow;  antennae  deep  yellow,  the  first  joint  paler, 
arista  yellowish  brown;  front  and  occiput  black,  the  ground  color 
concealed  by  thick  white  pollen.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  reddish  yellow 
with  the  flattened  space  before  the  scutellum  black  and  covered  with 
whitish  pollen;  humeri  and  pleurse  pale  yellow,  the  latter  with  white 
pollen,  and  with  a  black  spot  in  front  of  the  halters;  metanotum  black, 
with  the  sides  yellowish.  Abdomen  yellow,  dorsimi  of  the  second, 
third,  and  fourth  segments  with  black  bands,  that  on  the  second  near 
the  base  and  narrowing  at  the  extreme  lateral  edges,  that  on  the  third 
at  the  base  and  of  equal  width  throughout,  the  one  on  the  fourth  at 
base  and  narrowed  at  the  sides  not  reaching  the  lateral  edges,  but 
forming  a  subtriangular  spot;  fifth  segment  straight  above  with  the 
front  and  hind  angles  square,  the  upper  edge  infuscated,  and  with  the 


28  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

ventral  sheath  black;  the  hairs  on  the  dorsum  of  the  abdomen  appear 
reddish  or  yellowish  when  viewed  from  above,  but  more  blackish  when 
seen  from  the  side;  hypopygium  small,  testaceous,  rounded  above, 
with  yellow  hairs  on  the  upper  part,  appendages  partly  yellowish.  Legs 
yellowish;  front  coxffi  with  delicate  yellow  hairs  on  the  front  surface 
and  yellow  bristles  near  the  tip,  these  bristles  brownish  in  certain 
lights;  middle  coxse  with  black  hairs  and  bristles  on  the  front  side  near 
the  tip,  and  some  very  minute  yellow  hairs  above;  hind  coxas  with  the 
usual  black  bristles  on  the  outside,  there  is  also  a  small  bristle  on 
each  middle  and  hind  trochanter;  front  metatarsi  one  and  one-fourth 
times  as  long  as  their  tibiae,  the  remaining  four  tarsal  joints  taken 
together  somewhat  shorter  than  their  tibiae,  second  and  third  joints 
brownish;  front  tibise  and  tarsi  with  the  hairs  long,  and  with  a  row  of 
longer  hair-like  bristles  on  the  lower  surface  of  the  tibiae  and  the  first 
three  joints  of  the  tarsi,  these  hairs  nearly  as  long  as  the  diameter  of  the 
tarsal  joints,  there  is  also  a  row  of  shorter  and  stouter  hairs  on  the 
upper  surface  of  these  joints;  middle  metatarsi  about  as  long  as  their 
tibiffi,  the  remaining  four  joints  together  abount  one-fifth  shorter  than 
their  tibiee;  hind  tarsi  about  as  long  as  their  tibicC,  second  joint  a  little 
longer  than  the  first;  middle  and  hind  tarsi  brown  from  the  tip  of  the 
first  joint.  Wings  hyaline,  tinged  with  yellowish  in  front  of  the  third 
vein ;  posterior  cross-vein  perpendicular  to  the  fifth  vein ;  third  vein  bent 
backward  at  tip,  fourth  vein  quite  sharply  arched  forward  from  a  little 
beyond  the  middle  of  its  last  section  and  ending  rather  close  to  the  tip 
of  the  third  vein ;  tip  of  the  fourth  vein  distinctly  before  the  apex  of  the 
wing;  posterior  cross-vein  about  twice  its  length  from  the  wing  margin 
measured  on  the  fifth  vein;  veins  brownish. 

Female:  Differs  from  the  male  in  having  the  bristles  of  the  front 
coxse  black,  these  bristles  are  large  and  conspicuous;  the  front  tarsi  are 
brownish  and  hardly  twice  as  long  as  their  tibice,  the  first  joint  hardly 
as  long  as  their  tibite ;  middle  metatarsi  a  little  shorter  than  their  tibiae ; 
second  joint  of  hind  tarsi  only  slightly  longer  than  the  first. 

Dr.  Loew  says  in  his  description  of  this  species  that  the 
metanotum  is  black  only  on  its  base  and  along  the  center.  I 
have  specimens  before  me  which  exactly  agree  with  this,  but 
others  have  the  metanotum  almost  entirely  black,  only  a  very 
little  yellowish  at  the  sides. 

I  have  described  the  male  of  this  species  from  two  specimens : 
one  in  the  National  Museum  collection,  taken  by  Mr.  Burgess 
at  Beverly,  Mass.,  September  6,  1874,  and  the  other  (a  broken 
specimen)  taken  at  Sea  Cliff,  N.  Y.,  by  Mr.  Nathan  Banks. 
The  males  seem  to  be  rare,  although  the  females  are  taken  all 
through  the  eastern  states  quite  commonly;  I  have  taken  them 
around  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  and  have  seen  specimens  from  Con- 
necticut, Massachusetts,  New  Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  Virginia, 
and  Kansas.     Mrs.  Slosson  reports  it  from  New  Hampshire. 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona  29 

Note. — The  females  of  the  five  following  species  which  have 
the  dorsum  of  the  thorax  yellow,  and  the  flattened  space  before 
the  scutellum  black  can  be  separated  as  follows:  nitida  differs 
from  the  other  four  by  having  a  central  shining  black  line  on 
the  dorsum;  carbonifer  has  the  front  metatarsi  only  three- 
fourths  as  long  as  their  tibias,  while  in  dimidiata,  rubella,  and 
perplexa,  the  front  metatarsi  are  nearly  equal  to  their  tibiae; 
in  dimidiata  it  is  fully  as  long,  and  in  the  others  hardly  as  long 
as  their  tibias,  dimidiata  has  the  first  and  second  joints  of  the 
hind  tarsi  equal,  while  in  the  other  two  the  second  joint  is 
distinctly  the  longest,  in  the  last  two  the  bend  in  the  last  sec- 
tion of  the  fourth  vein  is  sharper,  and  the  tarsi  are  darker  than 
in  dimidiata;  the  only  difference  between  the  females  of  rubella 
and  perplexa  that  I  can  see  is  that  in  rubella  the  posterior  cross- 
vein  is  rectangular  while  in  perplexa  it  is  a  little  oblique,  but  it 
is  difficult  to  separate  them. 

I  have  compared  the  female  of  the  European  species  N. 
quadrifasciata  Fab.  which  is  the  type  species  of  the  genus,  and 
closely  related  to  this  group,  and  find  that  it  differs  from  all  of 
our  five  species  mentioned  above,  by  having  the  third  and 
fourth  veins  more  widely  separated  at  the  tips,  the  fourth  vein 
ending  in  the  apex  of  the  wing,  while  in  our  species  the  fourth 
vein  ends  distinctly  before  the  apex  of  the  wing.  Fig.  28  is  the 
apical  part  of  the  wing  of  quadrifasciata  Fab. 

I  have  also  examined  N.  suturalis  Fall,  of  Europe,  and  find 
it  quite  distinct  from  any  of  our  species. 

2  Neurigona  perplexa  n.  sp. 

Figure  2. 

Thorax  and  abdomen  yellow,  the  former  with  the  flattened  space 
before  the  scutellum  black,  and  the  latter  with  black  bands;  hypopygium 
black,  small.  Hairs  and  bristles  of  the  front  coxae  whitish;  front 
metatarsi  about  the  length  of  their  tibias.     Length  4>4  mm. 

Male :  Face  very  narrow,  eyes  almost  touching  on  the  center  of  the 
face,  leaving  only  a  small  triangle  above  and  below,  face  and  palpi 
silvery  white;  proboscis  and  antennee  yellow,  arista  brownish;  front 
and  occiput  black,  covered  with  white  pollen;  frontal  and  post-vertical 
bristles  black;  orbital  cilia  whitish.  Thorax  yellow;  the  humeri  and 
lateral  edges  of  the  dorsum  whitish  yellow;  flattened  space  before  the 
scutellimi  black,  with  white  pollen;  a  dark  central  line  on  the  dorsum 
between  the  acrostichal  bristles,  reaching  from  the  black  flattened  space 
to  the  front  of  the  dorsum  (this  may  not  be  found  in  all  specimens) ; 
pleurcB  pale  yellow,  with  white  pollen,  and  the  usual  black  spot  in  front 
of  the  halters;  scutellum  yellow  with  a  black  spot  at  base;  bristles  of 


30  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

the  thorax  black,  those  on  the  ^posterior  part  large,  a  space  on  each  srde 
above  the  humeri  and  reaching  about  half  way  to  the  root  of  the  wings 
covered  with  short  black  bristles;  metanotum  black  with  yellow  on  the 
sides.  Abdomen  yellow  with  black  bands  at  the  base  of  the  second, 
third,  and  fourth  segments,  these  bands  narrowed  laterally,  hardly 
reaching  the  sides  below,  and  emarginate  on  the  center  of  the  dorsum; 
fifth  segment  small,  with  the  ventral  sheath  black;  hairs  of  the  abdomen 
black,  those  on  the  fifth  segment,  and  a  few  along  the  sides  yellow; 
hypopygium  black  or  testaceous,  small,  subquadrate,  and  rounded 
behind.  Legs  pale  yellow;  front  coxae  with  yellow  hairs  and  bristles; 
middle  coxae  with  black  hairs  and  bristles;  front  metatarsi  about  the 
length  of  their  tibiae,  the  four  remaining  joints  together  about  the  length 
of  the  first,  the  fourth  joint  very  shghtly  flattened,  third  joint  nearly 
twice  the  length  of  the  fourth;  hairs  on  the  front  tarsi  quite  long;  middle 
metatarsi  about  as  long  as  their -tibiae;  hind  tarsi  with  the  second  joint 
longer  than  the  first.  Wings  hyaline,  hardly  tinged  with  grayish;  veins 
yellowish  brown ;  posterior  cross- vein  somewhat  oblique. 

Female;  I  place  with  the  male  described  above  a  single  female 
closely  related  to  rubella,  but  somewhat  smaller  and  with  the  posterior 
cross- vein  a  little  oblique;  it  agrees  with  the  male  in  all  but  sexual 
characters. 

Described  from  one  male  in  the  National  Museum  collection, 
taken  at  Lehigh  Gap,  Pa.,  July  23,  1907,  by  C.  T.  Greene;  and 
one  female  sent  me  by  Prof.  C.  W.  Johnson  and  labeled  Capens, 
Me.,  July  21,  1901. 

Note. — This  is  closely  related  to  rubella  and  nitida,  but  the 
male  differs  from  the  later  by  having  only  a  black  central  line 
on  the  dorsum  of  the  thorax,  the  abdominal  bands  are  emar- 
ginate, the  front  tarsi  have  shorter  hairs  below,  the  fourth 
joint  is  very  slightly  flattened,  and  the  posterior  cross-vein  is 
twice  its  length  from  the  wing  margin  measured  on  the  fifth 
vein,  in  nitida  it  is  less  than  twice  its  length  from  the  margin 
and  the  fourth  joint  of  front  tarsi  is  cylindrical.  From  rubella 
it  differs  in  having  the  front  of  the  wing  less  arched;  all  the  tarsi 
are  darkened  from  the  base  a  little,  but  the  dark  part  not  as 
distinctly  marked  as  in  rubella,  the  front  metatarsi  are  about 
the  same  length  as  their  tibiae  while  in  rubella  they  are  very 
distinctly  longer.  In  rubella  the  third  and  fourth  joints  of  the 
front  tarsi  are  about  equal  while  in  this  species  the  third  is 
nearly  twice  as  long  as  the  fourth.  This  species  is  a  little 
smaller  than  rubella  and  the  posterior  cross-vein  is  a  little 
oblique  while  in  rubella  it  is  perpendicular  to  the  fifth  vein. 
It  differs  from  dimidiata  by  having  black  hairs  and  bristles  on 
the  middle  coxae,  while  dimidiata  has  only  yellowish  hairs  and 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neiirigona  31 

bristles  on  the  middle  coxae;  dimidiata  also  has  pale  hairs  on 
most  of  the  first  four  segments  of  the  abdomen  while  in  this 
species  they  are  mostly  black,  the  front  of  the  wing  in  this 
species  is  also  more  arched. 

3  Neurigona  dimidiata  Loew. 

Figure  3. 
Saucropus  dimidiata  Loew,  Neue  Beitr.,  viii,  p.  75,  1861;  Mon.  N.  A.  Diptera, 
ii,  p.  225,  1864. 

Thorax  and  abdomen  yellow,  the  former  with  the  flattened  space 
and  sometimes  a  central  line  black,  the  latter  with  black  bands; 
bristles  and  hairs  of  the  front  and  middle  coxse  all  yellowish;  front 
metatarsi  about  the  same  length  as  their  tibiffi.     Length  4  mm. 

Male:  Eyes  almost  touching  on  the  middle  of  the  face;  face  and 
palpi  silvery  white;  proboscis  and  antennae  yellow,  arista  brownish; 
front  and  occiput  black,  thickly  white  pollenose,  the  pollen  on  the 
occiput,  the  flattened  space  before  the  scutellum,  and  the  metanotum 
appears  to  be  tinged  with  blue;  orbital  cilia  whitish.  Thorax  yellow, 
reddish  yellow  and  shining  on  the  dorsum,  white  pollenose  on  the  pleurae, 
there  is  the  usual  small  black  spot  on  the  pleurae  in  front  of  the  halters; 
the  flattened  space  on  the  dorsum  black,  and  a  black  central  line  extends 
from  this  to  the  front  of  the  thorax  between  the  acrostichal  bristles, 
this  line  seems  to  be  a  variable  character,  in  one  of  the  specimens  before 
me  it  is  almost  wanting;  humeri  yellowish  white;  metanotum  black; 
scutellum  yellow,  lighter  colored  on  the  disk  and  somewhat  shining. 
Abdomen  yellow  with  rather  narrow  black  bands  on  the  second,  third, 
and  fourth  segments,  those  on  the  third  and  fourth  sometimes  not  very 
sharply  defined;  the  hairs  of  the  abdomen  mostly  yellowish,  the  marginal 
row  of  bristles  on  the  first  segment  black  and  rather  short;  fourth  seg- 
ment produced  on  the  venter  on  the  posterior  end ;  fifth  segment  higher 
than  long,  somewhat  pointed  in  front  on  the  dorsum,  entirely  yellow  except 
the  brown  ventral  sheath,  and  with  rather  long  yellow  hair.  Hypopygium 
black  or  testaceous,  polished,  and  rather  small  with  yellowish  append- 
ages. Legs  pale  yellow;  front  and  middle  coxae  with  all  the  hairs  and 
bristles  yellowish  white;  hind  trochanters  with  a  small  black  bristle; 
front  tarsi  more  than  twice  the  length  of  their  tibiae,  and  with  a  row  of 
long  hairs  below ;  front  metatarsi  a  little  longer  than  their  tibiae ;  middle 
metatarsi  about  the  same  length  as  their  tibiae;  hind  tarsi  a  little 
shorter  than  their  tibiae,  first  joint  a  very  little  shorter  than  the  second ; 
all  the  tarsi  infuscated  frcm  the  tip  of  the  first  joint.  Wings  hyaline, 
very  slightly  tinged  with  grayish;  the  bend  in  the  fourth  vein  rather 
sharp  and  at  the  middle  of  the  last  section ;  tip  of  the  fourth  vein  before 
the  apex  of  the  wing;  posterior  cross-vein  a  little  less  than  twice  its 
length  from  the  wing  margin,  measured  on  the  fifth  vein. 

Female :  A  single  female  that  I  take  to  be  the  female  of  this  species 
has  black  hairs  and  bristles  on  the  middle  coxae,  and  black  bristles  and 
yellow  hairs  on  the  front  coxae';  the  front  tarsi  twice  as  long  as  their 
tibiae,  the  metatarsi  being  as  long  as  the  tibiae;  middle  metatarsi  as  long 
as  their  tibiae;  first  and  second  joints  of  hind  tarsi  equal. 


32  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

This  seems  to  be  a  southern  species,  Dr.  Loew  reporting  it 
from  Florida  and  Washington,  D.  C, ;  the  only  specimens  I 
have  seen  (one  female  and  two  males)  were  taken  by  Mr. 
Nathan  Banks  at  Falls  Church,  Va.,  July  10th  to  Sept.  26th. 

4  Neurigona  carbonifer  Loew. 

Figure  4. 
Saucropus  carbonifer  Loew,   Diptera  Americae   Septentrionalis   Indigena,   ix, 
84,  1869. 

Thorax  and  abdomen  yellow,  the  former  with  the  flattened  space 
in  front  of  the  scutellum  black,  the  latter  with  black  bands;  hypopygium 
yellow;  front  tarsi  with  an  oval  tip.     Length  4-5  mm. 

Male :  Face  and  palpi  silvery  white,  the  latter  longer  and  narrower 
than  in  most  species;  face  rather  wide  for  a  male,  and  with  the  sides 
nearly  parallel;  front  and  occiput  black,  thickly  covered  with  white 
pollen;  proboscis  and  antennae  yellow,  the  latter  with  the  third  joint 
s:nall,  arista  brownish;  orbital  cilia  and  post-vertical  bristles  yellowish. 
Thorax  reddish  yellow,  flattened  space  before  the  scutellum,  a  large 
spot  on  the  pleurae,  another  above  and  in  front  of  the  middle  coxae,  and 
a  small  spot  in  front  of  the  halters  black;  a  dark  line  between  the 
acrostichal  bristles,  and  sometimes  along  the  row  of  bristles  on  either 
side;  humeri  yellowish  white;  bristles  of  the  dorsum  well  developed,  a 
large  yellow  bristle  on  the  pleurae  above  the  front  coxae;  scutellum  pale 
yellow,  slightly  darkened  at  base;  metanotum  black.  Abdomen  yellow 
more  or  less  distinctly  banded  with  black  on  the  second  and  third  seg- 
ments; first  and  fifth  segments  with  yellowish  hairs,  the  large  bristles 
on  the  hind  margin  of  the  first,  and  the  hairs  on  the  dorsum  of  the 
second,  third,  and  fourth  segments  black;  venter  yellow  with  long, 
yellow  hairs  on  the  fourth  segment,  hypopygium,  its  appendages,  and 
the  sheath  on  the  venter  of  the  fifth  segment  yellow.  Coxae  and  legs 
pale  yellow,  all  the  hairs  and  bristles  of  the  front  coxae  whitish,  some- 
times the  larger  bristles  brownish  in  certain  lights ;  middle  coxse  with  a 
few  black  hairs  and  bristles  in  front  near  the  tip;  front  tarsi  twice  as 
long  as  their  tibiae  first  joint  three-fourths  as  long  as  their  tibiae,  the 
fourth  joint  whitish  and  widened  at  the  tip,  fifth  joint  black,  flattened, 
forming  an  oval  tip  to  the  tarsi;  middle  metatarsi  about  the  same 
length  as  their  tibiffi;  first  joint  of  hind  tarsi  shorter  than  second,  wings 
hyaline;  veins  brown;  last  section  of  fourth  vein  very  sharply  bent 
forward  near  the  middle,  ending  before  the  apex  of  the  wing,  rather 
close  to  the  tip  of  third  vein. 

Female:  Venation  the  same  as  in  the  male;  front  metatarsi  about 
three-fourths  as  long  as  their  tibiae;  front  coxae  with  yellow  hairs  and 
black  bristles;  the  bands  on  the  abdomen  narrow  but  sharply  defined; 
there  are  no  black  spots  on  the  pleurae  as  in  the  male  except  the  usual 
one  in  front  of  the  halters;  and  no  central  line  on  the  dorsum;  the 
flattened  space  before  the  scutellum  seems  to  be  black  as  in  the  male, 
but  is  so  much  injured  by  the  pin  that  I  cannot  be  sure. 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona  33 

Redescribed  from  eight  males  and  one  female,  three  of  the 
males  are  from  Prof.  Aldrich's  collection,  two  were  taken  at 
Battle  Creek,  Mich.,  and  one  at  National  Park,  N.  J.;  this  last 
was  taken  by  Mr.  V.  A.  E.  Daecke;  two  males  were  in  Mr. 
Nathan  Banks'  material,  and  were  taken  by  him  at  Glencarlyn, 
•Va. ;  and  three  were  sent  me  by  Prof.  C.  W.  Johnson,  and  are 
from  Buttonwoods,  R.  I.,  Hanover,  N.  H.,  and  Cohasset,  Mass.; 
the  female  is  in  the  American  Entomological  Society's  collec- 
tion and  was  taken  at  Manayunk,  Pa.  The  one  from  New 
Jersey  was  taken  May  20th,  the  others  were  taken  in  June 
and  July. 

Note. — I  have  placed  this  single  specimen  as  the  female  of 
this  species  as  it  agrees  in  all  the  principal  characters  with 
the  male. 

5  Neurigona  nitida  n.  sp. 

Figure  5. 

Thorax  and  abdomen  yellow,  the  former  shining  black  on  the 
dorsum,  the  latter  with  three  wide  black  bands.  Hypopygium  black, 
hairs  and  bristles  of  the  front  coxee  whitish.    Length,  4>^  mm. 

Male:  Face  very  narrow,  white;  palpi  white;  proboscis  yellow; 
antennae  yellow,  arista  brownish.  Front  and  occiput  black  with  white 
pollen;  frontal  and  post- vertical  bristles  black;  orbital  cilia  white. 
Mesonotum  reddish-yellow  along  the  lateral  margins,  black  on  most  of 
the  disk  and  very  shining,  with  a  greenish  reflection.  Pleura;  yellow 
with  white  pollen,  humeri  more  whitish;  flattened  space  before  the  scu- 
tellum  with  gray  pollen,  scutellum  yellow  with  a  black  base.  The 
pleuras  with  a  black  spot  in  front  of  the  halters,  and  another  above  the 
hind  coxae.  Metanotum  black,  abdomen  yellow  with  wide  black  bands 
on  the  dorsum  of  segments  two,  three  and  four,  that  on  the  second  near 
the  base  and  narrowed  laterally,  those  at  the  base  of  the  other  two 
about  equal  width  throughout;  fifth  dorsal  segment  produced  anteriorly 
in  a  blunt,  blackish  point;  the  usual  bilobed  sheath  on  the  venter  black; 
hairs  of  the  first  four  segments  black,  those  of  the  fifth  pale.  Hypo- 
pygium not  very  large,  shining  black,  basal  part  subquadrate,  appen- 
dages pale  yellow.  Front  coxse  with  white  hairs  and  bristles,  middle 
ones  with  black  hairs ;  front  metatarsi  as  long  as  their  tibi«,  with  a  row 
of  long  bristles  on  the  bottom,  continued  on  the  next  three  joints;  those 
on  the  metatarsi  a  little  longer  than  the  diameter  of  that  joint ;  second 
and  third  joints  fuscous,  fourth  and  fifth  a  little  lighter;  middle  metatarsi 
nearly  as  long  as  their  tibi^;  hind  tarsi  with  the  second  joint  longer 
than  the  first;  middle  and  hind  tarsi  infuscated  from  the  base.  Wings 
hyaline,  tinged  with  brownish,  darker  on  the  front;  fourth  vein  bent 
forward,  ending  not  far  from  the  tip  of  the  third  vein,  and  some  dis- 
tance front  of  the  apex  of  the  wing. 

Female:  Differs  from  the  male  in  having  only  the  central  line 
between  the  acrostichal  bristles  and  the  fiattened  space  before  the  scu- 


34  Aymals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

tellum  black,  the  central  line  is  narrowed  to  a  point  anteriorly,  hardly- 
reaching  the  front  of  the  inesonotum,  the  flattened  space  is  thickly 
covered  with  white  pollen;  the  front  coxfe  have  pale  hairs  and  black 
bristles;  the  front  tarsi  a  little  infuscated  on  the  last  four  joints,  middle 
ones  fuscous  from  the  tip  of  the  first  joint;  abdomen  with  even  black 
bands  on  the  tergum  of  seginents  two  to  five. 

Described  from  two  males  and  one  female  in  the  collection 
of  Prof.  J.  M.,  Aldrich  taken  in  Polk  Co.,  Wis.,  in  July,  by 
Mr.  Baker;  and  one  female  in  the  National  Museum  collection 
taken  at  Franconia,  N.  H.,  by  Mrs.  Slosson. 

6  Neurigona  tridens  n.  sp. 

Figure  6. 

Thorax  dark  reddish  yellow,  with  a  large  three  pronged  black  mark 
on  the  dorsum;  abdomen  yellow  with  black  bands.    Length  3  1-3  mm. 

Female:  Face  silvery  white;  antennge  yellow;  arista  yellowish 
brown;  front  and  occiput  black  with  white  pollen;  orbital  cilia  white. 
Dorsum  of  the  thorax  dark  reddish  yellow  on  the  lateral  and  posterior 
edges,  and  the  humeri;  central  portion  largely  black,  the  black  extending 
to  the  front  of  the  mesonotum,  and  on  the  posterior  part  fonning  three 
vittas,  the  central  one  ending  in  the  fiattened  space  before  the  scutellum, 
this  space  being  also  black,  and  the  lateral  vitt«  not  quite  reaching  the 
scutellum;  pleurse  partly  black,  dorsum  somewhat  shining,  thinly 
pollenose,  the  pollen  thicker  on  the  flattened  space;  scutellum  yellow; 
metanotum  black,  abdomen  yellow  with  broad  black  bands  at  the  base 
of  the  second  to  fifth  segments,  these  bands  occupy  more  than  half  of 
the  segments  on  the  center  of  the  tergum,  but  narrow  laterally;  venter 
yellow;  hairs  and  bristles  of  the  abdomen  black.  Legs  pale  yellow;  hairs 
and  bristles  of  the  front  coxae  black;  front  metatarsi  four-fifths  as  long 
as  their  tibiae,  the  remaining  four  joints  taken  together  but  little  longer 
than  the  first ;  front  tarsi  blackened  from  the  tip  of  the  first  joint ;  hind 
tarsi  shorter  than  their  tibi^,  the  second  joint  longer  than  the  first,  last 
four  joints  black,  contrasting  sharply  with  the  pale  yellow  of  the  first 
joint,  but  the  extreme  tip  of  the  first  joint  brown.  Wings  brownish 
hyaline;  veins  dark  brown;  fourth  vein  ends  in  the  apex  of  the  wing 
rather  close  to  the  tip  of  the  third  vein. 

Described  from  one  female  in  the  collection  of  Prof.  J.  M. 

Aldrich,   and  taken  on  Mt.   Constitution,   Orcas,   Idaho,  July 

7,  1905. 

7  Neurigona  signifer  Aldrich. 

Neurigona  signifer  Aid.  Transactions  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  London, 
1896,  pt.  3,  p.  337. 

The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  original  description,  as  I  have  not 
seen  this  species. 

"Male:  Face  very  narrow,  inimediatel}'  under  the  antenna  is  a 
triangular  portion  of  yellow,  below  this  there  is  only  a  narrow  groove 
between  the  eyes  to  below  the  middle,  from  this  point  the  face  pro- 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona  35 

trades  as  a  narrow  whitish  wedge,  sHghtly  wider  at  the  bottom ;  pro- 
boscis brownish;  palpi  yellow;  front  greenish-brown,  a  little  dusted, 
converging  below;  antennae  yellow,  third  joint  with  a  short  point, 
arista  yellow;  inferior  orbital  cilia  whitish;  occiput  green  with  white 
dust.  Thorax  dark  yellow  glabrous,  with  black  bristles,  acrostichal 
bristles  small,  in  two  rows,  on  each  side  of  these  in  front  is  an  area  of 
small  bristles,  bounded  by  the  humeri  and  the  anterior  margin.  The 
flat  bar2  disk  is  a  beautiful  greenish-blue  color,  which  extends  to  the 
disk  of  the  scutellum,  sides  and  border  of  the  scutellum  yellow;  two 
very  large  bristles  between  two  very  minute  ones  on  the  border;  a  very 
large  bristle  behind  the  root  of  the  wing;  pleurae  deep  yellow,  imper- 
ceptably  dusted,  a  dark  spot  above  middle  coxse;  tegulas  cilia  whitish. 
Abdomen  slender,  yellow,  the  segments  beyond  the  second  successively 
shorter,  the  second  segment  bears  near  its  front  margin  an  opaque 
black  band,  emarginate  behind  in  the  middle,  and  rounded  at  each  end. 
It  is  about  half  as  wide  as  the  segment.  The  following  segments  have 
similar  bands,  less  emarginate,  and  occupying  more  of  the  width  of  the 
segments,  the  fifth  is  wholly  black  across  the  dorsum.  Like  the  others 
it  is  yellow  along  the  ventral  sides;  hypopygium  shining  black,  turned 
under,  club-shaped,  not  much  exserted,  the  appendages  not  distinct. 
All  the  coxse  yellow,  front  ones  long  with  black  hairs  and  mixed  brown- 
ish-yellow bri.stles,  middle  ones  with  black  hairs,  hind  ones  with  a 
single  bristle  on  the  outside;  legs  yellow,  simple,  the  bristles  small,  tarsi 
a  little  infuscated  towards  the  tip.  Wings  a  little  yellowish,  fourth  vein 
in  its  last  segment  only  very  gently  curved,  almost  perfectly  parallel 
with  the  third. 

Female :  Face  narrow,  strongly  protruding  below,  yellow,  and  yellow 
pollenose,  palpi  larger  than  in  the  male;  third  joint  of  the  antennae 
small,  exceedingly  short,  almost  kidney  shaped. 

Length  3K  mm.,  wing  3  4/10  mm. 

St.  Vincent,  1500  feet  altitude.     Occurs  also  in  Grenada." 

Note. — N.  brasiliensis  Schin.  is  closely  related  to  this  species 
agreeing  with  it  in  coloration;  it  was  described  from  a  female, 
but  it  can  be  distinguished  from  signifer  Aid.  by  its  having  a 
central  line  on  the  dorsum,  extending  from  the  flattened  space 
before  the  scutellum  about  half  way  to  the  front  of  the  thorax,, 
this  line  is  the  same  color  as  the  flattened  space;  and  by  having 
the  third  and  fourth  veins  much  more  convergent  than  in 
signifer. 

I  have  seen  two  specimens  which  I  refer  to  brasiliensis,  one  a, 
male  in  the  National  Museum,  and  the  other  a  female  in  the 
collection  of  Prof.  J.  M.  Aldrich;  the  former  is  from  Grenada,, 
and  the  later  from  Vera  Cruz. 


36  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


8  Neurigona  maculata  n.  sp. 

Figure  8. 

Mesonotum  reddish  yellow,  with  three  black  vitta?  or  spots;  pleurae 
with  black  spots;  abdomen  yellow  with  black  bands;  middle  metatarsi 
with  a  row  of  long  bent  bristles  below;  hypopygium  small,  shining  black. 
Length  4-5  mm. 

Male :  Face  and  palpi  white ;  eyes  narrowly  separated  at  the  center 
of  the  face;  proboscis  and  antenna  yellow,  arista  brownish;  front  and 
occiput  black,  thickly  covered  with  white  pollen;  orbital  cilia  whitish, 
post-vertical  bristles  yellowish.  Mesonotum  reddish-yellow  with  three 
black  vittse  or  spots,  the  central  one  subquadrate  (in  one  of  my  spec- 
imens this  spot  is  missing) ,  lateral  spots  oval  and  quite  variable  in  size ; 
humeri  yellowish  white;  pleurae  pale  yellow  with  white  pollen,  and  with 
a  large  black  spot  in  the  center,  a  long  spot  between  the  front  and 
middle  coxae  sometimes  connected  with  the  central  spot,  a  small  spot 
above  the  hind  coxae,  and  the  usual  small  spot  in  front  of  the  halters; 
scutellum  yellow  with  the  extreme  base  black;  metanotum  black,  a 
little  shining,  and  white  pollenose.  Abdomen  yellow  with  three  wide 
black  bands,  one  near  the  base  of  the  second  segment,  and  one  at  the 
base  of  the  third  and  fourth  segments,  these  bands  widest  on  the  center 
of  the  dorsum;  fifth  segment  with  a  narrow  black  dorsal  line  and  some- 
times a  very  narrow  basal  band;  venter  yellow;  fifth  segment  without  a 
ventral  sheath.  Hypopygium  and  its  appendages  shining  black,  pol- 
ished, rather  small,  and  with  a  few  scattering  pale  hairs.  Legs  pale 
yellow;  front  coxae  with  delicate  yellowish  hairs  in  front,  and  black 
bristles  near  the  tip;  front  metatarsi  about  as  long  as  their  tibiae,  the 
fourth  joint  short,  about  as  broad  as  long;  middle  metatarsi  nearly  as 
long  as  their  tibiae,  and  with  a  row  of  long  bristles  on  the  lower  side, 
these  bristles  more  or  less  bent  backwards  at  tips;  this  row  of  bristles 
continued  on  the  tibiae  but  the  bristles  scattering  and  straight;  hind 
tarsi,  with  the  first  and  second  joints  equal.  Wings  grayish  hyaline,  a 
little  darker  in  front;  last  section  of  fourth  vein  bent  forward  a  little 
from  a  little  beyond  the  center,  not  very  close  to  third  at  tip;  tip  of 
fourth  vein  a  little  before  the  apex  of  the  wing. 

Female:  Agrees  with  the  male  in  all  but  sexual  characters,  except 
that  it  has  only  short  scattering  bristles  on  the  lower  side  of  the  middle 
metatarsi;  and  the  fourth  joint  of  the  front  tarsi  are  longer  than  in  the 
male;  in  one  specimen  the  lateral  spots  on  the  dorsum  of  the  thorax 
are  wanting. 

Described  from  five  males  and  ten  females  from  Canada, 
N.  H.,  Mass.,  N.  Y.,  Pa.,  N.  C,  Mich.,  and  Wis.  I  have 
taken  them  in  the  vicinity  of  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  and  at  Toronto, 
and  Kearney,  Ont.,  from  June  10  to  July  9;  Prof.  J.  M.  Aldrich 
sent  me  specimens  from  Polk  Co.,  Wis.,  taken  in  July,  from 
Philadelphia,  Pa.,  taken  by  Mr.  V.  A.  E.  Daecke,  June  12,  and 
from  Battle  Creek,  Mich.;  Mr.  Nathan  Banks  sent  specimens 


1913]         North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona  37 

from  Sea  Cliff,  and  Ithaca,  N.  Y. ;  Prof.  C.  W,  Johnson''sent 
specimens  from  Chester,  Mass.,  taken  August  4;  Brookhne, 
Mass.,  June  18;  Hampton,  N.  H.,  July  10,  taken  by  S.  A.  Shaw, 
and  from  Lake  Toxaway,  N.  C,  taken  by  Mrs.  Slosson;  the 
National  Museum  collection  has  a  specimen  taken  at  Mt. 
Washington,  N.  H.,  by  Mrs.  Slosson. 

9  Neurigona  floridula  Wheeler. 

Figure  9. 
Neurigona  floridula  Wheeler,  Proc.  Cal.  Acad.  Sci.  ii,  p.  72,  1899. 

Thorax  and  abdomen  yellow;  hypopygium  with  the  first  half  yel- 
low, last  half  black;  front  tarsi  plain,  with  the  fourth  joint  of  front 
tarsi  less  than  one-half  as  long  as  third;  wings  tinged  with  yellow. 
Length  5  mm. 

Male:  Face  rather  wide  for  a  male,  white;  palpi  white;  proboscis 
yellow;  front  and  occiput  black,  thickly  covered  with  white  pollen, 
thinner  on  the  center  of  the  front;  antennee  yellow,  third  joint  a  little 
infuscated,  arista  brown;  frontal  bristles  black,  orbital  cilia  and  post- 
vertical  bristles  whitish  yellow.  Mesonotum  yellow,  shining;  pleurae 
paler,  opaque  and  with  a  coat  of  white  pollen,  with  a  black  line  in  front 
of  the  halters;  metanotum  and  scutellum  yellow,  a  little  shining;  outer 
hairs  of  the  scutellum  small  but  distinct.  Abdomen  yellow,  darker  on 
the  third  and  fourth  segments;  third  with  a  narrow  dark  band  near  the 
posterior  end,  continued  across  the  venter  (sometimes  this  band  is 
indistinct) ;  dorstim  of  the  fourth  segment  with  a  poorly  defined  wide 
blackish  band;  fifth  light  yellow;  venter  yellow  with  a  transverse  row 
of  long  yellow  hairs  on  the  third  segment;  hairs  on  the  second,  third  and 
fourth  segments  mostly  black,  those  on  the  first  and  fifth  yellow,  the 
marginal  row  of  bristles  on  the  first  segment  black;  hypopygium  a  short 
oval  in  outline,  compressed  laterally,  the  basal  part  yellow,  last  part 
black  or  testaceous,  the  yellow  part  nearly  two-thirds  of  the  whole. 
Legs  light  yellow;  front  cox^  with  short  yellow  hairs  on  the  whole  of 
the  front  and  with  black  bristles  near  the  tip;  middle  coxs  with  black 
hairs  and  bristles;  front  and  middle  metatarsi  about  the  same  length  as 
their  tibise;  fourth  joint  of  front  tarsi  less  than  one-half  as  long  as  third; 
second  joint  of  hind  tarsi  distinctly  longer  than  first;  tegulas,  their 
cilia,  and  the  halters  light  yellow.  Wings  hyahne,  strongly  tinged 
with  yellow  in  front  of  fourth  vein,  third  and  fourth  veins  con- 
vergent, fourth  vein  ending  in  apex  of  the  wing,  not  very  close  to  the 
tip  of  third;  veins  yellowish;  anal  angle  obsolete. 

The  following  is  a  copy  of  Prof.  Wheelers  description  of  the  female. 
I  give  it  in  full  for  ths  benefit  of  those  who  may  wish  to  study  the 
synonymy  of  this  species. 

"Female:  Length  4>^-5>^  mm.,  length  of  wing  4I4 -5  mm.  Proboscis 
reddish  yellow  with  pale  hairs;  palpi  and  face  yellow,  thickly  covered 
with  silvery  white  dust,  the  latter  of  the  usual  width  for  a  female,  and 
with  the  portion  below  the  transverse  suture  receding;  antennas  yellow. 


38  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

third  joint  lacking;  (I  find  it  small  and  the  arista  brown)  front  and 
occiput  black,  thickly  covered  with  silvery  white  dust;  post-ocular  cilia 
white;  eyes  green.  Thorax,  scutellum,  and  abdomen  reddish  yellow,  cov- 
ered with  white  dust,  which  is  most  abundant  on  the  lateral  portions 
of  the  thoracic  dorsum  and  the  pleurae ;  prescutellar  depression  shallow ; 
scutellum  with  two  median  long  bristles  and  two  feeble  lateral  bristles. 
Abdomen  covered  with  short  black  hairs;  pleuras  with  a  black  spot 
below  the  root  of  the  wing.  Coxae  reddish  yellow  dusted  like  the  pleurae; 
anterior  surface  of  the  fore  coxae  beset  with  short  white  hairs,  and  a  few 
conspicuous  black  bristles  near  their  proximal  ends;  similar  bristles 
occur  in  a  corresponding  position  in  the  middle  coxae;  hind  coxffi  with  a 
single  bristle  on  the  lateral  surface,  and  a  few  bristles  near  the  tip. 
Legs  and  metathoracic  epimera  light  yellow;  the  femora  very  slender 
and  covered  with  small  black  hairs;  last  joint  of  all  the  tarsi  black;  fore 
tarsi  twice  as  long  as  the  fore  tibiae ;  middle  tarsi  nearly  twice  as  long  as 
the  middle  tibiae;  hind  tarsi  scarcely  as  long  as  the  hind  tibiae,  hind 
metatarsi  distinctly  shorter  than  the  succeeding  joint.  Wings  scarcely 
narrowed  towards  the  base,  distinctly  yellowish,  and  with  yellow  veins; 
apical  segment  of  fourth  vein  rather  sharply  bent  upwards  near  its 
middle,  ending  rather  close  to  the  tip  of  the  third  vein;  posterior  cross- 
vein  about  two  and  one-half  times  its  length  from  the  posterior  margin 
of  the  wing,  measured  along  the  distal  segment  of  the  fifth  vein.  Halters 
and  tegulae  yellow,  the  latter  with  yellow  cilia." 

In  the  above  description  Prof.  Wheeler  .states  that  the  wings 
are  scarcely  narrowed  towards  the  base.  I  find  in  all  the 
species  that  I  have  seen  that  where  the  wings  of  the  male  are 
narrowed  at  base  so  as  to  leave  little  or  no  anal  angle  that  the 
wings  of  the  females  are  normal,  and  have  the  anal  angle  prom- 
inent, as  is  the  case  with  this  species.  Male  described  from 
three  specimens,  one  in  the  collection  of  Prof.  Aldrich,  taken 
by  Mr.  Daecke,  at  Philadelphia,  Pa.;  one  received  from  Mr. 
Daecke  and  taken  by  him  at  Perdix,  Pa.,  on  June  10;  the 
other  in  the  National  Museum  collection,  and  taken  on  Mt. 
Washington,  N.  H.,  by  Mrs.  Slosson.  I  have  seen  females 
from  the  following  states:  Me.,  N.  H.,  Vt.,  N.  J.,  N.  Y.,  Pa., 
Md.,  Del.,  Va.,  N.  C,  Ohio,  Mich.,  and  Canada.  Prof.  Wheeler 
also  mentions  Illinois. 

Note. — In  Prof.  Aldrich's  Catalogue  of  North  American 
Diptera,  floridiila  is  placed  as  the  female  of  carbonifer,  but  after 
careful  study  of  the  material  in  my  hands  I  prefer  to  place 
floridula  as  a  distinct  species,  and  place  the  male  described 
above  with  it,  as  they  agree  in  all  essential  characters,  except 
those  points  which  usually  form  the  sexual  distinction. 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genius  Neurigona  39 

10  Neurigona  floridula  var.  infuscata  n.  var. 
Figure  10. 

Thorax  and  abdomen  yellow,  the  latter  with  more  or  less  distinct 
bands;  hypopygium  black,  more  or  less  yellow  on  the  first  half;  front 
tarsi  plain,  and  with  the  fourth  joint  more  than  one-half  as  long  as  the 
third;  tip  of  the  wing  infuscatad.     Length,  5^  mm. 

Male:  Face  rather  wide  for  a  male,  somewhat  narrowed  in  the 
middle,  silvery  white;  antennae  yellow;  front  and  occiput  black,  covered 
with  white  pollen;  orbital  cilia  and  post- vertical  bristles  yellowish 
white.  Thorax  yellow,  shining  on  the  dorsum;  flattened  space  before 
the  scutellum  dull  with  yellowish  pollen;  pleurae  paler  and  covered 
with  white  pollen,  a  black  line  in  front  of  the  halters,  also  a  black  spot 
in  front  of  the  middle  coxae;  metanotum  yellow,  more  or  less  infuscated 
close  to  the  abdomen;  scutellum  yellow,  paler  below.  Abdomen  yellow, 
the  first  segment  paler  and  more  or  less  infuscated  at  base;  second  and 
sometimes  the  third  segment  with  a  distinct  black  band  at  base;  fourth 
segment  more  or  less  infuscated,  but  hardly  banded;  sometimes  the 
third  and  fourth  segments  almost  entirely  yellow;  venter  yellow,  with  a 
transverse  black  line  at  hind  margin  of  third  segment,  this  line  fringed 
with  long  yellowish  hairs;  hairs  on  the  dorsum  of  the  second,  third,  and 
fourth  segments  black,  except  on  the  lower  edges  where  they  are  more 
yellowish.  Hypopygium  black,  shining,  and  testaceous  or  yellowish  on 
the  first  half.  Legs  pale  yellow;  front  coxas  with  yellow  hairs  on  the 
front  side,  and  black  bristles  near  the  tip;  hairs  and  bristles  of  the  mid- 
dle cox«  black;  a  black  bristle  on  each  middle  and  hind  trochanter;  a 
few  yellowish  hair-like  bristles  at  base  of  middle  femora  below;  one  or 
two  yellowish  bristles  above  front  coxae ;  front  tarsi  hardh^  twice  as  long 
as  their  tibiae,  the  first  joint  about  the  same  length  as  the  remaining  four 
joints  together;  fourth  joint  less  than  one-half  as  long  as  the  third; 
fifth  joint  black;  middle  metatarsi  the  same  length  as  their  tibiae;  first 
joint  of  hind  tarsi  shorter  than  the  second;  middle  and  hind  tarsi  infus- 
cated almost  from  the  base.  V/ings  hyaline,  strongly  tinged  with  brown 
along  the  front,  and  with  a  distinct  cloud  at  tip;  last  section  of  fourth 
vein  bent  forward  at  the  middle  and  ending  in  the  apex  of  the  wing,  not 
far  from  the  tip  of  the  third  vein;  anal  angle  obsolete;  veins  yellowish 
brown  to  brown. 

Female:  Differs  from  the  male  in  the  form  of  the  wings,  the  anal 
angle  being  well  developed;  wings  a  little  less  tinged  with  brown  in 
front,  and  without  the  cloud  at  tip.  Abdomen  without  distinct  bands, 
but  sometimes  darkened  in  spots. 

Described  from  thirteen  males,  which  I  took  at  Little  Val- 
ley, N.  Y.,  June  10,  1912;  and  twenty  females  from  Pa.,  R.  I., 
Mass.,  N.  Y.,  N.  J.,  Mich.,  and  Wis. 

This  may  be  a  distinct  species,  but  I  cannot  find  any  struc- 
tural character  to  separate  it  from  floridula.  Both  sexes  are  a 
little  larger  and  more  robust  than  the  specimens  of  floridula 


40  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

that  I  have  seen;  the  male  has  the  tip  of  the  wing  infuscated, 
the  hypopygium  is  darker  in  color,  the  pleurae  have  a  black 
spot  above  the  middle  coxae,  and  the  wing  veins  are  darker. 
The  female  is  difficult  to  separate  from  fioridula,  but  they  are  a 
little  more  robust,  and  darker  in  color. 

11  Neurigona  flava  n.  sp. 

Figure  11. 

Yellow,  with  yellow  pollen.  Abdomen  with  lateral  brown  spots. 
Wings  tinged  with  yellow.    Length  -i]/^  mm. 

Female:  Face  and  palpi  white;  antenna?  yellow,  the  first  joint 
paler,  arista  brown;  front  and  occiput  black,  thickly  covered  with 
yellowish-white  pollen;  frontal  bristles  black,  orbital  cilia  and  post- 
vertical  bristles  yellowish.  Dorsum,  scutellum,  and  metanotum 
yellow,  evenly  yellow  pollinose,  humeri  and  pleurae  whitish-yellow,  and 
yellowish  pollenose,  a  black  line  in  front  of  the  halters.  Abdomen 
yellow,  with  narrow  brown  lateral  spots  on  segments  three  and  four; 
these  spots  are  at  the  base  of  the  segments  and  scarcely  form  bands; 
hairs  of  the  abdomen  mostly  black.  Legs  pale  yellow,  tarsi  scarcely 
darkened  at  tip,  fore  coxse  with  yellow  hairs  and  black  bristles;  second 
joint  of  hind  tarsi  longer  than  first;  front  and  middle  metatarsi  three- 
fourths  as  long  as  their  tibias  Wings  strongly  tinged  with  yellow,  all 
veins  bright  yellow;  fourth  vein  ends  in  tip  of  the  wing,  a  considerable 
distance  from  the  tip  of  the  third  vein. 

Described  from  one  female  in  Prof.  J.  M.  Aldrich's  collection,  and 
taken  at  Lewiston,  Idaho,  on  June  17,  1902. 

Note. — This  species  may  be  distinguished  from  transversa 
by  the  deeper  yellow  pollen  of  the  dorsum  being  evenly  dis- 
tributed; in  this  species  the  acrostichal  bristles  are  very  poorly 
developed,  while  in  transversa  they  are  very  conspicuous.  In 
this,  the  second  joint  of  the  hind  tarsi  are  distinctly  longer  than 
the  first,  the  wings  have  a  strong  yellow  tinge  and  the  veins  are 
bright  yellow,  all  of  which  is  different  in  transversa. 

From  fioridula  it  differs  by  the  dense  yellow  pollen  of  the 
dorsum,  and  the  third  and  fourth  veins  being  much  further 
apart,  the  wings  are  also  a  brighter  yellow,  but  this  character 
is  of  little  use  unless  the  student  has  both  species  before  him. 

12  Neurigona  aldrichii,  n.  sp. 

Figure  12. 

Thorax  and  abdomen  yellow,  the  latter  with  black  bands;  hj^po- 
pygium  black 'and  yellow;  second  joint  of  front  tarsi  shorter  than  the 
fourth,  flattened,  and  widened  at  tip.    Length  3-3^  mm. 

Male:  Face  and  palpi  white;  eyes  contiguous;  antenna  and  pro- 
boscis yellow,  arista  brownish  yellow;  front  and  occiput  dark  grayish 
green  with  white  pollen;  orbital  cilia  whitish.    Thorax  yellow,  shining; 


1913]         North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona  41 

humeri,  pleura,  scutellum,  and  the  flattened  space  before  paler;  scu- 
tellum  with  a  blackish  spot  at  base;  pleuree  with  a  black  line  in  front  of 
the  halters,  this  line  sometimes  broken  into  two  spots;  metanotum 
black.  Abdomen  yellow  with  narrow  black  bands  near  the  base  of 
segments  two,  three,  and  four,  the  first  sometimes  infuscated  at  base; 
hairs  of  the  abdomen  mostly  pale;  hypopygium  nearly  as  long  as  seg- 
ments four  and  five,  but  not  very  thick,  first  half  yellow,  last  half  black 
or  testaceous.  Legs  pale  yellow;  front  coxae  with  a  few  yellow  bristles 
near  the  tip;  middle  cox^e  with  black  hairs  and  bristles;  front  metatarsi 
hardly  as  long  as  their  tibiae,  second  joint  shorter  than  fourth,  and  with 
the  apex  widened  and  extended  in  the  form  of  a  short  spur  on  top, 
somewhat  infuscated  at  tip;  third  joint  a  little  longer  than  fourth,  and 
both  with  a  row  of  short  bristles  below,  these  bristles  hardly  as  long  as 
the  diameter  of  the  joint ;  middle  metatarsi  about  four-fifths  as  Jong  as 
their  tibiae,  fourth  joint  slightly  flattened,  fourth  and  fifth  joints  fus- 
cous; apical  half  of  middle  tibis  brown;  hind  tarsi  with  the  first  joint  a 
little  shorter  than  the  second,  and  becoming  fuscous  from  the  tip  of  the 
first  joint.  Wings  grayish  hyaline;  fourth  vein  bent  forward  from  the 
center  of  the  last  section,  the  tip  quite  close  to  the  tip  of  the  third  vein, 
and  some  distance  in  front  of  the  apex  of  the  wing. 

Female:  Differs  from  the  male  in  having  the  face  quite  wide;  the 
abdomen  with  the  hind  margins  of  segments  two  and  three,  and  some- 
times the  bases  of  all  the  segments  infuscated;  the  hairs  and  bristles  of 
the  front  coxse  black;  all  the  tarsi  normal  and  scarcely  infuscated; 
metanotum  yellow. 

Described  from  two  males  and  five  females,  taken  by  Prof. 
J.  M.  Aldrich,  at  Lawrence,  Kansas,  on  June  8th. 

13  Neurigona  transversa  n.  sp. 

Figure  13. 

Thorax  reddish  yellow,  with  three  pollenose  vitt£e;  abdomen  yellow, 
with  the  hind  margins  of  the  segments  pale;  a  narrow  black  line  above 
the  pronotum.     Length  5-5 3^  mm. 

Female:  Face  wide,  with  the  sides  parallel;  face  and  palpi  whitish; 
antennas  deep  yellow,  first  joint  paler;  palpi  with  yellow  bristles  at  tip; 
front  and  occiput  black,  thickly  whitish  pollenose;  frontal  bristles 
brownish  yellow,  orbital  cilia  rather  long  and  whitish.  Dorsum  of  the 
thorax  reddish  yellow,  with  three  vitts  formed  with  yellowish  pollen, 
the  narrow  central  one  between  the  acrostichal  bristles  has  the  pollen 
more  dense,  the  lateral  vitts  not  so  sharply  defined.  There  is  a  bare 
spot  above  the  root  of  the  wing  in  each  of  these  vittas;  metanotum, 
scutellum,  and  the  flattened  space  in  front  thickly  covered  with  yellow- 
ish pollen,  which  is  thinner  at  the  base  of  the  scutsllum,  the  pollen  on  the 
lower  part  of  the  pleurae  more  whitish;  the  usual  black  line  in  front  of 
the  halters;  a  yellow  bristle  above  the  front  coxae;  front  of  the  meso- 
notum  with  a  black  transverse  line  which  is  almost  interrupted  in  the 
middle.  Abdomen  reddish  yellow,  slightly  infuscated,  and  with  dis- 
tinct yellowish  white  bands  on  the  hind  margins  of  the  segments,  that 


42  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol,  VI, 

on  the  fifth  not  as  distinct  as  on  the  other  segments,  and  that  on  the 
first  widest;  halters,  tegulae,  and  their  long  cilia  yellowish  white.  Hairs 
and  bristles  of  the  cox^  black,  except  the  short  hairs  on  the  front  coxae 
which  are  yellow  and  easily  overlooked;  the  front  and  middle  metatarsi 
about  three-fourths  as  long  as  their  tibiae;  tips  of  the  tarsi  infuscated; 
first  and  second  joints  of  the  hind  tarsi  equal.  Wings  grayish  hyaline; 
fourth  vein  ends  in  the  apex  of  the  wing,  the  tip  widely  separated  from 
the  tip  of  the  third  vein;  veins  brown. 

Described  from  two  females  taken  at  Moro  Lake,  Cal., 
July  23,  1911,  by  Prof.  J.  M.  Aldrich. 

14  Neurigona  disjuncta  n.  sp. 

Figure  14. 

Thorax  and  abdomen  yellow,  the  latter  sometimes  with  black 
bands;  hypopygium  yellow,  appendages  testaceous;  front  tarsi  plane, 
with  the  fourth  joint  nearly  two-thirds  as  long  as  the  third;  tip  of  the 
wing  infuscated.     Length,  4^-6  mm. 

Male:  Face  rather  wide  for  a  male,  and  with  the  sides  nearly  par- 
allel, only  a  very  little  wider  below;  face  and  palpi  with  silvery  white 
pollen;  antennae  yellow,  arista  brown;  front  and  occiput  black,  thickly 
white  pollenose;  orbital  cilia  and  post-vertical  bristles  white.  Thorax 
yellow,  somewhat  shining  on  the  dorsum,  but  dulled  with  white  pollen: 
humeri  and  pleura?  pale  yellow,  and  covered  with  white  pollen;  pleurae 
with  the  usual  black  spot  in  front  of  the  halters;  scutellum  and  metano- 
tum  yellow;  the  flattened  space  before  the  scutellum  sometimes  slightly 
infuscated.  Abdomen  yellow  with  black  or  brown  lateral  spots  on  the 
dorsum  of  the  second,  third,  and  fourth  segments,  these  spots  sometimes 
united  into  bands  on  the  third  and  fourth  segments ;  venter  yellow,  with 
a  black  transverse  ridge  on  the  third  segment.  This  ridge  is  ciliate  with 
long  whitish  hairs,  hairs  on  the  venter  yellowish  white,  those  on  the 
tergum  mostly  black;  fifth  segment  short,  and  with  the  ventral  sheath 
black  and  polished.  Legs  pale  yellow;  front  coxa?  with  short  yellow 
hairs  on  the  front  side,  and  large  black  bristles  near  the  tip;  middle 
coxas  with  black  hairs  and  bristles  near  the  tip ;  front  and  middle  meta- 
tarsi about  as  long  as  their  tibia? ;  front  tarsi  infuscated  from  the  extreme 
tip  of  the  first  joint;  fourth  joint  of  front  tarsi  nearly  two-thirds  as  long 
as  third;  middle  and  hind  tarsi  growing  darker  from  the  base  to  the 
tip,  second  joint  of  hind  tarsi  longer  than  the  first.  Wings  grayish 
hyaline,  with  the  apex  more  or  less  infuscated;  third  and  fourth  veins 
widely  separated  at  tips;  fourth  vein  ending  slightly  back  of  the  apex 
of  the  wing. 

Female :  Agrees  with  the  male  in  most  characters,  except  the  sexual 
difference,  but  the  abdomen  may  lack  the  lateral  spots;  and  the  wings 
are  not  infuscated  at  apex,  but  somewhat  tinged  with  yellow  along  the 
front. 

Described  from  five  males,  and  nine  females,  from  Vt,, 
N.  Y.,  and  Canada.  I  have  taken  them  from  the  vicinity  of 
Buffalo,    N.   Y.,   and   also   at   Toronto,    and   Ridgeway,    Ont.; 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona  43 

Prof.  C.  W.  Johnson  sent  me  one  male,  taken  at  Alt.  Ascutney, 
July  11,  and  three  females  taken  at  Norwich,  July  9;  both 
places  are  in  Vermont.  The  specimens  that  I  took  were  found 
from  June  6  to  July  4. 

Note. — -The  male  of  this  species  in  general  appearance 
resembles  the  male  of  iioridida  var.  infuscata,  but  can  be  readily 
separated  by  the  difference  in  venation  and  the  greater  rel- 
ative length  of  the  fourth  joint  of  the  front  tarsi  to  the  third. 

I  have  in  my  collection  seventeen  females  that  seem  to  be  a 
variety  of  this  species,  they  were  taken  at  East  Aurora,  N.  Y., 
June  15th  and  22d,  1912.  They  are  somewhat  smaller,  (33^-4 
mm.),  and  paler;  some  of  them  have  sharply  defined  black 
bands  on  the  abdomen;  the  third  and  fourth  veins  approach 
each  other  a  very  little  more  than  in  the  typical  forms,  the 
fourth  vein  ending  exactly  in  the  apex  of  the  wing. 

There  are  two  females  in  Prof.  Aldrich's  collection  that  seem 
to  be  the  same  as  the  above  variety.  They  were  taken  at 
Battle  Creek,  Mich.,  and  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 

15  Neurigona  viridis  n.  sp. 

Figure  15. 

Thorax  bright  metallic  green,  sometimes  coppery  on  the  dorsum; 
abdomen  mostly  dark  metallic  green,  with  the  first  two  segments 
partly  yellow;  hypopygium  black,  polished;  front  tarsi  with  the  fourth 
and  fifth  joints  a  little  flattened;  wings  with  the  third  and  fourth  veins 
nearly  parallel.     Length,  3^-4  mm. 

Male :  Eyes  contiguous  on  the  center  of  the  face  for  some  distance, 
leaving  only  a  small  triangle  above  and  below;  face  and  palpi  silvery 
white;  palpi  rather  large  and  with  yellowish  bristles  at  tip;  proboscis 
yellow ;  front  and  occiput  dark  metallic  green,  with  white  pollen ;  antennas 
deep  yellow,  the  third  joint  a  little  brownish  at  tip,  arista  brown; 
frontal  bristles  black,  orbital  cilia  and  post-vertical  bristles  whitish. 
Thoracic  dorsum  bright  shining  green,  sometimes  with  coppery  reflec- 
tions, and  a  little  dulled  with  whitish  pollen;  pleurae  dark  greenish,  the 
ground  color  partly  concealed  by  grayish  white  pollen ;  scutellum  bright 
green  on  the  disk,  yellow  below  and  usually  on  the  lateral  angles; 
metanotum  darker  green  with  white  pollen.  Abdomen  with  the  first 
two  segments  yellow,  a  large  dark  greenish  spot  on  the  dorsum  of  the 
second,  which  sometimes  covers  most  of  it;  the  following  segments 
dark  metallic  green  or  greenish  black,  with  the  posterior  edges  yellow 
and  thickly  covered  with  white  pollen,  in  some  specimens  these  edges 
very  narrow;  hairs  of  the  abdomen  mostly  pale,  and  those  on  the  hind 
margins  of  the  segments  rather  long;  hypopygium  rather  large,  black, 
polished,  and  with  a  pair  of  long  whitish  appendages  on  the  posterior 
margin.     Legs  pale  yellowish;  the  hairs  and  bristles  of  the  front  coxae 


44  Annals  Entomological  Society  oj  America      [Vol.  VI, 

whitish,  the  bristles  more  brownish  in  certain  lights;  middle  coxae  with 
black  hairs  and  bristles;  front  and  middle  metatarsi  shorter  than  their 
tibiae;  fourth  joint  of  front  tarsi  flattened,  fifth  also  slightly  flattened; 
second  joint  of  hind  tarsi  about  one  and  one-third  times  as  long  as  the 
first;  tegulae,  their  cilia,  and  the  halters  pale  yellowish.  Wings  grayish 
hyaline,  last  section  of  fourth  vein  only  feebly  bent  and  slightly 
approaching  the  third,  fourth  vein  ends  in  the  apex  of  the  wing;  veins 
dark  brown,  yellow  at  the  root  of  the  wing. 

Female :  Like  the  male  in  general  characters  but  the  front  tarsi  are 
plain,  the  face  narrow,  with  its  sides  parallel,  the  hairs  of  the  front  coxae- 
black,  and  the  abdomen  with  more  yellow. 

Described  from  four  males  and  six  females  from  N.  H., 
N.  Y.,  and  Va.  I  took  the  four  males  and  two  females  at  South 
Wales,  Erie  Co.,  N.  Y.,  July  9,  1911;  two  of  the  females  are 
from  Mr.  Nathan  Banks,  and  were  taken  at  Glencarlyn,  Va., 
July  23;  two  females  are  in  the  National  Museum  collection, 
one  from  the  White  Mountains,  N.  H.,  and  the  other  was 
reared  by  Mr.  James  Angus  from  larvse  feeding  in  rotten  wood 
of  hickory,  at  West  Farms,  N.  Y.,  the  imago  issued  May  9, 
1884. 

16  Neurigona  decora  Aldrich. 

Neurigona  decora  Aldrich,  Kansas  University  Science  Bulletin,  Vol.  1,  p.  8.3, 
1902. 

"Male:  Eyes  barely  contiguous  on  the  upper  part  of  the  face, 
slightly  separated  above  and  below;  front  broad,  opaque,  dark;  antennse 
small,  red,  the  tip  of  the  third  joint  brownish;  orbital  cilia  pale.  Thorax 
bright,  shining  blue,  the  concavity  before  the  scutellum  more  bronze; 
pleurae' green,  with  thin  dust,  and  the  hind  margin  yellow;  tegular  cilia 
yellowish.  Abdomen  rather  short,  the  first  two  joints  yellow^  the  rest 
dark  green,  shining  above.  Hypopygium  rather  prominent,  exserted, 
yellow.  Coxae  yellow,  the  middle  ones  dark  at  base;  remainder  of  legs 
and  tarsi  yellow;  a  slender  hair  on  the  outer  side  of  the  second  joint  of 
fore  tarsus  at  its  apex.  Wings  a  little  yellowish;  the  fourth  vein  con- 
verges toward  the  third  at  the  end,  terminating  before  the  apex  of  the 
wing. 

"Female:    Face  linear;  eyes  not  contiguous. 

"Length  2.8  to  3  mm.  Two  males,  two  females.  One  of  the  latter  is 
from  vSt.  Vincent,  but  was  not  mentioned  in  the  previous  paper." 

I  have  copied  the  above  from  Prof.  Aldrich 's  paper  on  the 
Dolichopodidce  of  Grenada. 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona  45 


17  Neurigona  arcuata  n.  sp. 

Figure  17. 

Thorax  greenish;  abdomen  yellow,  with  black  bands;  hypopygium 
small  black;  wings  with  the  costa  much  arcuated,  and  with  a  brown 
cloud  along  the  front;  front  tarsi  with  the  fourth  and  fifth  joints  black, 
the  fifth  joint  nearly  at  right  angles  to  the  fourth.  Length  of  male,  3^ 
mm. ;  of  female,  3 ^-3 ^^4  nim. 

Male :  Face  silvery  white,  not  very  narrow  for  a  male,  but  somewhat 
narrowed  in  the  middle;  proboscis  yellow;  front  and  occiput  greenish, 
thickly  covered  with  white  pollen;  frontal  bristles  black,  orbital  cilia 
whitish;  antennas  yellow,  arista  brownish.  Mesonotum  metallic  green, 
somewhat  shining  but  dulled  with  grayish  pollen,  the  narrow  space 
between  the  acrostichal  bristles  more  shining  and  without  pollen ;  humeri 
and  posterior  angles  of  the  dorsimi  yellow;  pleurse  black,  thickly  cov- 
ered with  white  pollen;  scutellum  yellow;  metanotum  black,  a  little 
shining,  and  with  white  pollen.  Abdomen  yellow,  dorsum  of  segments 
two  to  four  with  wide  black  bands;  the  fifth  segment  has  a  narrow 
black  band;  hairs  of  the  abdomen  mostly  yellow,  including  the  long 
bristles  on  the  hind  margin  of  the  first  segment;  hypopygium  small, 
black  or  testaceous,  polished,  appendages  lighter  testaceous,  or  sordid 
yellow.  Legs  pale  yellow,  front  coxas  bare  with  a  few  yellow  bristles 
near  the  tip;  middle  coxae  with  black  hairs  and  bristles;  front  femora 
with  a  few  long  yellow  hairs  near  the  tip  on  the  outside;  fourth  joint  of 
front  tarsi  not  much  more  than  one-half  as  long  as  third,  shorter  than 
fifth,  and  with  a  few  long  black  hairs  at  tip,  fifth  joint  and  most  of  fourth 
black,  fifth  joint  nearly  at  right  angles  to  fourth;  front  metatarsi  fully 
three-fourths  as  long  as  their  tibise;  middle  tarsi  with  the  second,  third, 
and  fourth  joints  slightly  flattened,  becoming  black  from  the  middle  of 
the  second  joint,  and  with  the  metatarsi  nearly  as  long  as  their  tibiae; 
middle  tibiae  more  or  less  infuscated  in  the  center;  first  and  second 
joints  of  the  hind  tarsi  about  equal.  Tegulae  and  their  cilia  pale  yellow. 
Wings  with  the  costa  much  arcuated ;  posterior  margin  indented  at  the 
apex  of  the  fifth  vein ;  third  vein  curved  backwards  towards  the  fourth ; 
last  section  of  the  fourth  vein  curved  forwards  from  a  little  beyond  the 
middle  in  such  a  manner  as  to  be  nearly  parallel  with  the  third  at  tip; 
a  brown  cloud  along  the  front  of  the  wing,  from  about  the  tip  of  the 
first  vein  to  the  tip  of  the  third,  fading  out  back  of  third  vein,  and  widest 
in  the  middle;  veins  brown,  yellow  at  the  base  of  the  wing. 

Female:  Agrees  with  the  male  except  in  the  following  points;  all  the 
tarsi  becoine  fuscous  from  the  middle  of  the  second  joint;  front  femora 
have  no  long  hairs  at  tip ;  wings  with  the  costa  less  arcuated,  and  with- 
out distinct  cloud,  but  the  front  of  the  wing  is  slightly  tinged  with 
yellowish  brown;  the  middle  tarsi  slightly  flattened  as  in  the  male  but 
less  so;  front  tarsi  plain;  second  joint  of  the  hind  tarsi  longer  than 
the  first. 

Described  from  five  specimens  taken  by  me  at  Kearney, 
Ont.,  July  3,  1909;  and  many  specimens  taken  in  the  vicinity 
of  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  June  6th  to  July  4th. 


46  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


18  Neurigona  deformis  n.  sp. 

Figure  18. 

Thorax  black;  abdomen  yellow  with  black  bands;  h^^popygium 
black,  small;  three  joints  of  the  front  tarsi  flattened;  wings  with  the 
costa  and  third  vein  much  arcuated,  and  with  a  brown  cloud  along  the 
front  towards  the  tip.    Length  of  male  6-6>^  mm.,  of  female  0)4  mm. 

Male :  Face  not  very  narrow  for  a  male,  but  narrowest  in  the  center, 
and  silvery  white;  front  and  occiput  black,  covered  with  white  pollen, 
which  is  thickest  on  the  front  and  upper  part  of  the  occiput;  antennae 
yellow,  the  rather  long  arista  brownish;  frontal  bristles  black;  orbital 
cilia  and  post-vertical  bristles  yellowish.  Thorax  black,  rather  shining  on 
the  dorsum,  thinly  dusted  with  white  pollen,  this  pollen  much  thicker 
along  the  front,  on  the  sides,  and  between  the  acrostichal  bristles;  the 
pollen  on  the  flattened  space  before  the  scutellum  thick  and  somewhat 
greenish;  pleurae  covered  with  white  pollen,  which  almost  conceals  the 
ground  color;  humeri,  posterior  angles  of  the  dorsum,  space  between 
the  front  coxae,  and  metathoracic  epimera  yellow;  scutellum  black  on 
the  disk,  yellow  beneath,  which  color  extends  somewhat  onto  the  edge 
of  the  disk;  metanotum  black  with  white  pollen.  Abdomen  yellow; 
second  to  fifth  segments  with  black  bands  at  base,  those  on  the  second 
and  third  segments  widest  on  the  center  of  the  tergum,  narrowing  to  a 
point  on  the  lateral  sides;  hairs  on  the  dorsum  of  the  second  and  third 
segments  mostly  black,  those  on  the  rest  of  the  abdomen  and  the  long 
bristles  on  the  margin  of  the  first  segment  yellow;  hypopygium  black, 
polished,  and  with  its  appendages  more  or  less  testaceous;  sheath  on 
the  venter  of  the  fifth  segment  corrugated,  and  opaque  black.  Legs 
long  and  slender,  pale  yellow;  front  coxcE  with  minute  yellow  hairs  on 
the  front,  and  several  yellow  and  one  or  two  black  bristles  near  the  tip; 
middle  coxas  with  a  few  black  hairs  and  bristles  near  the  tip;  front 
femora  with  about  ten  long  yellow  hairs  on  the  outside  near  the  tip; 
middle  femora  nearly  bare  except  near  the  tip;  front  metatarsi  about 
the  length  of  their  tibiae;  second,  third,  and  fourth  joints  of  front  tarsi 
flattened,  bare  on  the  sides,  ciliate  with  black  hairs  on  the  edges,  the 
longer  hairs  on  the  top  edge  longer  than  the  width  of  the  third  joint, 
those  on  the  lower  edge  very  short,  last  two  joints  of  front  tarsi  infus- 
cated;  middle  metatarsi  about  equal  to  their  tibias  in  length;  middle 
trochanters  with  a  black  bristle;  first  and  second  joints  of  hind  tarsi 
nearly  equal;  middle  and  hind  tarsi  black;  hind  tibiae  infuscated. 
Halters,  tegulae,  and  their  cilia  pale  yellow.  Wings  narrowed  at  the 
base,  and  with  the  costa  much  arcuated,  the  swell  starting  just  before 
the  middle ;  hind  margin  indented  at  the  tip  of  the  fifth  and  sixth  veins ; 
third  vein  much  arcuated ;  last  section  of  fourth  vein  nearly  in  a  straight 
line  with  the  basal  part;  wings  hyaline,  with  a  brownish  cloud  along  the 
costa,  beginning  at  the  same  point  as  the  swell  and  extending  to  the  tip 
of  the  fourth  vein,  fading  out  behind;  a  narrow  faint  cloud  may  be 
traced  along  the  fifth,  and  last  section  of  the  fourth  vein;  veins  pale 
yellow  at  the  base  of  the  wing,  becoming  brown  on  the  disk. 


1913]         North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona  47 

Female:  Wings  with  the  costa  nearly  straight,  the  cloud  less  dis- 
tinct than  in  the  male,  the  whole  wing  being  tinted  with  brownish  in 
front  of  the  third  vein,  and  slightly  clouded  along  the  fifth  vein; 
front  tarsi  plain,  otherwise  as  in  the  male. 

Described  from  four  males  and  six  females,  from  western 
N.  Y.  and  Ont.  I  took  the  males  and  five  females  near  Buffalo, 
N.  Y.,  and  one  female  at  Kearney,  Ont.,  July  8th;  those  taken 
near  Buffalo  were  captured  between  June  6th  and  loth. 

Note, — This  species  is  closely  related  to  arcuata,  but  may 
easily  be  separated  by  its  size,  (this  being  the  largest  species 
taken  so  far  in  North  America)  the  form  of  the  front  tarsi,  and 
the  wings,  the  latter  being  almost  deformed. 

1 9  Neurigona  tenuis  Loew. 

Figure  19. 
Saiicroptis  tenuis  Loew,  Mon.  N,  A.  Diptera  ii,  p.  228,  1864.    Described  from 
the  female.     The  male  was  described  by  Prof.  Wheeler  in  the  Proc.  Cal.  Acad. 
Sci.,  ii,  p.  73,  1899. 

Mesonotum  green;  abdomen  yellow,  with  black  bands;  hypopygium 
black,  large;  front  tarsi  about  the  same  length  as  their  tibia  and  with 
an  oval  tip.     Length  3>2— i  mm. 

Male:  Face  and  palpi  white;  eyes  contiguous  at  the  center  of  the 
face;  proboscis  yellow;  front  and  occiput  greenish  gray,  sometimes 
quite  dark,  thickly  covered  with  white  pollen;  frontal  bristles  black, 
orbital  cilia  and  post-vertical  bristles  pale  yellow;  antennas  yellow,  the 
third  joint  sometimes  brownish,  arista  brown.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax 
light  verdigris-green,  shining,  dulled  with  thick  grayish  pollen,  that 
on  the  flattened  space  before  the  scutellum  a  little  yellowish ;  humeri  and 
more  or  less  of  the  lateral  edges  yellow;  pleurae  greenish  gray,  with  more 
or  less  yellow  below,  in  some  specimens  nearly  all  yellow,  covered  with 
white  pollen;  scutellum  green  on  the  disk,  with  a  rather  wide  margin  of 
yellow;  metanotum  greenish  gray,  becoming  dark  brown  in  some  indi- 
viduals, white  pollenose.  Abdomen  yellow  with  wide  black  bands  on 
segments  two,  three,  and  four;  those  on  the  second  and  third  narrowed 
laterally  so  as  to  form  nearly  triangular  spots;  fifth  mostly  or  entirely 
black ;  first  more  or  less  brown  on  the  dorsum ;  venter  yellow  on  the  basal 
segments,  more  brown  or  blackish  toward  the  posterior  end;  hairs  of 
the  abdomen  mostly  black,  with  more  pale  hairs  posteriorly,  on  the 
fifth  segment  they  are  altogether  pale;  those  on  the  ventral  surface  of 
the  fourth  and  hind  part  of  third  long;  hypopygium  black,  basal  part 
somewhat  shining  but  dulled  with  white  pollen,  apical  part,  and 
appendages  shining,  polished.  Legs  pale  yellow;  front  coxse  long  and 
slender,  with  minute  scattering  hairs  on  the  front  side,  and  a  few  yellow 
bristles  near  the  tip ;  middle  coxae  with  a  very  few  black  hairs  or  bristles 
near  the  tip,  and  a  few  yellow  hairs  at  tip  inside,  these  hairs  curled 
inwards ;  hind  coxffi  usually  blackened  a  little  at  tip  on  the  inside ;  mid- 
dle and  hind  femora  with  a  few  bristles  on  the  inside  near  the  base, 
those  on  the  middle  ones  black,  on  the  hind  ones  yellow;  front  meta- 


48  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

tarsi  about  three-fourths  as  long  as  their  tibis,  and  about  one  and  one- 
fourth  times  as  long  as  the  remaining  joints  together;  second  and  third 
nearly  equal ;  fourth  and  fifth  fringed  on  each  side  with  long  black  hairs, 
which  form  a  fiat  oval  tip  to  the  tarsi,  this  tip  a  little  longer  than  wide; 
fourth  joint  except  base,  and  fifth  black;  first  joint  of  hind  tarsi  a  very 
little  longer  than  the  second ;  middle  metatarsi  about  three-fourths  .as 
long  as  their  tibiae.  Tegulaas,  their  cilia,  and  the  halters  pale  yellow,  the 
latter  with  a  brown  dot  on  one  side  at  the  base  of  the  knob.  Wings  gray- 
ish hyaline;  third  vein  slightly  bent  backward  at  tip;  fourth  vein  bent 
forward  from  just  before  the  middle  of  the  last  section,  but  the  tip  not 
very  close  to  the  tip  of  the  third. 

Female :  Agrees  with  the  male  except  that  the  front  tarsi  are  plane, 
with  the  metatarsi  a  little  shorter  than  their  tibis,  and  more  than 
twice  as  long  as  second  joint ;  first  and  second  joints  of  hind  tarsi  about 
equal;  the  mesonotum  often  nearly  all  yellow,  except  the  flattened 
space  before  the  scutellum. 

Redescribed  from  many  specimens  taken  in  the  vicinity  of 
Buffalo,  N.  Y.  This  is  the  most  abundant  species  of  Neurigona 
around  Buffalo,  I  have  taken  nearly  one  hundred  specimens  the 
past  summer,  the  first  on  July  9th,  and  the  latest  on  September 
8th;  the  only  other  specimen  I  have  seen  is  a  male  form  Mt. 
Tom,  Mass.,  taken  July  14th,  and  sent  to  me  by  Prof.  C.  W. 
Johnson.    Loew's  Mon.  gives  Middle  States  as  the  habitat. 

Note. — Prof.  Wheeler  in  his  description  of  the  male  of 
tentas  mentions  a  row  of  hook-like  spines  along  the  lower 
surface  of  the  front  tibiae,  also  curved  spines  on  the  front 
matatarsi;  I  cannot  detect  these  in  our  eastern  specimens, 
although  there  is  a  row  of  very  minute  bristles  or  stout  hairs  on 
the  lower  surface  of  the  front  tibiae  that  I  have  not  mentioned 
in  the  description  I  have  given  above,  because  they  are  so 
easily  overlooked  that  they  are  of  little  value  in  separating  the 
species,  but  in  the  closely  related  western  species  that  I  am 
describing  under  the  name  of  pectoralis  these  bristles  are  a 
conspicuous  character.  The  males  of  these  two  species  are 
so  nearly  alike  in  general  appearance  that  he  may  have  con- 
fused them.  They  may  be  separated  by  the  front  tarsi  of 
tenuis  being  nearly  as  long  as  their  tibiae,  while  in  pectoralis  the 
tarsi  are  much  shorter  than  their  tibiae;  in  tenuis  also  the  front 
legs  are  infuscated  from,  or  before  the  middle  of  the  tibiae,  in 
pectoralis  there  is  no  infuscation  of  the  front  legs  except  the 
.enlarged  tip  of  the  tarsi  which  is  black;  pectoralis  has  the  first 
and  second  joints  of  the  hind  tarsi  equal,  while  in  tenuis  the 
first  joint  is  a  little  the  longest;  the  middle  coxae  of  pectoralis 
have  yellow  bristles  which  are  not  found  in  tenuis. 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona  49 


20  Neurigona  pectoralis  n.  sp. 

Figure  20. 

Dorsum  of  the  thorax  metalHc  green;  abdomen  yellow  with  black 
bands;  front  tarsi  much  shorter  than  their  tibife  and  with  the  last  two 
joints  flattened  and  fringed  forming  an  oval  tip;  hypopygium  black, 
rather  large.     Length  4  mm. 

Male:  Eyes  very  narrowly  separated;  face  and  palpi  covered  with 
white  pollen;  proboscis  yellow;  front  and  occiput  light  metallic  green, 
the  front  thinly  and  the  occiput  more  thickly  covered  with  white 
pollen;  antennas  yellow,  arista  yellowish  brown;  frontal  bristles  black, 
orbital  cilia  and  post-vertical  bristles  whitish.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax 
light  verdigris  green,  with  yellowish  pollen;  pleuree  black  with  whitish 
pollen;  humeri  yellowish;  scutellum  yellow,  with  the  base  dark  metallic 
greenish  blue;  metanotum  black,  with  white  pollen.  Abdomen  yellow, 
first  segment  more  or  less  infuscated,  second  and  third  segments  \vith 
black  bands,  which  are  widest  on  the  center  of  the  dorsum,  and  are 
narrowed  laterally,  hardly  reaching  the  lower  sides  of  the  abdomen; 
fourth  segment  with  only  the  hind  margin  yellow,  fifth  entirely  black 
except  a  narrow  white  hind  margin,  interrupted  on  the  center  of  the 
dorsum,  and  reaching  about  half  way  to  the  lateral  sides;  hairs  of  the 
abdomen  mostly  black  on  the  dorsum,  those  on  the  lower  part  of  the 
sides  pale.  Hypopygium  black,  rather  large,  rounded  behind,  the 
first  half  but  little  shining,  appendages  black  or  testaceous.  Legs  pale 
yellow;  front  and  middle  coxee  with  only  yellowish  hairs  and  bristles  on 
the  front  side;  front  pair  rather  long,  middle  and  hind  coxae  slightly 
darkened  on  the  outside;  front  tibige  about  one  and  one-fourth  times  as 
long  as  their  femora,  and  the  front  tarsi  hardly  as  long  as  their  femora; 
metatarsi  a  little  longer  than  the  four  remaining  joints  together,  second 
and  third  joints  nearly  equal  and  very  slightly  fiattened,  fourth  and 
fifth  black,  flattened  and  fringed  on  each  side  with  black  hairs,  forming 
a  nearly  round  tip  to  the  tarsi ;  front  tibiae  and  metatarsi  with  a  row  of 
small,  hook-like  bristles  below;  middle  femora  with  a  few  black  bristles 
near  the  base  below;  middle  metatarsi. about  four-fifths  as  long  as  their 
tibiae;  first  and  second  joints  of  the  hind  tarsi  of  nearly  equal  length, 
hind  tarsi  shorter  than  their  tibiee;  halters,  tegulae,  and  their  cilia  pale 
yellow.  Wings  grayish  hyaline,  fourth  vein  ending  in  the  apex  of  the 
wing;  tips  of  the  third  and  fourth  veins  quite  widely  separated. 

Female :  Agrees  with  the  male,  except  that  the  hairs  and  bristles  on 
the  front  of  the  middle  cox«  are  all  black;  the  middle  metatarsi  are 
hardly  three-fourths  as  long  as  their  tibiae,  and  the  front  tibise  are  about 
the  same  length  as  their  femora  and  much  shorter  than  their  tarsi 
which  are  plane,  and  have  the  last  joint  blackened. 

Described  from  two  males  and  two  females  from  N.  M.  in  the 
National  Museum  collection,  the  two  males  and  one  female 
were  taken  by  H.  S.  Barber,  at  Las  Vegas,  N.  M.,  Aug.  7th,  9th 
and  13th;  and  the  other  female  was  taken  by  Townsend  on  the 
White  Mountains,  N.  M.,  at  6500  feet  altitude. 


50  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

Note. — Under  tenuis  I  have  given  the  characters  that  sep- 
arate the  males  of  these  two  species ;  the  females  of  these  species 
can  be  distinguished  from  those  of  tenuis  in  having  only  the 
humeri  yellow,  the  pleurae  being  altogether  black,  and  the 
dorsum  dull  greenish,  while  in  tenuis  there  is  more  or  less 
yellow  on  the  dorsum  and  pleurae. 

21  Neurigona  aestiva  n.  sp. 

Figure  21. 

Thorax  blackish;  abdomen  yellow  with  black  bands;  hypopygium 
black  with  the  upper  part  more  or  less  yellow;  front  tarsi  plane.  Length 
b}4  mm. 

Male:  Face  narrow,  of  nearly  equal  width  throughout,  face  and 
palpi  silvery  white;  proboscis  and  antenna  yellow,  the  latter  with  the 
third  joint  very  small;  arista  brown;  front  and  occiput  blackish,  but 
the  ground  color  concealed  by  white  pollen;  orbital  cilia  whitish;  post- 
vertical  bristles  yellow.  Thorax  and  metanotum  blackish  with  white 
pollen,  shining  on  the  dorsum,  pollen  thickest  on  the  pleuree  and  the 
flattened  space  before  the  scutellum;  humeri,  a  large  spot  at  the  inser- 
tion of  the  wings,  and  the  scutellum  except  the  base  yellow;  meta- 
thoracic  epimera  yellowish  white;  most  of  the  bristles  of  the  dorsum 
small  and  weak,  the  acrostichal  bristles  can  hardly  be  traced  in  some 
individuals,  but  in  others  they  are  distinct.  Abdomen  yellow,  the  first 
segment  more  whitish;  second  segment  with  a  black  band  near  the  base; 
third  with  a  black  band  at  the  base ;  fourth  black  at  base  getting  paler 
posteriorly;  fifth  segment  dusky  yellow,  with  the  ventral  sheath  large 
and  black;  hairs  of  the  abdomen  and  the  bristles  on  the  hind  margin  of 
the  first  segment  yellow,  those  on  the  lower  part  of  the  fourth  segment 
long;  hypopygium  mostly  black  or  testaceous,  shining,  sometimes  the 
first  half  parti}'  yellowish.  Legs  yellowish  white;  hind  femora  more 
yellowish;  hairs  and  bristles  of  the  front  coxae  all  whitish,  those  of  the 
middle  coxa?  black;  front  tarsi  more  than  twice  as  long  as  their  tibiae, 
their  metatarsi  hardly  as  long  as  the  tibiae,  and  about  equal  to  the 
second  and  third  joints  taken  together;  middle  metatarsi  four-fifths  as 
long  as  their  tibiae;  second  joint  of  the  hind  tarsi  longer  than  the  first; 
all  the  tarsi  slightly  darker  towards  the  tip.  Wings  hyaline,  slightly 
tinged  with  yellowish  along  the  front;  third  and  fourth  veins  quite 
widely  separated  at  the  tips ;  fourth  vein  ending  in  the  apex  of  the  wing. 

Described  from  three  males  from  N.  Y.,  Md.,  and  Vt.  I 
took  the  type  specimen  at  Lancaster,  N.  Y.,  June  2,  1912; 
Prof.  C.  W.  Johnson  has  sent  me  one  which  was  taken  at  Nor- 
wich, Vt.,  July  7,  1908;  and  there  is  one  in  the  National  Museum 
collection  taken  on  Plummers  Island,  Md.,  May  11,  1905,  by 
Mr.  Schwarz. 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Netirigona  51 


22  Neurigona  bivittata  n.  sp. 

Figure  22. 

Thorax  dark  reddish  yellow,  almost  brown,  with  thick  gray  pollen, 
and  two  brown  vittae.  Abdomen  yellow  banded  with  black.  Length 
5  mm. 

Female:  Face  broad,  whitish  pollenose,  the  yellow  ground  color 
showing  through  in  the  specimens  before  me,  especially  below  the  suture, 
antennas  with  the  first  two  joints  pale  yellow,  the  third  more  orange 
yellow,  arista  brown;  front  and  occiput  black,  thickly  white  pollenose; 
orbital  cilia  whitish.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  dark  reddish  yellow,  almost 
brown,  and  somewhat  livid,  but  so  thickly  covered  with  gray  pollen  as 
to  hide  the  ground  color  in  unrubbed  specimens,  humeri  pale  yellow, 
there  are  two  brown  vittse  running  from  the  front  of  the  mesonotum  to 
the  flattened  space  before  the  scutellum.  They  are  just  outside  of  the 
acrostichal  bristles,  leaving  the  space  between  these  bristles  gray 
pollenose;  these  vittffi  are  wider  posteriorly  and  not  so  sharply  defined; 
pleuree  blackish  with  a  reddish  or  livid  tint,  and  thickly  covered  with 
white  pollen;  scutellum  pale  yellow;  metanotum  black  with  white 
pollen.  Abdomen  yellow  with  black  bands  at  the  base  of  second  to 
fifth  segments,  these  bands  narrowed  laterally,  and  emarginate  at  the 
center  of  the  dorsum;  venter  yellow;  hairs  of  the  abdomen  black;  the 
long  bristles  on  the  first  segment  have  a  yellowish  color  in  some  lights. 
Legs  pale  yellow;  front  coxs  with  very  short  hairs  on  the  front  side, 
which  appear  dark  colored,  and  with  one  yellow  and  several  brown 
bristles  near  the  tip,  the  brown  bristles  having  more  or  less  of  a  yellow 
color  in  certain  lights;  middle  coxae  with  black  hairs  and  bristles  which 
are  more  abundant  than  in  some  species;  front  femora,  tibiae,  and 
metatarsi  about  equal  in  length,  the  last  four  joints  of  the  front  tarsi 
together  about  the  same  length  as  the  metatarsi;  middle  metatarsi 
shorter  than  their  tibiae;  hind  tarsi  about  equal  to  their  tibiae  in  length, 
the  second  joint  distinctly  longer  than  the  first;  last  joint  of  all  the  tarsi 
slightly  infuscated.  There  are  the  usual  whitish  bristles  above  the  front 
coxae.  Wings  grayish  hyaline;  veins  yellowish  brown;  anal  angle  not 
prominent;  tips  of  the  third  and  fourth  veins  well  separated,  the  fourth 
ending  in  the  tip  of  the  wing.   Halters  short,  with  the  knob  large. 

Described  from  two  females.  The  type  specimen  is  labeled 
Colorado;  the  other  is  from  Bear  Lake,  B.  C,  and  was  taken  by 
R.  P.  Currie,  July  20,  1903;  both  of  these  specimens  are  in  the 
National  Museum  collection, 

23  Neurigona  tarsalis  n.  sp. 

Figure  23. 

Thorax  black ;  abdomen  yellow  with  three  black  bands ;  hypopygium 
yellow  and  black;  third  joint  of  front  tarsi  pure  white,  fourth  and  fifth 
joints  black  and  flattened.    Length  4^  mm. 

Male :  Face  narrow  in  the  center,  a  little  wider  above  and  below;  face 
and  palpi  silvery  white;  proboscis  and  antennae  yellow,  arista  brown; 
front  and  occiput  black,  thickly  covered  with  white  pollen;  orbital  cilia 


52  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

and  post-vertical  bristles  yellowish.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  black,  and 
thickly  covered  with  white  pollen,  which  generally  forms  two  obscure 
narrow  stripes;  pleurae  black,  covered  with  white  pollen;  prothorax, 
humeri,  and  metathoracic  epimera  yellowish  white;  scutellum  pale 
yellow,  black  at  base;  metanotum  black.  Abdomen  yellow,  with  the 
first  seg-ment  and  the  posterior  edges  of  the  second,  third,  and  fourth, 
and  the  venter  paler;  second,  third,  and  fourth  segments  with  wide 
black  bands  at  base,  that  on  the  second  narrowed  laterally;  fifth  seg- 
ment yellow  with  a  polished  black  sheath  on  the  venter;  third  segment 
with  a  black  transverse  line  on  the  venter,  this  line  near  the  middle  of 
the  segment  and  fringed  with  long  whitish  hairs;  hairs  of  the  abdomen 
mostly  pale;  the  long  bristles  on  the  hind  margin  of  the  first  segment 
black;  hypopygium  rather  large,  basal  half  yellow,  the  remaining  part 
black  and  polished.  Legs  pale  yellow;  front  cox^e  with  delicate  pale 
hairs  on  the  front  side,  and  black  bristles  near  the  tip;  middle  coxas 
with  black  hairs  and  bristles;  middle  trochanters  with  a  black  bristle 
below,  and  a  black  spot  above ;  front  metatarsi  a  little  shorter  than  their 
tibiae,  the  third  joint  as  long  as  the  fourth  and  fifth  together,  fourth 
nearly  twice  as  long  as  fifth,  third  a  little  enlarged,  snow  white,  and 
with  white  hairs;  fourth  and  fifth  black,  flattened,  and  fringed  with 
black  hairs;  middle  metatarsi  about  the  length  of  their  tibice;  second 
joint  of  hind  tarsi  a  little  longer  than  the  first.  Wings  hyaline;  tips  of 
the  third  and  fourth  veins  not  very  close  together. 

Female:  Differs  from  the  male  in  having  the  face  quite  wide,  the 
front  tarsi  plane,  middle  trochanters  without  the  black  spot,  fifth  seg- 
ment of  the  abdomen  with  a  black  band,  wings  tinted  with  yellowish 
along  the  front  and  the  dorsum  of  the  thorax  more  greenish. 

Described  from  twelve  males  and  twelve  females,  from 
N.  Y.,  Pa.,  and  Mich.  I  have  taken  sixteen  specimens  at 
East  Aurora,  Erie  Co.,  N.  Y.,  from  June  11-15.  Mr.  Nathan 
Banks  took  one  at  Sea  ClifT,  N.  Y.  Prof.  J.  M.  iVldrich  sent  me 
specimens  from  Battle  Creek,  Mich.,  and  Pa. 

24  Neurigona  lienosa  Wheeler. 

Neurigona  lienosa  Wheeler,  Proc.  Cal.  Acad.  Sci.  3d  series,  2,  p.  72,  1899. 

Length  43<4  mm.,  wing  3^^  mm. 

"Proboscis  yellow;  palpi  and  face  yellow,  covered  with  silvery 
white  dust,  the  latter  of  the  usual  breadth  for  a  female;  antennse  yellow, 
the  small  third  joint  with  a  blunt  point,  and  covered  with  dark  pubes- 
cence; arista  distinctly  pubescent;  front  and  occiput  metallic  green, 
thickly  covered  with  white  dust;  postocular  cilia  snow  white.  Thorax 
dull  metallic  green,  the  ground  color  almost  hidden  under  a  thick  coat- 
ing of  brown  dust;  dorsal  bristles  prominent  along  the  interior  border 
of  the  thorax;  scutellum  slightly  lighter  metallic  green,  but  also  with  a 
covering  of  dust,  the  scutellum  bears  two  strong  mesial,  and  two  weak 
lateral  bristles;  first  abdominal  segment  dark  brown,  succeeding  seg- 
ments black,  dusted  with  white,  posterior  edges  of  second,  third,  and 
fourth  segments,  and  venter  yellow,  ovipositor  yellow  at  the  base,  tip 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona  53 

black,  with  delicate  hairs;  pleura  blackish  metallic  green,  thickly  cov- 
ered with  white  dust;  metathoracic  epimera  dark  brown.  Coxae  yellow, 
fore  and  middle  pairs  with  prominent  black  bristles  on  their  anterior 
surface  near  their  tips,  hairs  on  upper  portion  of  fore  coxae  delicate  and 
pale,  hind  coxae  with  a  single  black  bristle  on  its  outer  surface.  Legs 
pale  yellow,  with  black  hairs,  tarsi  infuscated  towards  their  tips,  fore 
tarsi  scarcely  twice  as  long  as  the  fore  tibias,  middle  ones  one  and  one- 
third  times  as  long  as  the  middle  tibiae,  hind  tarsi  scarcely  as  long  as  the 
hind  tibiae,  hind  metatarsi  distinctly  shorter  than  the  succeeding  joint. 
Wings  grayish  hyaline  with  a  yellowish  tinge,  broader  in  the  middle, 
slightly  narrowed  towards  the  base;  distal  seg-ment  of  fourth  vein 
moderately  bent  forwards  near  its  middle  and  ending  not  very  close  to 
the  third  vein;  distal  segment  of  fifth  vein  nearly  two  and  one-half 
times  as  long  as  the  posterior  cross-vein.  Halters  and  tegulae  dark 
brown,  the  latter  with  pale  cilia." 

I  have  not  seen  this  species  and  have  copied  this  from 
Prof.  Wheeler's  description,  vi^hich  was  made  from  a  single 
female  specimen  taken  sweeping  in  pine  woods  at  Monterey, 
Cal.,  July  22,  1896. 

25  Neurigona  lateralis  Say. 

Figure  25. 

Medeterus  lateralis  Say,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila.,  Vol.  vi,  p.  169,  1829; 
Compl.  Works,  ii,  p.  362. 

Saucropus  superbiens  Loew,  Mon.  N.  A.  Diptera,  ii,  p.  227,  1864;  Neue  Beitr., 
vol.  viii,  p.  76,  1861. 

Dactylongia  gracilipes  Aldrich,  Kans.  Univ.  Quat.,  vol.  ii,  p.   151,  1894. 

Thorax  verdigris  green;  abdomen  yellow  with  more  or  less  brilliant 
metallic  green;  hypopygium  yellow;  front  metatarsi  longer  than  their 
tibiae  remaining  joints  very  short;  first  joint  of  hind  tarsi  longer  than 
second.    Length  of  male  2-3  mm.,  female  2^-3^  mm. 

Male:  Face  narrow,  silvery  white,  its  sides  nearly  parallel;  palpi  and 
proboscis  yellow;  antennae  yellow,  third  joint  a  little  infuscated,  arista 
dark  brown;  front  blackish,  occiput  greenish,  both  thickly  covered  with 
white  pollen;  frontal  bristles  black,  orbital  cilia  whitish.  Thorax  dark 
verdigris  green,  somewhat  coppery  on  the  sides,  grayish  pollenose, 
except  a  narrow  central  line  between  the  acrostichal  bristles;  scutellum 
more  blue  green,  thickly  gray  pollenose;  pleurae  and  metanotum  green- 
ish black  with  whitish  pollen;  metathoracic-epimera  yellow.  Abdomen 
yellow  on  the  venter  and  lateral  margins,  generally  the  dorsum  of  the 
first  segment  more  or  less  yellow,  fifth  yellow  on  the  hind  margin,  and 
usually  some  of  the  incisures  yellow,  the  rest  brilliant  metallic  green,  or 
blue  green,  rarely  coppery,  sometimes  the  green  reduced  to  lateral 
spots,  in  one  female  before  me  there  is  scarcely  a  trace  of  green,  but  four 
lateral  coppery  spots;  hairs  of  the  abdomen  pale;  hypopygium  rounded, 
yellow,  with  whitish  appendages.  Legs  pale  yellow;  all  the  fifth  tarsal 
joints  black;  front  coxae  with  long  delicate  yellowish  hairs  on  the  front, 
and  a  few  yellowish  bristles  near  the  tip,  these  bristles  blackish  in 
certain  lights;  middle  coxae  nearly  bare;  front  metatarsi  longer  than 


54  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

their  tibiae,  remaining  four  joints  together  about  one-fifth,  or  one  sixth 
as  long  as  the  first,  third  and  fourth  not  much  longer  than  broad,  second 
about  the  length  of  the  two  following,  the  third  with  a  long  hair  at  tip; 
middle  metatarsi  about  as  long  as  their  tibiae;  first  joint  of  hind  tarsi 
longer  than  the  second.  Wings  hyaline,  little  tinged  with  grayish; 
third  vein  only  slightly  curved  at  tip,  last  section  of  fourth  vein  approach- 
ing third  from  the  cross- vein  slightly  sinuous,  the  tip  not  far  from  the 
tip  of  third,  ending  in  front  of  the  apex  of  the  wing. 

Female:  Front  tarsi  normal,  with  the  first  joint  about  three-fourths 
as  long  as  their  tibiae,  front  coxae  with  yellow  hairs  and  black  bristles; 
first  and  second  joints  of  hind  tarsi  about  equal;  otherwise  as  in  the 
male. 

Redescribed  from  many  specimens.  Ont.,  Que.,  N.  H., 
Mass.,  Fla.,  Ind.,  Mich.,  111.,  S.  D.,  and  Washington,  D.  C; 
taken  during  Jime,  July,  and  September. 

Note. — Dr.  Loew  in  his  description  of  this  species  says  that 
the  upper  orbital  cilia  are  black,  but  I  can  see  only  pale  cilia  in 
the  specimens  I  have  examined. 

26  Neurigona  setosa  n.  sp. 

Figure  26. 

Thorax  dull  green;  abdomen  yellow  with  black  bands;  hypopygium 
yellow;  middle  and  hind  coxk  with  a  prominent  black  bristle  on  the 
outside.     Length  3-3 K  mm. 

Male :  Face  narrow,  of  nearly  equal  width  and  silvery  white ;  front 
and  occiput  greenish  with  white  pollen;  antenna  yellow,  third  joint  and 
arista  dark  brown.  Thorax  dull  greenish  with  yellowish  pollen;  the 
flattened  space  before  the  scutellum  poorly  defined,  and  with  a  depressed 
line  in  the  center;  pleura)  black  with  white  pollen;  humeri,  meta- 
thoracic  epimera,  halters,  and  the  root  of  the  wing  yellow;  scutellum 
dull  green  with  yellowish  pollen,  with  the  lower  edge  yellow,  and  a 
slightly  elevated  central  ridge  on  the  disk ;  metanotum  black  with  white 
pollen;  acrostichal  bristles  distinct,  in  two  rows.  Abdomen  yellow; 
second  segment  with  a  very  narrow,  the  third  with  a  wider  metallic 
greenish  black  band  on  the  hind  margin;  fourth  and  fifth  segments 
entirely  metallic  greenish  black;  venter  3^ellow;  hairs  of  the  abdomen 
yellow ;  the  black  bristles  on  the  hind  margin  of  the  first  segment  rather 
short;  fourth  and  fifth  segments  ciliate  with  long  yellow  bristles  on  the 
lower  lateral  edges,  these  bristles  more  brown  in  certain  lights;  hypo- 
pygium yellow,  brownish  on  the  basal  edge,  with  several  yellow  and 
two  black  appendages,  the  latter  curved,  mandible  like,  with  a  blunt 
triangular  tooth  on  the  inner  edge  near  the  center,  and  with  long  yellow 
hairs  on  the  outside.  Cox«  and  legs  yellow;  hairs  and  bristles  on  the 
front  side  of  the  front  and  middle  coxae  yellow;  middle  and  hind  coxae 
each  with  a  large  black  bristle  on  the  outside;  middle  and  hind  femora 
each  with  a  black  bristle  near  the  tip  on  the  outside;  middle  femora 
ciliate  with   short    yellow  bristles    on  the    lower  surface    towards  the 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona  55 

base ;  tarsi  scarcely  hifiiscated  at  tips ;  front  tarsi  longer  than  their 
tibias;  front  metatarsi  little  more  than  one-half  as  long  as  their  tibia; 
middle  metatarsi  two-thirds  as  long  as  their  tibiae;  second  joint  of  hind 
tarsi  longer  than  first.  Wings  grayish  hyaline,  veins  yellowish  brown; 
posterior  cross-vein  less  than  twice  its  length  from  the  wing  margin 
measured  on  fifth  vein;  fourth  vein  gradually  approaching  third,  ending 
before  the  apex  of  the  wing,  not  far  from  the  tip  of  third  vein. 

Female:  Agrees  with  the  male  in  most  of  the  characters  given, 
except  in  the  following  points;  there  are  several  black  bristles  near  the 
tip  of  the  front  coxag ;  abdomen  with  a  row  of  black  bristles  on  the  hind 
margin  of  each  segment;  fourth  and  fifth  segments  of  the  abdomen,  and 
the  middle  femora  without  cilia. 

Described  from  four  males  and  four  females  in  the  collection 
of  the  American  Entomological  Society,  taken  at  Alamo- 
gordo,  N.  M.,  May  8-15,  1902.     Type  No.  5258. 

Note. — I  place  this  species  in  this  genus  for  the  present,  but 
it  differs  from  the  other  species  of  the  genus  by  having  the 
flattened  space  before  the  scutellum  less  distinctly  defined;  by 
the  greater  development  of  the  appendages  of  the  hypopygium;. 
and  by  the  bristles  on  the  outside  of  the  middle  coxse,  and  near 
the  tip  of  the  middle  and  hind  femora;  also  the  abdomen  of  the 
male  is  shorter  and  stouter  than  in  most  species  of  the  genus. 

27  Neurigona  tibialis  n.  sp. 

Figure  27. 

Thorax  yellow,  with  more  or  less  greenish  gray  on  the  dorsum; 
abdomen  yellow  with  black  bands ;  hypopygium  yellow,  and  very  small ; 
front  tibiae  with  a  row  of  bristles  above ;  wings  with  the  third  and  fourth 
veins  nearly  parallel.     Length  2)4  mm. 

Male :  Face  and  palpi  with  white  pollen,  the  fonner  very  wide  for  a 
male;  antennae  yellow,  first  joint  short  and  with  three  or  four  hairs 
above;  third  joint  missing;  front  and  occiput  dark  greenish  gray,  with 
white  pollen;  post-vertical  bristles  and  some  of  the  upper  orbital  cilia 
black,  the  lateral  and  lower  orbital  cilia  whitish.  Thorax  yellow,  with 
dark  greenish  gray  on  the  center  of  the  dorsum,  which  almost  forms 
three  broad  vittse,  lateral  ones  abbreviated  in  front,  and  all  somewhat 
united;  pleurse  with  a  black  spot  above  the  middle  coxse,  and  another  in 
front  of  the  halters;  scutellum  and  metanotum  dark  greenish  gray, 
the  former  yellowish  below;  acrostichal  bristles  rather  long  but  scatter- 
ing, forming  two  poorly  defined  rows.  Abdomen  yellow,  incisions  black 
on  the  dorsum,  this  black  extending  forward  so  as  to  almost  connect 
along  the  center  of  the  dorsum  on  the  second,  third,  and  fourth  seg- 
ments; fifth  segment  all  black  on  the  dorsum  and  with  a  greenish 
luster;  venter  yellow;  hypopygium  dark  yellow,  very  small,  and  with 
two  pair  of  short,  slightly  hooked  appendages.  Legs  pale  yellow;  front 
coxae  with  pale  yellow  hairs  and  bristles,  the  larger  bristles  blackish  in 
certain  lights;  middle  coxae  with  black  hairs  and  bristles,  one  of  the 


56  An7ials  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

latter  rather  long  and  placed  high  up  almost  on  the  outside;  hind  coxae 
with  one  black  bristle  on  the  outside;  front  tibiae  with  a  row  of  black 
bristles  above,  these  bristles  do  not  reach  either  the  base  or  apex;  front 
tarsi  about  one  and  one-half  times  as  long  as  their  tibiae,  the  metatarsi 
two-thirds  as  long  as  the  tibiae,  second  joint  half  as  long  as  the  first; 
middle  tarsi  a  little  longer  than  their  tibiae,  the  first  joint  one-half  as 
.long  as  the  tibiae;  middle  and  hind  femora  with  a  black  bristle  near  the 
tip  on  the  outside;  hind  tarsi  fully  as  long  as  their  tibiae,  with  the  second 
joint  longer  than  the  first.  Wings  grayish  hyaline;  third  and  fourth 
veins  only  very  slightly  convergent  at  the  tips. 

Described  from  one  male  which  I  took  at  Lancaster,  Erie 
Co.,  N.  Y.,  on  Aug.  15,  1909. 

Note. — This  species  resembles  setosa  in  having  a  bristle  on 
the  outside  of  each  middle  and  hind  coxae,  and  near  the  tip  of 
each  middle  and  hind  femora;  also  in  having  bristles  on  the 
hind  margin  of  all  the  segments  of  the  abdomen.  The  hypo- 
pygium  is  smaller  than  that  of  any  other  species  of  the  genus 
that  I  have  seen.  There  are  three  or  four  bristly  hairs  on  the 
top  of  the  first  joint  of  the  antennae  near  the  tip,  but  this  joint 
is  hardly  hairy  on  top  in  the  same  way  that  it  is  in  some  of  the 
genera  of  Dolichopodidae. 

28  Neurigona  ciliata  n.  sp. 

Figure  29. 

Dorsum  of  the  thorax  black ;  abdomen  yellow  with  black  bands ; 
hypopygium  small,  black;  front  tarsi  black,  fringed  on  each  side  with 
short  black  hairs;  wings  strongly  tinged  with  brown  in  front  of  the 
third  vein.   Length  4>^  mm. 

Male:  Face  and  palpi  silvery  white,  the  former  very  narrow,  the 
eyes  almost  touching  on  the  center  of  the  face;  proboscis  and  antennae 
yellow,  arista  yellowish  brown;  front  and  occiput  greenish  gray,  with 
white  pollen;  frontal  bristles  black,  orbital  cilia  and  post- vertical 
bristles  whitish.  Thorax  black,  shining  on  the  dorsum,  with  white 
pollen,  this  pollen  thickest  on  the  flattened  space  before  the  scutellum; 
humeri,  prothorax,  lateral  edges  of  the  dorsum,  scutellum  except 
base,  metathoracic-epimera,  and  a  large  triangular  spot  above  the 
middle  coxae  yellow.  Abdomen  yellow,  with  poorly  defined,  wide  black 
bands  on  the  dorsum  at  the  base  of  segments  two,  three,  and  four,  and  a 
small  spot  at  base  of  fifth;  hairs  black  on  the  first  four  segments,  pale 
on  the  fifth  and  on  the  venter;  venter  yellow;  hypopygium  small  black 
shining,  appendages  testaceous.  Legs  pale  yellow;  front  coxae  with  pale 
hairs  and  bristles,  one  or  two  of  these  bristles  black;  middle  coxae  with 
black  hairs  and  bristles;  front  tarsi  black,  fringed  on  each  side  with 
short  coarse,  dense  hairs,  giving  them  the  appearance  of  being  flattened, 
these  hairs  hardly  as  long  as  the  diameter  of  the  tarsi;  front  metatarsi 
about  equal  to  their  tibiae  in  length,  fourth  joint  hardly  twice  as  long 
as  wide;  middle  metatarsi  four-fifths  as  long  as  their  tibiae;  middle  legs 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona  57 

infuscated  from  the  middle  of  the  tibiae,  the  tarsi  becoming  black;  first 
and  second  joints  of  hind  tarsi  equal,  black  from  the  tip  of  the  first 
joint.  Halters,  tegulae  and  their  cilia  pale  yellow.  Wings  brownish 
hyaline,  much  darker  in  front  of  the  third  vein;  veins  dark  brown; 
third  vein  bent  backwards  at  tip,  fourth  vein  bent  forwards  from 
beyond  the  middle  of  the  last  section,  the  tips  of  third  and  fourth  quite 
near  together. 

Described  from  one  male  taken  at  Doe  Bay,  Wash.,  July  16, 
1909,  in  the  collection  of  Prof.  J.  M.  Aldrich. 

29  Neurigona  perbrevis  n.  sp. 

Figure  30. 

Dorsum  of  the  thorax  grayish  green,  with  three  brownish  vittss; 
abdomen  black;  hypopygium  black,  polished,  and  rather  large;  front 
tarsi  A\dth  the  last  two  joints  flattened  and  fringed,  fonning  an  oval  tip ; 
front  tibi^  longer  than  their  tarsi.    Length  3^4  mm. 

Male :  Face  rather  narrow ;  face  and  palpi  white ;  front  and  occiput 
seem  to  be  black,  but  the  ground  color  concealed  by  whitish  pollen; 
orbital  cilia  white;  antennae  yellow,  the  small  third  joint  and  the  arista 
brownish.  Dorsum  of  the  thorax  grayish  green,  thickly  covered  with 
pollen,  (this  pollen  and  that  of  the  head  and  scutellum  has  a  greenish 
tint).  Dorsum  with  four  brown  vittae,  the  lateral  ones  abbreviated  in 
front;  scutellum  the  same  color  as  the  dorsum,  but  the  edges  a  little 
yellowish;  pleurae  black  with  white  pollen.  Abdomen  black,  covered 
with  white  pollen  which  is  thickest  on  the  posterior  margins  of  the  seg- 
ments; fifth  segment  with  a  yellow  hind  margin;  venter  yellow;  hairs 
on  the  tergum  black,  those  on  the  sides  of  the  last  three  segments 
white;  hypopygium  shining  black,  polished,  and  rather  large;  append- 
ages shining  black.  Legs  yellow;  front  and  middle  coxae  with  yellowish 
hairs  and  bristles;  middle  and  hind  coxae  darkened  on  the  outside;  front 
tibiae  longer  than  their  tarsi  or  femora,  which  are  of  equal  length;  meta- 
tarsi longer  than  the  remaining  four  joints  together;  fourth  and  fifth 
joints  black,  flattened,  and  fringed  on  each  side,  forming  an  oval  tip, 
which  is  nearly  twice  as  long  as  wide;  middle  metatarsi  nearly  three- 
fourths  as  long  as  their  tibiae;  hind  tarsi  nearly  as  long  as  their  tibiae, 
the  second  joint  a  little  longer  than  the  first;  hind  femora  with  a  few 
yellow  bristles  below  near  the  base.  Halters  yellow ;  tegulae  and  their 
long  cilia  whitish.  Wings  hyaline;  fourth  vein  rather  sharply  bent 
towards  the  third,  ending  in  the  apex  of  the  wing,  not  very  close  to 
the  tip  of  the  third  vein;  veins  brown. 

Described  from  two  males  in  the  collection  of  the  American 
Entomological  Society,  which  were  taken  at  Alamogordo,  N.  M., 
on  April  20  and  May  12,  1902.       Type  No.  5257. 


58  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


30  Neurigona  australis  n.  sp. 

Figure  31. 

Dorsum  of  tha  thorax  grayish  green;  abdomen  with  the  dorsum 
entirely  blackish;  hypopygium  shining  black,  large;  front  tarsi  with  the 
last  two  joints  flattened  and  fringed  with  black  hairs,  forming  an  oval 
tip  to  the  tarsi;  front  tibiee  shorter  than  their  tarsi.  Length  of  male  and 
female  4J^  mm. 

Male:  Face  narrow,  silvery  white;  palpi  and  proboscis  yellow;  front 
and  occiput  black,  with  grayish  white  pollen,  the  latter  with  purple 
reflections;  orbital  cilia  white  except  a  few  of  the  uppermost  which  are 
black;  antenna  yellow,  third  joint  and  arista  brownish.  Dorsum  of  the 
thorax  grayish  green,  with  some  purple  reflections,  and  grayish  pollen- 
ose,  with  four  brown  vittse,  the  lateral  ones  rather  poorly  defined; 
pleurse  and  metanotum  black,  and  covered  with  white  pollen;  a  small 
yellowish  spot  below  the  humeri;  scutellum  the  same  color  as  the  dor- 
sum. Abdomen  metallic  black  and  covered  with  grayish  pollen,  which 
is  thickest  on  the  sides;  fifth  segment  glabrous  and  shining;  venter 
sordid  yellow;  hairs  of  the  abdomen  mostly  pale,  rather  scattering,  but 
longer  and  more  abundant  on  the  sides  and  posterior  end;  hypopygium 
shining  black,  large,  polished,  rounded  behind,  and  with  black  append- 
ages. Legs  yellow;  middle  and  hind  coxae  blackened  almost  to  the  tip; 
front  and  middle  coxte  with  white  hairs  and  bristles;  front  tibiae  and 
tarsi  darker  than  their  femora  the  tibiae  a  little  longer  than  their  femora, 
and  the  tarsi  nearly  one  and  one-third  times  as  long  as  the  tibiae,  the 
last  four  joints  flattened,  fourth  and  fifth  joints  black  and  fringed  on 
each  side,  fomimg  an  oval  tip  to  the  tarsi;  front  metatarsi  nearly  as 
long  as  the  remaining  four  joints  together;  middle  metatarsi  about  the 
same  length  as  their  tibise;  a  few  weak  yellow  bristles  on  the  lower  side 
of  the  middle  femora  near  the  base ;  hind  tarsi  about  the  same  length  as 
their  tibiae,  and  the  first  joint  longer  than  the  second;  last  four  joints 
of  the  middle  and  hind  tarsi  darkened.  Halters,  tegulae,  and  their  cilia 
yellowish.  Wings  hyaline,  only  slightly  tinged  with  grayish;  anal  angle 
not  prominent;  fourth  vein  sharply  bent  towards  the  third,  ending  in 
the  apex  of  the  wing,  not  very  near  the  tip  of  the  third  vein. 

Female:  Differs  from  the  male  as  follows:  the  abdomen  is  lighter 
colored,  more  like  the  dorsum  of  the  thorax;  the  front  tarsi  are  plane; 
the  middle  femora  without  bristles  below;  and  the  first  and  second 
joints  of  the  hind  tarsi  nearly  equal. 

Described  from  one  male,  and  five  females  from  New 
Mexico.  The  male  and  one  female  are  in  the  collection  of  the 
American  Entomological  Society,  and  were  taken  at  Cloud- 
croft,  N.  M.,  June  18,  1902;  in  the  National  Museum  collection 
are  three  females,  taken  at  Las  Vegas,  N.  M.,  Aug.  7,  8,  and  11, 
by  S.  H.  Baker;  and  one  female  taken  on  the  White  Mountains, 
N.  M.,  Aug.  5th,  by  Townsend,  at  6500  feet  altitude.  Type  in 
the  collection  of  the  American  Entomological  Society;  type 
No.  5256. 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neiirigona  59 

31  Neurigona  albospinosa  n.  sp. 

Figure  32. 

Thorax  blackish,  with  three  metalHc  brown  vittse;  abdomen  green- 
ish black,  segments  gray  pollenose  at  base ;  hypopygium  small,  testaceous ; 
hind  cox^  with  several  rather  weak  whitish  bristles.  Length  of  male 
4-4^  mm.,  female  3 J/2 -5  mm. 

Male :  Face  not  very  narrow  for  a  male,  and  with  the  sides  nearly 
parallel ;  face  and  palpi  white. ;  proboscis  and  antennae  yellow,  the  latter 
with  the  third  joint  and  the  arista  dark  brown;  front  and  occiput  dark 
grayish  green  with  white  pollen;  orbital  cilia  white.  Thorax  and  scutel- 
lum  blackish,  more  gray  on  the  dorsum,  and  with  three  somewhat 
shining  metallic  brown  vittae,  the  central  one  between  the  acrostichal 
bristles  most  sharply  defined ;  thorax  including  scutellum  and  metanotum 
whitish  pollenose,  the  pollen  more  brown  on  the  flattened  space  before 
the  scutellum,  this  brown  pollen  extends  somewhat  onto  the  scutellum. 
Abdomen  metallic  greenish  black  with  coppery  reflections,  and  a  grayish 
pollenose  band  at  the  base  of  each  segment;  the  hairs  on  these  bands 
white,  on  the  posterior  part  of  the  segments  the  hairs  are  black;  the 
first  segment  wholly  gray  pollenose,  and  with  the  marginal  row  of 
bristles  pale  except  about  four  at  the  top  which  are  black;  second  seg- 
ment with  two  transverse  rows  of  black  dashes  near  the  base;  venter  of 
the  first  segment,  and  very  narrow  lateral  edges  of  one  or  more  of  the 
others  yellow;  hypopygium  testaceous,  polished,  and  rather  small. 
Legs  pale  yellow ;  front  coxae  whitish  with  long  white  hairs  on  the  whole 
front;  middle  cox«  also  with  white  hairs  and  bristles;  hind  coxae  with 
one  long  and  several  weak  whitish  bristles  on  the  outside;  middle  and 
hind  coxae  blackish  at  base;  front  and  middle  metatarsi  about  two- 
thirds  as  long  as  their  tibiae;  hind  tarsi  with  the  first  joint  shorter  than 
the  second;  middle  and  hind  tarsi  infuscated  fromi  the  tip  of  the  first 
joint;  hind  femora  brownish  above.  Cilia  of  the  tegulee  whitish;  halters 
yellow  with  the  knob  whitish.  Wings  brownish  hyaline,  darker  along 
the  front;  third  and  fourth  veins  wide  apart  at  tip. 

Females :  Agrees  with  the  male  in  most  characters,  but  the  scutel- 
limi  yellow,  sometimes  a  little  darkened  at  base;  marginal  row  of 
bristles  on  the  first  segment  of  abdomen  black,  sometimes  one  or  two  of 
the  lower  ones  yellowish;  stout  bristles  on  hind  coxae  brown  in  some 
lights.   Face  broad,  darker  than  in  the  male,  and  the  palpi  yellowish. 

Described  from  seven  males  and  twelve  females,  from 
Idaho,  Wash.,  and  Cal.  I  received  from  Prof.  Aldrich  specimens 
taken  at  Lewiston,  and  Juliaetta,  Idaho,  the  latter  taken 
May  7th;  also  specimens  taken  at  Stanford  University,  Cal., 
Feb.  22  to  March  24th.  From  Prof.  Melander  I  received 
specimens  from  Wenatchee,  Wash.,  taken  May  8th. 


60  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


32  Neurigona  minuta  n.  sp. 

Dark  metallic  green;  arista  white;  hind  coxte  with  a  yellow  bristle 
on  the  outside.     Length  2  mm. 

Female:  Face,  front  and  occiput  greenish  black,  with  but  little 
pollen  (at  least  in  the  type  specimen) ;  palpi  and  proboscis  yellow,  the 
former  with  minute  black  hairs  on  the  surface  and  a  black  bristle  at  tip ; 
antennae  dark  reddish  brown,  the  third  joint  rounded,  hardly  pointed, 
and  more  brown  than  the  basal  joints,  the  arista  inserted  near  the  apex, 
white.  Thorax  rather  dark  metallic  green,  covered  with  gray  pollen; 
humeri  with  only  a  trace  of  yellowish;  the  flattened  space  before  the 
scutellum  not  very  sharply  defined;  bristles  of  the  thorax  strong,  acros- 
tichal  bristles  well  developed,  in  two  rows;  the  outer  pair  of  scutellar 
bristles  minute  but  distinct.  Abdomen  dark  metallic  green,  with  black 
hairs;  venter  dark.  Legs  and  coxae  pale  yellow;  front  coxas  with  whitish 
hairs  and  bristles ;  middle  coxas  with  brownish  hairs ;  the  large  bristle  on 
the  outer  surface  of  the  hind  cox«  yellow;  the  hairs  on  all  the  legs  very 
minute;  front  and  middle  tarsi  about  one  and  one-half  times  as  long  as 
their  tibise,  their  first  joint  being  about  half  as  long  as  the  tibise;  middle 
tibias  with  two  black  bristles  near  the  base,  one  on  the  front  side,  and 
one  on  the  outer  side ;  hind  tibias  with  a  row  of  four  or  five  black  bristles 
on  the  posterior  surface;  hind  tarsi  a  little  longer  than  their  tibise,  and 
with  the  first  joint  only  half  as  long  as  the  second.  Halters,  tegulae  and 
their  cilia  pale  yellow.  Wings  hyaline,  only  slightly  tinged  with  grayish; 
venation  about  as  in  N.  aldrichii  (Fig.  12),  except  that  the  posterior 
cross-vein  is  only  its  own  length  from  the  wing  margin  measured  on 
the  fifth  vein,  and  the  apical  half  of  the  last  section  of  the  fourth  vein  is 
nearly  straight;  veins  brown,  becoming  pale  yellow  at  the  root  of  the 
wing. 

Described  from  one  female  from  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  which 
was  bred  from  decaying  oak,  May  23,  1907.  Type  in  the 
collection  of  Prof.  J.  M.  Aldrich. 

Note. — This  is  the  smallest  species  of  the  genus  that  I  have 
seen,  and  is  very  distinct  from  all  the  others.  It  can  readily 
be  distinguished  by  the  pale  bristles  of  the  coxae,  and  its  white 
arista. 


1913]        North  American  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona  61 


EXPLANATION  OF  PLATES. 

Fig.     L     Neurigona  rubella  Loew,  wing  and  hypopygium  of  male. 
"       2.  "  perplexa  n.  sp.  wing  and  hypopygium  of  male. 

"       3.  "  dimidiata  Loew,  wing  and  hypopygium  of  male. 

"       4.  "  carbonifer  Loew,  wing,  hypopygium,  and  tip  of  front  tarsi  of 

male. 
"       5.  "  nitida  n.  sp.  wing  and  hypopygium  of  male. 

"       6.  "  tridens  n.  sp.  wing  of  female. 

"       8.  "  maculata  n.  sp.  wing  and  hypopygium  of  male. 

"       9.  "  fioridula  Wheeler,  wing  and  hypopygium  of  male. 

"     10.  "  fioridula  var.  infuscata  n.  var.  wing  of  female. 

"     IL  "  flava  n.  sp.  wing  of  female. 

"     12.  "  aldrichii  n.  sp.  wing,  hypopygium,  and  front  tarsi  of  male. 

"     13.  "  transversa  n.  sp.  wing  of  female. 

"     14.  "  disjuncta  n.  sp.  wing  and  hypopygium  of  male. 

"     15.  "  viridis  n.  sp.  wing  and  hypopygium  of  male. 

"     17.  "  arcuata  n.  sp.  wing,  hypopygium,  and  tip  of  front  tarsi  of 

male. 
"     17a.  "  arcuata  n.  sp.  wing  of  female. 

"     18.  "  deformis  n.  sp.  wing,  hypopygium,  and  tip  of  front  tarsi  of 

male. 
"     18a.  "  deformis  n.  sp.  wing  of  female. 

"     19.  "  tenuis  Loew,  wing,  hypopygium,  and  tip  of  front  tarsi  of  male. 

"     20.  "  pectoralis  n.  sp.  wing,  hypopygium,  and  tip  of  front  tarsi  of 

male. 
"     21.  "  aestiva  n.  sp.  wing  and  hypopygium  of  male. 

"     22.  "  bivittata  n.  sp.  wing  of  female. 

"     23.  "  tarsalis  n.  sp.  wing  and  hypopygium  of  male. 

"     25.  "  lateralis  Say,  wing  and  hypopygium  of  male. 

"     26.  "  setosa  n.   sp.   wing  and  hypopygium  of  male,   the  latter  is 

stretched  out  backwards. 
"     27.  "  tibialis  n.  sp.  wing  and  hypopygiuin  of  male. 

"     28.  "  quadrifasciata  Fab.  (European)  apical  part  of  wing. 

"     29.  "  ciliata  n.  sp.  wing  and  hypopygium  of  male. 

"     30.  "  perbrevis  n.  sp.  wing,  hypopygium,  and  tip  of  front  tarsi  of 

male. 
"     31.  "  australis  n.  sp.  wing,  hypopygium,  and  tip  of  front  tarsi  of 

male. 
"     32.  "  albospinosa  n.  sp.  wing,  and  hypopygium  of  male. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  I. 


JIf.  C.   Van  Duzet. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  II. 


M.  C.  Van  Duzee. 


AN    INTERESTING    FEATURE    IN    THE    VENATION    OF 

HELICOPSYCHE,  THE  MOLANNIDAE,  AND  THE 

LEPTOCERIDAE. 

By  Cornelius  Bettex,  Lake  Forest  College. 

The  conclusions  recorded  in  a  recent  paper  by  Prof. 
Martynov*  regarding  the  venation  of  the  Trichopterous  genus 
HeHcopsyche  lead  me  to  anticipate  here  one  of  several  somewhat 
revolutionary  views  on  the  venation  of  the  Trichoptera  to  which 
I  have  come  during  the  progress  of  work  on  a  rather  extended 
report  on  that  order  of  insects. 

For  the  sake  of  comparison  a  figure  is  here  given  of  the 
venation  of  the  fore  wing  of  Rhyacophila  (Fig.  1),  representing 
an  extremely  primitive  t3^pe.  The  homologies  indicated  in 
this  figure  are  so  simple  as  to  require  no  comment  except  as 
regards  the  branches  of  subcosta  (Sc)  and  of  cubitus  and  the 
anals.  None  of  these  is  here  considered  and  attention  is  directed 
only  to  radius  which  in  this  genus  appears  in  absolutely  primi- 
tive condition,  that  is,  with  Ri  running  free  to  the  margin  and 
with  the  radial  sector  (Rs)  dichotomously  branched.  In  very 
many  Trichoptera  there  is  a  cross  vein  from  R3  to  R4  setting 
off  what  is  called  the  discal  cell.  Near  the  base  of  cell  R4  (the 
cell  bounded  by  R4  and  Ro)  there  is  indicated  a  very  small 
corneous  point  which  is  present  in  the  vast  majority  of  Tri- 
chopterous wings. 


luA 


'a 

Fig.   1.     Venation  of  fore  wing  of  Rhyacophila  sp. 

Martynov  reaches  the  conclusion  that  radius  is  also  found 
in  practically  the  typical  condition  in  HeHcopsyche  (Fig.  2), 
that  is,  that  cell  R4  in  both  fore  and  hind  wings  is  not  obliter- 
ated by  the  fusion  of  R4  and  R5  as  might  at  first  sight  appear 
to  be  the  case. 


*Martynov,  A.  B.  On  two  Collections  of  Trichoptera  from  Peru.  Annuaire 
du  Musee  Zool.  de  I'Acad.  Imperiale  des  Sci.  de  St.  Petersburg.  Vol.  17  (1912), 
40  pp.,  Figs.  1-59. 

65 


66 


Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


That  this  view  is  correct  seems  to  admit  of  no  doubt.  In 
the  American  species  {H.  borealis  Hag.)  the  relations  are  entirely 
clear.  R5  leaves  R4  at  nearly  a  right  angle  and  then  again 
turns  sharply  to  the  wing  margin;  the  cross  vein  rm  meets  the 
vein  at  the  latter  angle,  and  is  in  a  nearly  horizontal  position. 
One  might  therefore  easily  be  deceived  into  thinking  that  the 
cross  vein  rm  and  the  distal  part  of  R5  with  which  it  is  in  direct 
line  together  constitute  a  branch  of  media.  A  failure  to  recog- 
nize the  true  relation  has  forced  most  authors  to  leave  this  vein 
unidentified  in  their  figures.  The  exact  position  of  the  base  of 
R5  varies  somewhat  within  the  genus  and  also  within  the  species ; 


^it-'f 


Fig.  2.     Venation  of  Helicopsyche  borealis. 


in  specimens  of  H.  borealis  (Fig.  2  and  Fig.  3a)  the  cross  vein  rm 
is  left  intact  though  out  of  the  usual  position  as  already  shown, 
in  Martynov's  figure  (1.  c,  Fig.  2,  copied  in  Fig.  3b)  of  H. 
miiiuscula  the  angle  in  R5  just  touches  M1+2  so  that  the  cross 
vein  rm  is  obliterated  and  its  function  is  assumed  by  the  base 
of  Ro,  in  Ulmer's  figure  of  H.  borealis  (Genera  Insect.  Fasc.  60, 
pi.  11,  fig.  98,  copied  in  Fig.  3c)  the  base  of  R5  has  migrated 
still  farther  back  so  as  to  be  still  more  deceptive  in  its  resem- 
blance to  the  cross  vein  which  it  has  displaced.  Ulmer  has 
recently  described  some  related  fossil  genera  in  one  of  which 
(Palaeohelicopsyche*)  the  female  has  the  cross  vein  rm  present 
while  it  has  been  displaced  in  the  male. 


*Ulmer,  Georg.  Die  Trichopteren  des  baltischen  Bernsteins.  Schriften  der 
physikalisch-okonomischen  Ges.  zu  Konigsberg.  Beitrage  zur  Naturkunde 
Preussens.    Heft  10  (1912),  p.  308. 


1913] 


Helicopsyche  MolannidtB  and  Leptoceridce 


67 


Attention  has  already  been  called  to  the  small  corneous 
point  that  occurs  in  the  base  of  cell  R4  in  almost  all  Trichoptera. 
Perhaps  the  position  of  this  point  may  be  given  some  weight 
in  the  determination  of  the  veins  between  which  it  occurs,  as  is 
done  in  the  discussion  of  the  venation  of  the  Molannidas  and 
the  Leptoceridse  given  later  in  this  paper.  In  the  case  of 
Helicopsyche  the  evidence  from  this  source  now  available  is 
incomplete  and  apparently  contradictory.  In  Ulmer's  figure 
of  the  closely  related  genus  Tetanonema  (Genera  Insect. 
Fasc.  60,  pi.  12,  fig.  100)  the  corneous  point  appears  in  its 
normal  position  in  cell  R4  but  in  his  figure  of  H.  sperata  (1.  c, 
pi.    11,   fig.   97)   and  in  the  figures  of  several  related  genera 


Fig.  3.     a,  Radius  of  the  fore  wing  of  Helicopsyche  borealis.     b,  The  same 

from  H.  minuscula  (after  Martynov).     c,  Another  specimen  of 

H.  borealis  (after  Ulmer). 


described  in  his  fine  work  on  the  fossil  forms  it  is  found  in  cell 
2nd  R3,  that  is,  in  the  cell  immediately  anterior  to  the  one  in 
which  it  normally  occurs.  On  the  other  hand  this  spot  is  not 
shown  in  McLachlan's  figures  of  H.  sperata  and  H.  borealis, 
Martynov  does  not  find  it  in  H.  sperata  and  the  study  of  a 
large  series  of  H.  borealis  fails  to  reveal  a  single  occurrence. 
Since  Ulmer's  observations  are  on  material  in  amber  there  may 
be  greater  chance  for  error  though  it  seems  unlikely  that  this 
should  happen  in  several  cases.  At  any  rate,  Tetanonema  and 
Saetotricha,  the  only  closely  related  modern  forms,  should  be 
re-examined  in  this  connection.  If  Ulmer's  figures  are  correct 
these  cases  form  the  only  exception  to  the  rule  that  the  corneous 


68 


Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


point  occurs,  if  it  occurs  at  all,  in  the  base  of  cell  R4.  In  some 
groups  there  is  a  similar  spot  in  the  distal  part  of  cell  M  of  the 
fore  wing  (Fig.  8).  This  spot  which  has  apparently  been  but 
little  noted,  while  it  is  characteristic  of  fewer  groups  of  Tri- 
choptera  is  as  constant  in  position  as  are  those  of  cell  R4  in 
the  fore  and  hind  wings. 

On  account  of  the  reduced  number  of  segments  in  the  male 
palpus  Helicopsyche  has  always  been  placed  in  the  very  hetero- 
geneous family  Sericostomatidas  though  its  isolated  position 
within  that  family  has  been  fully  recognized.  Its  venation, 
as  interpreted  by  Martynov,  has  some  resemblance  in  the 
points  here  considered  to  the  very  abnormal  venation  of  the 
Molannidas  and  to  that  of  the  Leptoceridas. 


-"^ 

^,..-^ 

~--~/m.- 

a 

^""^ 

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— ' 

~T 

— — 

>^' 



5. 

:^^. 

^g 

i:^^^ 

-^ 

^^rn"' 

-^ 

>->___—— 

y'^u 

<u, , 

''^^^"---^ir/ * 

cu^-J: 

^^":::-- 

^^""^ 

~~~-^l'!'' 

.ljf,lT,i,iriA 

Fig.  4. 


a,  Apical  part  of  fore  wing  of  Molannodes  zelleri. 
h,  Same  of  Molanna  cinerea  9  . 


In  the  Molannidae  there  has  come  about  a  very  considerable 
shifting  in  the  position  of  the  veins  as  a  result  doubtless  of  the 
unusual  position  of  the  wings — these  being  rolled  more  or  less 
about  the  body.  In  the  European  genus  Molannodes  (Fig.  4a) 
the  condition  with  respect  to  radius  is  strikingly  like  that  which 
is  at  least  sometimes  found  in  Helicopsyche  (Fig.  3c),  that  is, 
R5  has  arched  back  into  M1+2  obliterating  the  cross  vein  rm  and 
leaving  its  own  base  in  the  regular  position  of  that  cross  vein. 
There  is  a  further  reduction  in  the  fusion  of  R2  and  R3.  In 
Molanna  cinerea  (Fig.  4b)  there  is  a  similar  condition  but 
R2+3  has  also  fused  with  Ri.     In  both  genera  M3+4  has  migrated 


1913]  Helico psyche  MolannidcE  and  LeptoceridcE  09 

upon  Cui  just  as  R5  has  upon  M1+2.  Radius  of  the  hind  wing 
may  be  similarly  interpreted.  While  the  limits  of  this  paper 
preclude  discussion  of  the  other  modifications,  enough  has  been 
indicated  to  show  that  the  determination  of  the  homologies  in 
the  venation  of  the  Molannidae  and  the  Beraein^  need  not  be 
given  up  in  despair. 

While  in  the  case  of  the  Molannidas  the  suggestions  here 
made  may  help  to  bring  order  out  of  what  has  admittedly  been 
chaos,  it  may  seem  that  in  extending  the  same  interpretation 
to  the  Leptoceridse  the  reverse  is  true.  In  this  latter  family 
there  has  been  uncertainty  as  to  the  homology  of  the  veins  but 
the  entire  family  is  practically  homogeneous  in  this  respect  and 
everyone  seems  to  have  been  satisfied  to  recognize  equivalents 
within  these  limits  without  determining  the  larger  relations. 
Thus  McLachlan  (Rev.  and  Syn.  p.  282)  states  that  the  applica- 
tion of  the  notation  in  this  family  (his  section  3)  is  "not  very 
satisfactory"  and  he  leaves  the  veins  and  cells  between  R3  and 
Cui  unidentified  except  in  the  genus  Triaenodes  and  in  the 
females  of  Leptocerus.  In  these  latter  cases  there  is  appar- 
ently an  evident  recurrence  of  the  2nd  and  3rd  cells  (cells  R4 
and  Ml)  respectively,  but  as  will  be  indicated  further  on  this 
appearance  may  be  illusory.  Later  authors  have  followed 
McLachlan's  practice  and  no  suggestion  has  so  far  been  made 
as  to  the  manner  by  which  the  evident  reduction  of  the  venation 
of  the  Leptoceridae  has  come  about. 

The  venation  of  a  species  of  Leptocerus  (Fig.  5)  may  serve 
as  typical  for  the  family.  Attention  is  directed  to  radius  of 
the  fore  wing  which  is  similar  in  appearance  in  practically  all 
members  of  the  family  and  which  apparently  differs  from  the 
typical  5-branched  radius  only  in  having  R4  and  R5  fused. 
The  only  reason  for  questioning  this  interpretation  is  found  in 
the  fact  that  the  corneous  point  then  falls  behind  instead  of  in 
front  of  R.5.  Exactly  comparable  conditions  are  found  in  the 
hind  wing  (Fig.  5b).  It  may  possibly  not  be  justifiable  to 
discard  the  obvious  interpretation  of  these  veins  because  of  the 
location  of  a  minute  structure  whose  significance  is  wholly 
unknown  and  whose  position  may  therefore  depend  upon 
factors  which  have  nothing  whatever  to  do  with  the  venation. 
It  is,  however,  a  most  remarkable  fact  that  while  these  points 
are  absent  in  a  few  groups,  they  are  never  found  outside  of 
their   respective    cells    no    matter   what    curious    modifications 


70 


Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


these  cells  undergo.  In  fact  a  condition  like  that  shown  in 
Fig.  6  (Smicridea  sp.)  suggests  that  the  corneous  point  submits 
to  annihilation  in  preference  to  displacement. 


Fig.  5.     a,  Apical  venation  of  fore  wing  of  Leptocerus  sp.  cf. 
b,  Hind  wing  of  same,     c,  Fore  wing  of  female  of  same. 

If  then  we  give  any  weight  to  the  comparison  with  Heli- 
copsyche  and  the  Molannidas  and  to  the  position  of  the  corneous 
points  we  should  conclude  that  in  the  Leptoceridee  also  R5  has 
arched  into  Mi-^o  its  distal  end  fusing  with  the  latter  compound 
vein  and  that  what  appears  to  be  the  cross  vein  rm  is  in  reality 
the  base  of  R5. 


Fig.  6.     Radial  sector  in  the  fore  wing  of  Smicridea  divisa. 

In  almost  all  of  the  Leptoceridse  media  is  reduced  to  two 
branches  but  in  the  subfamily  Triplectidinae  and  in  females  of 
the  genus  Leptocerus  a  more  generalized  condition  obtains, 
that  is,  media  is  apparently  three  branched  (Fig.  5c).  If  the 
view  here  advocated  is  correct  these  generalized  Leptoceridae 
are  in  exactly  the  same  condition  as  regards  the  relation  of  R5 
and  media  as  is  Helicopsyche,  that  is,  R5  has  arched  into  Mi+.. 
but  has  not  fused  with  it  distally.  There  is  of  course  the  other 
possibility  that  it  is  Mi  and  Mo  that  are  separate  and  R5  and  Mi 


1913] 


Helicopsyche  Molannidce  and  Leptocerid(E 


71 


that  have  fused.  The  alternative  interpretations  are  indicated 
in  Fig.  5c.  To  decide  between  these  possibihties  we  should 
have  to  find  out  which  fusion  took  place  earlier  in  the  phylo- 
genetic  series  and  on  this  question  the  evidence  seems  incon- 
clusive. 

While  the  purpose  of  this  paper  is  fulfilled  in  showing  that 
the  modifications  of  radius  may  be  similarly  interpreted  in 
Helicopsyche,  the  Molannidae,  and  the  Leptoceridas,  another 
instance  of  similar  modifications  may  be  added  lest  the  basal 
shifting  of  a  distal  branch  from  one  main  stem  to  another 
should  seem  unlikely  in  this  order.  A  parallel  case  is  shown  in 
media  of  the  fore  wing  of  Oecetis*.     Authors  from  McLachlan 


Fig.  7.     Venation  of  apical  part  of  fore  wing  of  species  of  Oecetia.     a,  Oecetia 
fumosa.     b,  Oecetia  incerta.     c,  Oecetia  testacea  (after  McLachlan). 

on  agree  in  saying  that  media  in  Oecetis  is  absolutely  simple  or 
unbranched.  No  one  seems  to  have  been  disturbed  by  the 
fact  that  on  such  an  interpretation  an  extra  branch  would  have 
to  be  assigned  to  cubitus.  As  a  matter  of  fact  media  is  always 
two  branched  in  Oecetis  as  it  is  in  most  of  the  other  Leptocer- 
idas. In  O.  fumosa  (Fig.  7a)  while  there  is  slight  variation  in 
exact  position,  M3+4  leaves  M14.2  at  about  right  angles;  it  bends 
sharply  and  then  proceeds  to  the  wing  margin.  At  the  latter 
angle  it  is  joined  by  the  cross  vein  m-cu  which  is  in  line  with  the 
distal  end  of  M3+4  so  that  the  resulting  deceptive  appearance  is 
that  of  an  extra  branch  on  the  anterior  side  of  cubitus  joined 
to  media  by  a  cross  vein  which  is  in  reality  the  base  of  M3+4. 
In  O.  incerta  (Fig.  7b)  the  cross  vein  m-cu  is  very  short,  in  some 

*I  include  here  Oecetina  Banks  and  Oecetodes  Ulmer. 


72  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

specimens  it  is  wholly  lacking.  Finally  in  such  forms  as  the 
European  0.  testacea  (Fig.  7c)  the  base  of  M3+4  has  migrated 
farther  back  on  Cui  and  in  this  position  its  true  nature  as  a  part 
of  M3+4  is  far  from  obvious.  In  such  a  case  the  vein  becomes 
virtually  a  cross  vein  and  migrates  according  to  the  mechanical 
stress  in  flight  without  reference  to  the  distal  part  of  the  vein 
which  is  left  stranded  with  a  new  basal  connection.  Other 
instances  of  this  sort  occur  in  the  Trichoptera  and  they  are  not 
uncommon  in  other  orders. 

The  facts  here  presented  may  be  of  some  significance  in 
their  bearing  on  the  question  of  the  systematic  position  of  the 
Helicopsychinas.  This  subfamily  has  always  been  placed  in 
the  Sericostomatidae  because  of  the  unequal  number  of  segments 
in  the  palpi  of  the  male  and  female,  though  it  has  always  been 
clearly  recognized  that  it  bears  no  close  relationship  to  any  of 
the  heterogeneous  groups  included  in  that  family.  Thienemann, 
Ulmer,  and  Martynov  have  each  suggested  that  a  new  sub- 
family should  be  erected  for  the  genera  Helicopsyche,  Tetano- 
nema,  and  Saetotricha,  and  Ulmer  and  Martynov  have  during 
the  past  year  almost  simultaneously  described  the  subfamily 
Helicopsychinae,  Ulmer's  description  being  slightly  the  earlier. 


Fig.  8.     Venation  of  apical  part  of  fore  wing  of  Sericostoma  sp. 

In  his  recent  work  on  the  fossil  forms  Ulmer  lists  the  Heli- 
copsychinae among  the  Sericostomatid^  but  in  this  work  (p. 376) 
he  makes  the  first  suggestion  that  these  forms  may  possibly 
show  affinities  to  the  Leptoceridae  though  he  gives,  so  far  as  I 
can  find,  no  reason  for  the  statement.  What  has  been  given 
above  certainly  confirms  the  impression  which  Ulmer  has 
stated  since  in  the  HelicopsychinEe,  the  Molannidas,  and  the 
Leptoceridae,  R5  shows  an  increasing  tendency  to  migrate  upon 
Mi+2 — a  condition  not  seen  elsewhere  in  the  Trichoptera, 
though  the  sharp  angle  in  R5  seen  in  Sericostoma  (Fig.  8)  and 
other  forms  might  be  regarded  as  a  beginning  of  that  tendency. 


191o]  Ilelico psyche  Molannidce  and  Leptoceridce  73 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  there  are  some  other  characters 
not  found  in  the  Sericostomatidae  which  Hehcopsyche  shares 
with  genera  of  other  familes.  Thus  it  has  the  costal  hooks  on 
the  hind  wings  which  are  found  well  developed  only  in  the 
Leptoceridae,  Molannid®,  and  the  Macronematinse  (Hydro- 
psychidae) .  I  find  also  that  //.  borealis  has  the  peculiar  fenes- 
trated terga  in  the  posterior  abdominal  segments  heretofore 
found  only  in  certain  species  of  Oecetis — a  genus  of  Leptoceridae. 

Taken  altogether  the  facts  presented  do  not  do  more  than 
emphasize  the  isolated  position  of  the  Helicopsychinas  and  sug- 
gest that  this  subfamily  may  be  regarded  as  an  early  offshoot 
from  the  Leptocerid  stem  which  in  the  condition  of  the  palpi 
has  diverged  from  the  typical  form  in  the  same  way  as  have 
the  Sericostomatidce. 


HOMOLOGIES   OF  THE  WING  VEINS  OF  THE 
MEMBRACIDAE.i 

W.  D.  FUNKHOUSER. 

INTRODUCTION. 

Since  in  problems  of  phylogeny  and  taxonomy  of  insects  the 
homologies  of  the  wing-veins  are  being  taken  more  and  more 
into  consideration,  it  is  evident  that  the  available  data  on  this 
subject  should  be  as  complete  as  possible. 

In  the  work  which  has  been  done  along  this  line,  certain 
families  of  the  Homoptera  have  received  but  little  attention 
and  of  these  the  Membracidas  appear  to  have  been  entirely 
neglected.  For  this  reason,  and  because  of  a  large  personal 
interest  in  this  group  of  bizarre  insects,  this  study  has  been 
undertaken,  hoping  that  it  might  be  possible  to  add  in  some 
measure  to  the  knowledge  of  hemipterous  wings. 

The  work  was  begun  two  years  ago  at  the  suggestion  and 
under  the  direction  of  Dr.  MacGillivray,  then  of  Cornell  Univer- 
sity, and  has  been  completed  under  the  supervision  of  Dr. 
Bradley,  of  the  Entomological  Department  of  Cornell,  to  both 
of  whom  I  am  greatly  indebted  for  their  most  helpful  criticisms 
and  suggestions  and  for  access  to  the  specimens  in  the  Cornell 
collection  for  examination  and  comparison. 

METHOD. 

Of  the  various  methods  of  approaching  the  subject  of 
wing-vein  homologies,  the  Comstock-Needham  theory^  that 
the  study  should  be  based  on  the  ontogenetic  consideration  of 
the  tracheae  which  precede  the  veins  has  been  so  fully  estab- 
lished and  is  so  applicable  to  the  membracid  wing  that  any 
other  method  of  procedure  in  the  examination  of  this  highly 
specialized  and  complex  homopterous  type  would  appear  to  be 
the  merest  guess-work.  It  has  been  a  source  of  the  greatest 
satisfaction  in  the  application  of  this  theory  to  find  that  the 
nymphal  tracheation  has  proven  in  most  cases  an  open  index 
to  the  adult  venation,  while  the  variation  and  peculiarities  of 
many  veins  can  be  traced  directly  to  the  behavior  of  the  tracheas 
which  preceded  them. 


1.  Contribution  from  the  Entomological  Laboratory  of  Cornell  University. 

2.  The  Wings  of  Insects,  Am.  Nat.  XXXII  and  XXXIII,  1898,  1899. 

74 


1913]  Wing   Veins  of  Membracidce  75 

According  to  this  theory  the  knowledge  of  homologies  is 
dependent  upon  two  methods  of  investigation.  First,  the 
ontogeny  of  the  wing  of  the  individual,  as  based  on  the  study 
of  the  tracheation  of  nymphal.  wings  traced  through  their 
successive  stages  of  development,  and  second,  the  study  of  the 
wdngs  of  adults  worked  out  by  careful  comparison  with  forms 
representing  known  types  of  venation.  Of  these  two  methods, 
the  former  has  been  the  one  used  almost  entirely  and  the  second 
has  been  resorted  to  only  for  those  forms  for  which  the  nymphs 
were  not  available.  Since,  however,  the  venation  of  the 
Membracidae  is  comparatively  uniform,  the  determination  of 
homologies,  after  the  tracheation  of  the  nymphs  of  the  more 
prominent  types  has  been  ascertained,  has  proven  a  relatively 
simple  matter. 

TECHNIQUE. 

The  laboratory  methods  followed  have  been  in  the  main 
those  outlined  in  the  "Wings  of  Insects"^  with  such  modifica- 
tions as  have  been  suggested  by  the  condition  and  shape  of  the 
individual  wings  under  consideration. 

The  wings  were  dissected  from  nymphs  of  various  stages  of 
development,  but  it  was  found  that  in  most  cases  the  last  two 
instars  showed  best  the  features  desired.  In  these  two  instars 
the  nymphal  wings  may  be  pulled  out  of  the  wing-pads  and  are 
thus  more  easily  studied.  In  the  earlier  stages,  and  in  all  of 
the  stages  of  some  of  the  smaller  species,  e.  g.  Vanduzea  arquata 
or  Micrutalis  calva,  it  is  difficult  to  remove  the  wing  from  the 
pad  without  disturbing  the  position  of  the  tracheae,  and  in  these 
cases  it  is  necessary  to  photograph  through  the  pad  membrane. 
The  wings  were  carefully  dissected  out,  together  with  a  portion 
of  the  thorax  to  show  the  basal  tracheation,  and  mounted  at 
once.  It  was  found  that  fresh  material  gave  much  better 
results  than  that  which  had  been  preserved,  even  for  a  short 
time,  in  formol  or  alcohol.  In  many  cases,  several  hundred 
dissections  were  made  for  the  verification  of  some  particular 
point  in  question.  The  greatest  difficulty  was  to  preserve  the 
tracheae  for  a  sufficient  length  of  time  to  secure  photomicro- 
graphs or  careful  drawings,  since  the  tracheae  fill  in  a  very  short 
time  with  the  mounting  media  and  are  then  invisible.   Moreover, 

3.     American  Naturalist,  Vol.  XXXII,  p.  45. 


76  Amials  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI^ 

in  the  membracid  wing,  there  is  a  sharp  bend  at  the  point  at 
which  the  tracheae  enter  the  body  and  it  is  difficult  to  secure  a 
mount  in  which  the  base  and  tip  of  the  wing  are  in  focus  at 
the  same  time. 

Various  mounting  media  were  tried,  but  for  the  wings  of 
this  family  glycerin  jelly  was  uniformly  the  most  satisfactory. 
A  drop  of  jelly  was  placed  on  the  slide,  the  wing  laid  in  the  jelly, 
another  drop  placed  on  the  cover-slip  and  the  latter  placed  at 
once  over  the  specimen.  The  mount  was  then  quickly  cooled 
by  placing  a  drop  of  ether  on  the  cover-slip  and  fanning  it  to 
insure  rapid  evaporation.  Some  of  the  mounts  made  in  this 
way  have  remained  in  good  condition  for  over  a  year  and  bid 
fair  to  last  for  a  much  longer  period. 

Photomicrographs  were  then  made  of  the  specimen,  using 
whatever  combination  of  objective  and  bellows  were  necessary 
to  bring  out  the  desired  details  and  to  make  the  image  fill  a 
5x7  plate.  Since  many  of  the  nymphal  wings  are  less  than  two 
millimeters  in  length,  the  magnification  is  necessarily  great, 
but  negatives  can  usually  be  secured  sufficiently  sharp  to  show 
the  points  in  question.  Artificial  light,  secured  by  means  of  a 
Nernst  lamp  and  series  of  condensers,  seemed  to  be  more 
desirable  than  sunlight  for  this  work,  mainly  owing  to  the  fact 
that  it  was  possible  to  secure  a  chart  of  uniform  exposures  for 
the  different  magnifications. 

In  cases  where  photomicrographs  were  not  considered 
necessary,  careful  camera  lucida  drawings  were  made,  verified 
by  repeated  comparisons.  For  the  adult  wings,  the  permanent 
mounts  (Canada  balsam)  of  the  wings  themselves  were  used, 
copied  by  projection  drawings  when  figures  were  desired. 

Velox  and  solio  prints  from  all  negatives  were  made  for  per- 
manent records  in  this  study.  The  figures  of  nymphal  wings 
shown  in  this  paper,  however,  are  blueprints  inked  in  with  india 
ink  and  afterwards  bleached.'*  The  figures  of  adult  wings  are 
pen  drawings  made  from  the  permanent  mounts  with  the  aid  of 
the  camera  lucida  or  projection  apparatus. 


4.     In  a  saturated  solution  of  Potassium  Oxalate. 


1913]  Wing   Veins  of  Me?nbracidcB  77 


MATERIAL 

Nymphs 
About  twenty  species  of  the  Membracidee,  representing 
eight  genera  of  fairly  wide  distribution  as  regards  relationship 
are  common  to  the  local  fauna  of  Ithaca,  New  York,  the  nymphs 
of  most  of  which  are  easily  obtainable.  These  have  been  used 
for  the  determination  of  the  nymphal  tracheation.  The  choice 
of  the  various  species  studied  has  depended  largely  upon  the 
characters  of  the  adult  wings.  In  cases  of  closely  related  forms 
where  the  venation  was  practically  identical  and  no  special 
problems  were  involved,  the  nymphs  of  a  representative  species 
only  have  been  thoroughly  worked  not,  except  for  the  solution 
of  certain  questionable  points.  Some  nymphs,  also,  owing  to 
the  form  of  the  wing  yield  much  better  preparations  than  others, 
and  these  have  been  more  elaborately  figured  where  general 
characteristics  only  were  being  considered.  Some  have  been 
discarded  because  of  lack  of  positive  identification  and  others 
because  of  the  fact  that  they  were  less  abundant  and  illustrated 
no  features  not  found  in  forms  more  easily  procured.  The 
bulk  of  the  work  has  been  done  from  nymphs  of  the  following 
genera:  Ceresa  (bubalus,  diceros  and  constans),  Thelia  {bimacii- 
lata),  Telemona  {ampelopsidis),  Vanduzea  (arquata),  Campylen- 
chia  (ciirvata)  and  Enchenopa  {binotata).  Altogether  several 
thousand  dissections  have  been  made  and  each  point  in  trachea- 
tion has  been  as  carefully  verified  as  possible.  No  attempt  has 
been  made  to  breed  the  insects  since  extensive  field  notes  on 
the  habitat,  hosts,  life-history  and  general  biology  of  the  local 
forms  has  made  it  possible  to  procure  the  nymphs  at  various 
stages  without  particular  difficulty. 

Adults 
Besides  the  forms  represented  in  the  local  fauna,  the  wings 
of  all  other  species  procurable  have  been  studied  with  the  view 
of  obtaining  a  large  number  of  types  of  venation.  The  writer 
is  greatly  indebted  to  the  Entomological  Department  of  Cornell 
for  the  privilege  of  examining  the  wings  of  all  the  species  in  the 
excellent  collection  of  the  University,  which  includes  many 
forms  that  could  not  otherwise  have  been  obtained.  Thanks 
also  are  due  to  Dr.  J.  C.  Bradley  and  to  Mr.  C.  R.  Plunket  for 
the  use  of  specimens  from  their  collections. 


78  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

Six  subfamilies  are  recognized  in  the  Membracidae  by  the 
systematists  in  Hemiptera^  and  representative  genera  from  all 
sub-families  reported  from  the  United  States^  have  been 
examined.  Wings  from  the  following  genera  are  figured  in 
this  paper  as  representative : 

Smiliida 

Cerasini 

Ceresa 

Stictocephala 

Acutalis 

Micrutalis 
Telamonini 

Carynota 

Thelia 

Glossonotus 

Telemona 

Telemonanthe 

Archasia 

Heliria 
Smiliini 

Smilia 

Cyrtolobus 

Cyrtolobus 

Atymna 

Xantholobus 

Ophiderma 
Polyglyptini 

Vanduzea 

Entylia 

Publilia 


Darnida 

hoplophorida 

Membracida 

Centrodita 


Stictopelta 

Platycotes 

Campylenchia 
Enchenopa 
Tylopelta 
Philya 

Centruchoides 
Platycentrus 

(The  above  classification  is  based  on  that  of  E.  P.  VanDuzee  in  his  "Studies 
in  North  American  Membracidae,"  Bulletin  of  Buffalo  Society  Natural  Science, 
1908,  Vol.  IX.) 


5.  Cf.  Stal,  Hemiptera  Africana  IV,  pp.  82-83. 

Coding,  Bibliographical  and  Synonymical  Catalogue  of  the  Described  Mem- 
bracidae of  North  America.  Bull.  111.  State  Lab.  Nat.  Hist.,  Vol.  Ill,  Art.  XIV, 
p.  302. 

VanDuzee,  Bull.  Buffalo  Soc.  Nat.  Sci.  1908,  Vol.  IX,  p.  31. 

6.  According  to  VanDuzee  (Studies  in  North  American  Membracidae,  p.  31) 
the  Tragopida  are  not  represented  in  this  country.  Moreover  in  this  sub-family  the 
fore  wing  at  least  is  coriaceous  and  opaque  externally,  and  would  probably  be  of 
little  value  in  the  study  of  venation. 


1913]  Wing   Veins  of  Membracid<2  79 

In  addition  to  the  species  actually  examined,  careful  com- 
parison has  been  made  with  as  many  figured  wings  of  the 
Membracidae  as  could  be  located"  and  it  has  been  a  satisfaction 
to  note  that  in  practically  all  cases  there  is  a  constant  and  easily 
worked  out  agreement  with  the  homologies  as  herein  suggested. 

Since  the  Membracidae  is  principally  an  American  family, 
only  a  few  genera  being  found  on  the  continent  of  Europe^,  but 
two  species  in  Britain'-*  and  very  few^  reported  from  other  parts 
of  the  world,  there  seems  no  reason  to  believe  that  our  local 
forms  in  New  York  should  not  be  typical  of  the  family.  More- 
over, the  venation  is  quite  uniform  throughout  the  family  and 
it  appears  reasonable  to  suppose  that  the  homologies  as  here 
worked  out  for  the  representative  genera  figured  will  be  readily 
applicable  to  the  entire  IMembracidae. 

NOMENCLATURE 

Many  of  the  specific,  generic  and  sub-family  distinctions  in 
the  Membracidae  are  dependent  upon  the  venation,  and  most 
tables  and  keys  to  the  family  follow  the  nomenclature  of  Fowler, 
Coding  and  others  in  which  the  characters  of  the  cells  are  used 
as  a  basis  of  classification.  Little  attention  has  been  paid  to 
the  veins  except  as  to  their  number  at  the  base  of  the  wing  or  as 
forming  the  "petiole"  of  a  cell. 

The  cells  are  called  "areoles"  or  "areas"  and  are  described 
as  "marginal",  "discoidal",  "apical",  "anterior",  etc.,  and 
their  bases  as  "petiolate",  "truncate",  etc.,  but  little  attempt 
has  been  made  to  identify  the  veins  which  limit  these  cells. 
Fowler  in  his  discussion  of  the  Ceresini  in  the  Biologia^°  describes 
the  "costal",  "radial"  and  "ulnar"  veins,  and  this  nomencla- 
ture has  been  used  to  some  extent  by  other  writers. 

The  fore  wing  is  commonly  spoken  of  as  the  tegmina  and 
its  venation  often  designated  as  the  elytral  venation.  The 
hind  wing  is  referred  to  as  the  under  wing  or  the  second  w4ng. 
The  corium  is  often  discussed  separately,  as  is  also  the  clavus 


7.  In  the  plates  of  Canon  Fowler  in  the  Biologia  Central!  Americana  partic- 
ularly, the  figures,  while  representing  forms  foreign  to  our  fauna,  are  evidently 
very  accurately  reproduced  and  agree  to  a  remarkable  extent  with  our  North 
American  species,  so  far  as  venation  is  concerned. 

8.  Canon  Fowler.  Bio.  Cent.  Amer.,  Insecta:  Rhynchota,  Homoptera. 
Part  II,  p.  2. 

9.  Cambridge  Natural  History,  Insects  Part  II,  p.  577. 

10.  Biologia  Centrali  Americana,  Insecta:  Rhvnchota,  Homoptera. 
Part  II,  p.  87. 


80  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

and  the  membranous  margin,  and  altogether  a  rather  complex 
and  imposing  accumulation  of  terms  has  been  built  up,  not  at 
all  contradictory,  but  somewhat  confusing. 

It  would  be  entirely  unnecessary  and  out  of  place  at  this 
point  to  enter  into  the  controversy  regarding  the  systems  of 
nomenclature  of  wing-veins  and  their  respective  merits,  a 
subject  which  has  been  thoroughly  and  repeatedly  reviewed^^ 
The  nomenclature  used  in  this  study  is  entirely  that  of  the 
Comstock-Needham  system,  and  therefore  the  veins  and  cells 
here  described  conform  to  those  represented  in  other  work 
done  according  to  this  system.  The  names  ' '  costa  " ,  "  subcosta ' ' 
"radius",  "media",  "cubitus"  and  "anal"  will  be  used 
throughout.  Thus  the  "terminal  areole"  of  VanDuzee,  the 
"third  apical  area"  of  Fowler  and  the  "celule  terminale"  of 
Fairmaire  becomes  cell  R^  as  dependent  on  the  homology  of  the 
vein  R^  and  will  be  so  designated  in  this  discussion,  and  this 
same  system  will  hold  for  all  other  veins  and  cells  discussed. 

THE  MEMBRACID  WING 

The  Membracidse  is  one  of  those  families  of  the  Homoptera 
in  the  wings  of  which  the  corium  and  clavus  are  usually  mem- 
branous, the  veins  in  most  forms  are  distinct,  there  is  practically 
no  thickening  at  the  base  of  the  wing,  and  both  pairs  of  wings 
are  well  developed  (Fig.  1).  These  features  are  better  shown  in 
the  membracid  wings  than  in  those  of  any  of  the  other  Hemip- 
tera  with  the  possible  exception  of  the  Cicadidce.  The  wings 
are  well  adapted  for  flying  and  the  insects  fly  well  for  short 
distances  with  a  whirring  noise. 

The  fore  wings  are  large,  expanded  and  distinctly  veined. 
They  are  usually  membranous  throughout,  but  occasionally 
show  coriaceous  patches  and  basal  punctures,  especially  along 
the  anterior  margin.     The  clavus^^  is  distinct,  the  claval  suture 


11.  The  historical  discussion  of  the  nomenclature  of  wing- veins  is  taken  up 
in  detail  by  Dr.  A.  D.  MacGillivray  in  the  "Wings  of  Tenthredinoidea,"  Proc. 
U.  S.  Museum,  1906,  Vol.  XXIX,  pp.  570-574. 

Miss  Edith  M.  Patch  reviews  the  terminology  of  homopterous  wing  venation 
in  "Homologies  of  the  Wing- Veins  of  the  Aphididae,  Psyllidae,  Aleurodidae  and 
Coccidae,"  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America,  1909,  Vol.  II,  pp.  124-126. 

Cf.  also  C.  W.  Woodworth,  The  Wings  of  Insects.  University  of  California 
Publications,  Agricultural  Experiment  Station  Technical  Bulletin,  Entomology, 
Vol.  I,  p.  142. 

12.  In  the  hemipterous  wing  the  basal  portion  consists  of  two  pieces.  The 
term  "clavus"  is  here  applied  to  the  narrow  posterior  piece  which  is  next  to  the 
scutellum  when  the  wing  is  closed.  This  is  figured  in  Comstock's  "Manual  for  the 
Study  of  Insects,"  p.  124. 


1913]  Wing   Veins  of  Membracidce  81 

occurring  along  the  first  anal  vein.  There  are  few  cross- veins 
but  those  present  are  remarkably  constant.  The  wing  may  or 
may  not  be  covered  by  the  pronotum,  but  in  no  case  is  it  to  be 
considered  in  the  sense  of  an  elytron. 

The  hind  wing  is  not  nearly  so  dissimilar  to  the  fore  wing  as 
is  the  case  in  most  insects.  C.  W.  Woodworth  in  the  "Wings 
of  Insects"^"''  remarks  that  "the  hind  wings  of  most  of  the 
families  of  Homoptera  have  more  nearly  kept  pace  with  the 
front  wings  in  their  specialization,  than  have  those  of  the 
Heteroptera".  This  is  certainly  true  of  the  Membracidas. 
There  are  fewer  veins  and  cells  in  the  hind  wing  than  in  the 
fore  but  their  homologies  are  evident. 

Both  wings  are  characterized  by  the  strongly  scalloped 
margin  of  the  veined  surface  and  the  comparatively  narrow 
terminal  membrane. 

Like  most  of  the  other  Hemiptera,  the  wings  of  the  Mem- 
bracidae  are  specialized  by  reduction,  but  the  reduction  has  not 
been  carried  so  far  as  in  most  of  the  other  families  of  this  order. 
This  reduction  has  been  carried  on  in  two  ways,  viz. :  by  atrophy 
and  by  coalescence.  Reduction  by  atrophy  is  shown  by  costa  in 
both  wings.  Coalescence,  in  turn,  has  been  accomplished  by  two 
methods- — by  coalescence  from  the  base  towards  the  margin, 
as  illustrated  by  cubitus,  and  by  the  anastomosis  of  veins  in 
the  center  of  the  wing  followed  by  their  subsequent  divergence, 
as  shown  in  the  case  of  radius  four-plus-five  plus  media  one- 
plus-two.  No  cases  have  been  noted  of  coalescence  from  the 
margin  proximad. 

However,  no  hint  of  the  particular  veins  in  which  this 
specialization  occurs  is  given  by  the  venation  of  the  adult 
wing,  and  it  is  only  by  following  the  nymphal  structure,  trachea 
by  trachea,  and  branch  by  branch,  that  the  actual  solution  can 
be  reached  with  any  degree  of  accuracy. 

NYMPHAL    TRACHEATION 

A  study  of  the  most  general  characteristics  of  the  nymphal 
tracheation  may  well  be  made  before  proceeding  to  the  consider- 
tion  of  the  minutia.  In  the  fore  wing  (Fig.  2),  it  will  be  noted 
that  there  are  five  main  tracheae.  Beginning  at  the  anterior 
margin,  the  first  is  unbranched  and  extends  almost  to  the  tip 
of  the  wing.  The  second  appears  two-branched  and  the 
posterior  branch  anastomoses  for  some  distance  with  the  ante- 

13.     Univ.  of  Cal.  Publ.,  Ag.  Ex.  Sta.  Tech.  Bull.  Ent.,  Vol.  I,  No.  1,  p.  124. 


82  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

rior  branch  of  the  following  trachea.  There  is  also  a  suggestion 
of  splitting  near  the  base  of  the  anterior  branch.  The  third 
is  two-branched  with  the  anastomosis  as  noted.  The  fourth 
is  two-branched,  the  tracheae  separating  very  close  to  the  base 
of  the  wing.  The  last  is  also  two-branched  with  the  branches 
coalescing  at  their  extremities. 

The  relationship  of  these  treacheae  with  the  corresponding 
wing  veins  is  evident.  Their  identification  as  regards  the 
homologies  of  wing  veins  in  general  is  not  so  simple  a  matter. 
For  this  reason  the  veins  as  dependent  on  these  tracheae  will  be 
discussed  in  order,  beginning  at  the  costal  margin. 

FORE   WING 

Costa 

Costa  never  appears  as  a  separate  vein  in  the  adult  wing. 
It  was  some  time  in  the  course  of  this  study  before  sufficient 
data  was  obtained  to  determine  exactly  what  had  become  of 
this  vein,  since  most  of  the  preparations  failed  to  show  a  cor- 
responding trachea  in  the  nymphal  wing.  Finally  however, 
an  examination  of  younger  stages  of  various  species  furnished 
the  solution.  In  Thelia  bimaculata  (Fig.  3)  it  was  found  that 
costa  was  represented  in  the  nymphal  tracheation  but  never 
entered  the  wing  for  a  sufficient  distance  to  have  a  place  in  the 
adult  structure.  In  most  individuals  the  atrophy  was  greater 
than  that  shown  in  the  figure.  In  Telemona  ampelopsidis 
(Fig.  4)  the  treachea  is  twisted  around  the  subcosta  and  no 
doubt  coalesces  with  it  in  the  vein  which  afterwards  encloses 
them.  In  Ceresa  borealis  (Fig.  5)  the  trachea  extends  farther 
into  the  wing  but  is  not  so  well  developed  and  probably  has  no 
effect  on  the  venation.  In  Vanduzea  arquata  (Fig.  6)  much  the 
same  appearance  is  shown  except  that  the  trachea  is  stronger 
and  lies  nearer  the  margin  of  the  wing. 

To  sum  up  then,  the  trachea  which  usually  precedes  the 
costal  vein  is  represented  in  the  nymphal  structure  but  the  vein 
itself  is  not  found  in  the  adult  wing.  In  such  genera  as  Thelia, 
Acutalis  and  Glossonotus^^  in  which  a  slight  membrane  is  found 
cephalad  of  subcosta  but  no  thickened  ridge  is  present,  the  vein 
is  probably  atrophied^'^. 


14.  All  forms  mentioned  are  figured  either  tlirough  the  text  or  at  the  end  of 
the  discussion.  The  figures  of  adult  wings  are  drawn  to  show  the  coalescence  of 
tracheae  to  form  a  single  vein  when  such  has  been  the  case. 

15.  This  is  no  unusual  condition  with  costa.  Comstock  and  Needham  say 
(Wings  of  Insects,  p.  858).  "Its  (costa's)  trachea  is  often  atrophied,  probably- 
owing  to  the  disadvantageous  position  of  its  base  in  relation  to  air  supply,  as  we 
have  hitherto  indicated." 


1913]  Wi7tg   Veins  of  Membracidce  83 

In  Ceresa,  Micrutalis,  Telemona,  etc.,  in  which  subcosta 
forms  the  cephahc  margin,  the  tracheae  for  costa  and  subcosta 
have  coalesced.  In  Heliria,  Vanduzea  and  Enchenopa  the 
trachea  has  had  an  influence  on  the  costal  margin  to  form  a 
thickening  near  the  base  of  the  wing. 

Subcosta 
Subcosta  is  constant  in  character  throughout  the  family. 
It  is  strong,  straight  and  unbranched  and  extends  the  full 
length  of  the  wing  (Fig.  2).  It  is  the  anterior  vein  of  the  wing, 
owing  to  the  atrophy  of  costa,  and  as  such  often  forms  the 
cephalic  margin.  In  the  sub-families  Hoplophorida  and  Mem- 
bracida^''  the  vein  is  usually  contiguous  to  the  anterior  margin 
for  its  basal  half,  and  then  drops  down,  leaving  a  terminal 
membrane  anterior  to  its  distal  half.  Sometimes  this  membrane 
occurs  down  the  entire  cephalic  margin.  No  splitting  occurs 
at  the  end  of  the  vein.  It  sometimes  anastomoses  with  parts 
of  radius  as  will  be  shown  in  the  discussion  of  that  vein,  but  this 
is  due  to  the  peculiarities  of  radius  and  to  no  irregularities  on 
the  part  of  subcosta.  Its  base  occasionally  shows  a  fulln'ess  or 
slack  which  later  straightens  out  in  the  vein  formation  (Fig.  7). 
Altogether,  subcosta  is  always  permanent,  straight,  clean-cut 
and  independent,  both  in  its  tracheation  and  in  its  final 
structure. 

Radius 

The  behavior  of  radius  offered  one  of  the  most  difficult 
problems  of  the  membracid  wing.  Instead  of  the  typical  five- 
branched  condition  (Fig.  8)  we  have  in  the  venation  of  this 
family  (Fig.  2)  what  is  seemingly  a  two-branched  condition, 
with  what  appears  to  be  a  cross-vein  connecting  the  cephalic 
branch  with  subcosta.  This,  in  itself,  would  offer  but  little 
difficulty,  since  if  the  reduction  of  the  five-branched  type  were 
carried  far  enough  by  coalescence  outward,  it  would  give  a 
two-branched  result.  The  natural  method  of  reduction  of 
radius  is  by  the  coalescence  of  the  branches  of  each  half  of  the 
radial  sector,  leaving  the  sector  two-branched  and  the  vein  as 
a  whole  three-branched.  If  the  same  method  of  reduction  be 
carried  further,  Ri  and  the  sector  only  are  left,  giving  a  two- 
branched  condition  of  the  whole  vein. 


16.     See  figures  of  Platycotes,  Phylia,  Campylenchia  and  Enchenopa.     Nos. 
51,  52  and  53. 


84  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

But  in  the  Membracidae  several  points  not  compatable  with 
this  natural  method  of  reduction  presented  difficulties.  In  the 
first  place,  both  branches  showed  constant  and  unmistakable 
signs  of  further  subdivision  at  their  tips,  which  would  not  be 
likely  to  be  true  of  the  cephalic  branch  if  it  were  Ri.  Moreover, 
the  vein  between  the  cephalic  branch  and  subcosta  was  often 
seen  to  be  preceded  by  a  trachea.  Again  and  again  in  mounts 
of  different  species  this  area  contained  a  trachea  which  was 
evidently  a  branch  from  the  cephalic  branch  of  radius.  If  this 
were  true,  this  most  anterior  branch  should  be  Ri.  But  Ri 
normally  leaves  the  main  stem  proximad  of  the  division  of  the 
radial  sector,  while  this  branch  seemingly  pulls  off  from  one 
half  of  the  sector  itself,  and  this  demanded  an  explanation  which 
was  not  immediately  forthcoming. 

The  solution  was  first  found  in  the  wings  of  Vandnzea 
arguata  and  later  this  peculiar  condition  (Fig.  9)  was  verified 
in  other  genera.  The  trachea  representing  Ri,  as  will  be  seen 
from  the  figure,  is  weak  and  apparently  greatly  reduced.  It 
leaves  the  main  stem  in  the  normal  postion,  but  runs  in  close 
juxtaposition  to  the  radial  sector  beyond  the  point  at  which  the 
latter  branches.  Here  it  turns  cephalad  and  runs  across  to 
subcosta  where  it  again  turns  outward  and  closely  parallels  sub- 
costa for  some  distance  in  its  course  toward  the  tip  of  the  wing. 
The  sharp  turns  made  by  the  trachea  in  following  this  course 
(Fig.  10)  are  remarkable,  and  in  the  veins  which  enclose  this 
region  of  the  wing,  the  bridge  from  radial  sector  to  subcosta 
(Fig.   11)  gives  every  appearance  of  a  cross-vein. 

While  this  interesting  behavior  of  Ri  is  unusual,  and  per- 
•haps  peculiar  to  the  Membracidae,  it  only  illustrates  another  of 
the  vagaries  of  which  radius  is  capable.  In  fact,  throughout 
the  Hemiptera,  radius  seems  to  be  most  unreliable,  and  Ri 
capable  of  the  most  peculiar  performances,  being,  according  to 
Miss  Patch^^  "the  least  stable  of  the  hemipterous  wing  veins". 
It  has  been  shown  in  the  Cicadidse^*^  that  Ri  has  been  crowded  by 
subcosta  until  its  trachea  coalesces  for  its  entire  length  with 
radial  sector  and  its  anterior  branch.  In  the  Pentatomidae^^ 
also,    it    has    been    supplanted    by    subcosta    and    is    entirely 


17.  Annals  of  the  Entomological  vSociety  of  America,  1909,  Vol.  2,  p.  119. 

18.  Wings  of  Insects,  p.  245. 

19.  Wings  of  Insects,  p.  250. 


1913]  Wing   Veins  of  Membracidce  85 

atrophied.  In  the  Coreid^e-"  Ri  is  wanting.  The  weakness  of 
the  vein  has  been  remarked  in  the  Aphididae-^  and  it  is  entirel}^ 
lacking  in  the  PsylHdae--  and  in  the  Aleurodidas^^.  In  fact, 
Comstock  and  Needham  state-'*  that  the  complete  absence  of 
the  vein  Ri  is  one  of  the  most  characteristic  features  in  the 
venation  of  the  wings  of  the  Hemiptera. 

It  is  of  some  phylogenetic  interest,  then,  to  note  that  in  the 
Membracidae,  while  the  vein  is  abnormal,  it  is  not  completely 
absent,  and  in  this  respect  the  membracid  wings  may  be  con- 
sidered the  most  generalized  of  any  of  the  families  of  Homoptera, 
at  least  those  of  which  the  homologies  of  wing-veins  have  been 
determined. 

Most  of  the  genera  of  the  Membracidae  show  the  position 
of  Ri  as  described.  In  many  it  has  been  impossible  to  find  the 
trachea,  although  the  vein  is  present  and  constant.  Since, 
however,  the  history  of  the  vein  is  evidently  traceable  to  the 
trachea  representing  Ri,  it  seems  necessary  to  call  this  vein 
Ri  whenever  it  appears. 

In  a  few  genera,  namely,  Acutalis,  Tylopelta,  Enchenopa, 
Campylenchia,  Platycentrus,  and  Centruchoides ,  the  vein  comes 
off  in  its  normal  position.  In  the  nymphal  wings  of  Enchenopa 
binotata,  for  example  (Fig.  12),  the  trachea  is  found  in  its 
natural  place.  These  genera  are,  of  course,  still  more  gener- 
alized with  regard  to  this  special  point,  but  are  not  so  typical 
of  the  family. 

The  course  of  the  rest  of  radius  is  evident  from  the  trachea- 
tion.  At  its  base  it  often  anastomoses  for  some  distance  with 
media  before  these  two  principal  veins  separate  for  their 
respective  courses  through  the  wing.  In  Ceresa,  Stictocephala, 
etc.,  this  coalescence  must  be  fairly  constant,  since  it  has  been 
made  a  basis  for  classification25.  R2+3  usually  extends  undi- 
vided to  the  tip  of  the  wing.  It  is  generally  connected  with 
R4+5  by  a  cross-vein.  R4+5  is  represented  as  one  vein  and 
coalesces  with  the  anterior  branch  of  media  (M1+2)  for  a  more 
or  less  extended  part  of  its  course.     The  amount  of  coalescence 

20.  Wings  of  Insects,  p.  252. 

21.  Annals  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  America,  1909,  Vol.  II,  p.  111. 

22.  Annals  Ent.  Soc.  of  Amer.,  1909,  Vol.  II,  p.  119. 

23.  Annals  Ent.  Soc.  of  Amer.,  1909,  Vol.  II,  p.  122. 

24.  Wings  of  Insects,  p.  245. 

25.  Biologia  Central!  Americana,  Insecta;  Rhynchota,  Homoptera,  Part  II, 
p.  87. 


86  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

shown  in  figure  11  is  about  the  average.  In  a  few  species^^  the 
course  is  more  extended,  and  in  some"  the  veins  do  not  coalesce 
at  all  but  run  some  distance  apart,  connected  by  one  or  more 
cross-veins.  Just  before  reaching  the  tip  of  the  wing,  however, 
this  vein  separates  from  media  to  make  the  apical  or  terminal 
cell,  which  is  thus  cell  R5.  The  tips  of  both  branches  of  radial 
sector  show  signs  of  splitting  in  their  tracheal  condition.  In 
some  cases  they  actually  remain  separate  and  form  additional 
cells  in  the  wing.  This  is  true  of  the  species  Telemonanthe 
pulchella,  Cyrtolobus  vau  and  Smilia  cameliis  (see  figures  Nos. 
39,  43  and  42).  In  the  first,  R2  and  R3  are  separate.  In  the 
second,  a  very  small  cell  R4  appears,  showing  that  R4  and  R5 
have  not  entirely  coalesced. 

In  this  species  also,  a  peculiar  condition  of  R3  is  shown,  the 
end  of  the  vein  still  persisting  at  the  margin  of  the  wing,  while 
its  base  has  disappeared.  In  Smilia  cameliis,  R3  has  not  entirely 
coalesced  with  R2,  and  extends  into  the  cell  R2+3  where  it  is 
perhaps  atrophying  back  toward  its  base.  This  means  that  in 
these  forms  the  reduction  has  not  proceeded  so  far  as  it  has  in 
the  majority  of  the  species. 

Summing  up,  then,  radius  is  typically  three-branched  in  the 
Membracidas.  Ri  extends  from  R2+3  to  subcosta.  R2+3  and 
R4-,_5  usually  extend  as  undivided  branches,  with  the  exceptions 
noted,  to  the  tip  of  the  wing,  R4+5  ordinarily  anastomosing  for 
a  variable  part  of  its  length  with  M1+2. 

Media 

The  course  of  media  (Fig.  13)  is  quite  constant.  Starting 
from  the  base  of  the  wing  in  close  proximity  if  not  in  actual 
contact  with  radius,  it  follows  a  relatively  straight  course  for 
about  two-thirds  of  the  wing  length.  It  represents  the  most 
posterior  vein  of  the  costa-subcosta-radius-media  group,  and 
its  origin  is  intimately  connected  with  the  stem  of  these  veins 
(Fig.  14).  In  such  forms  as  Acutalis,  Micrutalis,  Thelia,  and 
Carynota  of  the  Smiliida,  this  close  connection  is  not  shown  in 
the  adult  wing.  In  others,  as  Ceresa  and  Stictocephala,  the 
relationship  is  striking,  as  has  been  referred  to  in  the  considera- 
tion of  radius. 


26.  e.  g.,  Cyrtolobus  vau  and  Atyma  castaneae. 

27.  Platycotis   sagittata,    Enchenopa   binotata,    Campylenchia    curvata,    Centru- 
choides  perdita,  and  Platycenirus  acuticornis. 


1913]  Wing   Veins  of  MembracidcE  87 

In  the  distal  third  of  the  wing,  media  branches  into  M1+2 
and  M3+4,  the  upper  branch  usually  but  not  always  uniting 
with  R4+5.  This  is,  in  most  cases,  the  end  of  its  branching, 
since  the  reduction  by  coalescence  outward  has  obliterated  the 
individual  veins  Mi,  Mo,  M3  and  M4.  In  a  few  cases  these 
veins  persist  to  the  point  of  forming  an  extra  marginal  cell. 
This  is  true  of  Archasia  helfragei  and  Ophiderma  pubescens, 
where  M3  and  M4  are  separate,  and  in  Micrutalis  dorsalis  where 
Ml  and  M2  show  a  very  slight  space  between  them.  In  the 
latter  species  this  feature,  which  has  been  remarked  by  VanDu- 
zee  in  a  taxonomic  sense-^  is  not  always  constant.  In  Smilia 
camelus,  M4  has  behaved  much  as  has  R2  in  the  same  species 
(see  radius)  by  extending  part  way  into  cell  M3+4  and  probably 
atrophying  toward  its  base.  A  peculiar  condition  is  shown  in 
Xantholobus  trilineatiis  in  which  Mi  and  M2  have  not  coalesced, 
thus  leaving  a  cell  Mi.  M3  has  coalesced  with  M2  near  the  mar- 
gin of  the  wing  to  form  the  unusual  combination  M2+3.  M4 
extends  part  way  into  cell  M34.4  as  was  seen  in  the  case  of 
Smilia. 

On  the  whole,  media  represents  a  simple,  natural  reduction 
and  is  one  of  the  most  constant  veins  in  the  membracid  wing. 

Cubitus 

With  the  consideration  of  cubitus  comes  a  perplexing 
problem  in  interpretation.  There  is  no  doubt  as  to  the  trachea- 
tion,  which  is  constant  throughout  the  family,  but  the  homolo- 
gies are  not  at  once  evident.  From  the  posterior  base  of  the 
wing,  and  separate  from  the  costa-subcosta-radius-media  group, 
come  two  distinct  main  stems  (Figs.  5  and  15).  These  must 
represent  cubitus  and  the  anals.  The  upper  stem  is  typically 
two-branched  which  is  characteristic  of  cubitus;  the  lower  is 
three-branched  and  seems  naturally  to  be  First,  Second  and 
Third  Anal  respectively  (Fig.  16).  Certain  features,  however, 
make  this  interpretation  unacceptable.  The  first  and  most 
important  of  these  is  the  fact  that  the  point  of  branching  of  the 
anterior  trachea  occurs  so  far  back  in  the  nymphal  wing  that  it 
would  not  appear,  and  does  not  appear,  in  the  adult  venation. 
This  is  entirely  inconsistant  with  the  reduction  which  has  taken 
place  in  all  of  the  other  veins  of  the  same  wing,  and  it  is  incon- 
ceivable that  while  coalescence  outward  has  been  taking  place 

28.     Studies  in  North  American  Membracidae,  p.  52. 


88  Annals  Entomological  Society  oj  America      [Vol.  VI, 

in  all  the  rest  of  the  wing,  cubitus  has  been  dividing  in  the 
opposite  direction.  Moreover,  the  end  of  the  cephalic  -branch 
shows,  as  did  radius  and  media,  unmistakable  evidence  of  a 
doubly  tracheated  condition  (Fig.  17).  At  first  this  was 
considered  as  a  mere  splitting  of  the  end  of  the  trachea  and  was 
disregarded.  It  appeared  so  constantly,  however,  and  at  times 
extended  so  far  back  into  the  wing,  that  it  refused  to  be  ignored. 
Again,  it  has  been  shown  in  other  families  of  the  Homoptera, 
that  the  first  and  second  anal  veins  may  be  widely  separated- ^ 
the  first  anal  arising  from  the  cubital  stem.  In  view  of  these 
facts  then,  it  appears  that  the  most  anterior  branch  of  the 
upper  vein  represents  both  Cui  and  Cuo.  That  these  veins 
have  coalesced  outward  in  the  regular  manner,  forming  one 
vein  only  in  the  adult  wing,  although  the  two  tracheae  are 
distinguishable  in  the  nymphal  condition.  This  interpretation 
makes  the  position  of  the  anal  fold  in  the  membracid  wing  agree 
with  the  position  which  it  assumes  in  the  other  Hemiptera, 
namely,  along  the  first  anal  vein.  If  the  next  vein  (First  Anal) 
were  considered  as  Cuo  it  would  make  the  Membracidas  peculiar 
in  this  respect,  and  not  in  keeping  with  the  conditions  in  the 
closely  related  families. 

The  trachea  runs  parallel  with  media  for  about  half  the 
length  of  the  wing  and  then  makes  an  abrupt  turn  downward, 
running  to  the  posterior  margin.  At  this  point  it  divides,  the 
two  branches  however  never  separating  but  turning  together 
outward  again  toward  the  tip.  The  vein  which  encloses  them 
follows  this  course  without  deviation.  Just  after  the  vein 
makes  the  sharp  turn  caudad,  a  strong  cross-vein  connects  it 
with  M3+4.  This  cross- vein  (medio-cubital),  as  will  be  shown 
later,  may  be  of  varying  length  but  is  constant  and  very  charac- 
teristic of  the  family.  It  well  represents  one  of  the  points 
which  brings  out  the  importance  of  the  study  of  tracheation. 
In  the  adult  wing  (Fig.  1)  it  might  well  be  taken  for  a  branch  of 
cubitus,  but  the  nymphal  wing  (Fig.  18)  clearly  shows  that  it  is 
not  preceded  by  a  trachea.  A  careful  search  has  been  made 
through  hundreds  of  mounts  to  establish  this  point,  and  no 
case  has  yet  been  found  where  this  condition  was  not  true.  On 
the  theory  that  the  principal  veins  are  preceded  by  trachea 
while  the  cross-veins  are  not,  this  would  prove  that  the  vein  in 
question  could  not  be  a  part  of  cubitus. 

29.     Wings  of  Insects,  p.  249. 


1913]  Wing   Veins  of  Membracida  89 


The  Anal  Veins 

If  the  interpretation  of  the  preceding  structures  has  been 
correct,  the  remaining  veins  of  the  wing  must  represent  the 
anals.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  this  works  out  very  simply  and 
leaves  little  doubt  regarding  the  homologies  of  the  anal  region. 
It  is  true  that  the  third  anal  often  shows  a  forking  in  the  nymphal 
tracheation  (Figs.  5  and  16),  but  this  is  of  no  particular  conse- 
quence since  in  a  very  large  number  of  wings,  of  which  that  of 
the  cockroach  may  serve  as  an  example'' °,  the  anal  region  has 
become  filled  with  many  veins  branching  from  or  posterior  to 
the  third  anal.  In  fact,  this  condition  (Fig.  19)  homologizes 
perfectly  with  the  tracheation  of  this  vein  in  the  Cicadidae^^ 
which  family  is  as  close  to  the  Membracidae  as  any  whose 
venation  has  been  determined,  and  in  which,  as  in  the  Mem- 
bracidffi,  the  specialization  has  been  by  reduction.  A  more 
significant  fact  is  that  this  condition  is  by  no  means  a  constant 
one  and  should  not  be  considered  as  typical  of  the  family.  In 
the  large  majority  of  cases  the  anal  tracheation  is  best  repre- 
sented by  that  shown  in  Figure  2. 

According  to  this  determination,  then,  the  first  anal  vein 
arises  from  the  base  of  cubitus  with  which  stem  it  has  been 
brought  from  the  main  trunk.  If  this  is  true,  the  first  anal  is 
very  intimately  connected  with  the  cubital  vein  —  so  intimate, 
in  fact,  that  it  seems  almost  a  misnomer  to  call  it  an  anal  with 
reference  to  the  Membracidae  —  but  that  it  is  an  anal  is  shown 
by  the  fact  that  it  homologizes  with  the  first  anal  in  the  wings 
of  other  insects.  It  represents  the  claval  suture  in  the  fore 
wing  and  is  in  many  forms  very  indistinct  in  appearance,  and 
the  wing  is  weak  along  the  line  which  it  follows.  It  is  straight 
and  unbranched  throughout  its  course  and  is  connected  with  no 
cross-veins.  At  its  tip  it  unites  with  cubitus,  and  the  two 
coalesce  to  form  the  marginal  limiting  vein  of  the  cell  M4.  This 
limiting  vein,  it  must  be  remarked,  is  here  preceded  by  three 
tracheae,  viz.  Cui,  Cu2  and  1st  anal. 

Second  anal  and  third  anal  enter  the  wing  together  by  a 
different  stem,  posterior  to  that  of  the  cubitus-first  anal.  They 
separate  at  once,  forming  a  large  and  clearly  defined  cell,  only 
to  coalesce  again  after  about  one-third  of  their  course  has  been 


30.  Wings  of  Insects,  p.  773. 

31.  Wings  of  Insects,  p.  249. 


90  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

traversed  (Fig.  20).     In  this  condition  they  join  first  anal  just 
before  that  vein  unites  with  cubitus  at  its  distal  end. 

This  represents  the  normal  procedure.  It  is  not  strange 
to  find,  however,  in  a  reduced  wing,  that  this  region  is  subject 
to  more  variation  than  that  of  any  of  the  other  veins.  In  some 
species,  for  example,  third  anal  never  appears  in  the  adult  wing 
and  the  cell  2nd  A  is  absent.  This  has  been  brought  about 
either  by  the  atrophy  of  third  anal  or  by  its  coalescence  for  an 
entire  instead  of  a  partial  length  with  second  anal,  the  latter 
explanation  being  perhaps  the  more  reasonable.  vSince  this 
condition  is  found  principally  in  the  wings  of  the  smaller 
species  such  as  Micrutalis  calva,  Stictocephala  liitea,  and  Cyr- 
tolohus  vau  (see  figures  33,  31,  43)  it  is  probably  due  to  the 
lack  of  development  of  this  part  of  the  wing,  which  causes  a 
crowding  of  the  tracheae  cephalad.  In  other  forms  third  anal 
breaks  away  from  second  anal  after  anastomosing  for  some 
distance,  and  sends  a  very  short  portion  out  through  the 
membrane  to  the  margin  of  the  wing.  This  is  found  mainly 
in  the  larger  wings,  where  there  is  more  surface  to  be  supported, 
being  best  seen  in  the  fore  wings  of  Thelia  bimaculata,  Telemona 
ampelopsidis,  and  Platycotis  sagittata. 

Cross-veins 

Of  the  cross-veins  which  appear  in  the  fore  wing,  three  only 
are  constant  and  characteristic  of  the  family,  the  others  being 
peculiar  to  certain  genera  and  species  and  of  little  comparative 
importance. 

The  first  of  these  characteristic  cross-veins  is  found  connect- 
ing R2+3  with  R4+5,  dividing  the  cell  R3  at  about  one-third  its 
length  from  the  point  of  branching  of  radial  sector.  It  is 
fairly  constant,  but  it  does  not  appear  in  the  genera  Acutalis 
or  Micrutalis  in  so  far  as  representatives  of  these  genera  have 
been  studied.  In  the  figured  wing  of  Ophiderma  pubescens  q.  v., 
this  cross-vein  is  forked,  a  condition  which  is  of  course  abnormal. 

The  second  is  equally  constant  but  surprisingly  variable  in 
position.  It  appears  between  media  and  cubitus,  usually  in  the 
basal  third  of  the  wing,  but  often  shifts  from  a  position  close  to 
the  base  of  these  veins  (cf.  Ceresa  diceros)  to  one  so  far  toward 
the  tip  of  the  wing  that  in  the  case  of  Smilia  camelus  (see  figure) 
it  has  actually  moved  off  of  cubitus  and  its  posterior  end 
rests  on  the  other  cross-vein   which   connects   Cu  with   M3+4. 


1913]  Wing   Veins  of  Membracidce  91 

Thus  it  is  the  most  unreHable  cross-vein  so  far  as  position  is 
concerned,  which  is  found  in  the  wing.  In  a  few  species  it 
does  not  appear.  In  Archasia  belfragei,  media  and  cubitus 
dip  toward  and  touch  one  another  at  the  point  where  this  vein 
is  typically  found.  In  Entylia  bactriana,  which  is  an  interesting 
wing  in  other  respects  also,  media  and  cubitus  anastomose  for 
such  a  distance  as  to  make  this  vein  unnecessary.  The  same 
is  true  of  Publilia  concava.  In  certain  forms  this  vein  varies 
within  a  species.  The  figures  shown  of  Thelia  bimaculata  and 
Carynota  mera  show  two  cross-veins  at  this  point,  but  this  is 
only  occasionally  found  even  in  those  species. 

The  third  constant  cross-vein  is  that  connecting  M3+4  with 
Cu.  It  varies  in  length  from  a  mere  attachment,  as  in  Entylia 
bactriana,  to  the  prominent  and  important  position  which  it 
assumes  in  most  of  the  wings  of  the  family.  No  membracid 
wing  has  been  examined  in  the  course  of  this  study  which  did 
not  show  this  cross-vein,  and  as  has  been  suggested  in  the 
consideration  of  cubitus,  it  has  been  particularly  noted  as 
being  an  apparent  part  of  that  vein. 

Other  cross-veins  are  found,  but  with  no  regularity  and  of 
no  especial  significance.  R4+5  occasionally  does  not  unite 
with  Mi_|-2  and  a  cross-vein  bridges  over  (e.  g.  Platycotis  sagittata). 
M3+4  sometime  moves  so  far  from  M1+2  that  this  part  of  the 
wing  has  been  strengthened  in  the  same  manner  and  one 
species  at  least  has  added  cross-veins  to  such  an  extent  that  the 
actual  condition  of  the  typical  form  is  only  conjectural  from 
the  material  at  hand.  This  species  is  Phylia  ferruginosa,  the 
species  possessing  the  most  unusual  cross-veining  of  any  Mem- 
bracid studied. 

The  tracheation  of  the  wing-base 

In  their  basal  structure  the  wings  of  the  Membracidse  refuse 
to  agree  exactly  in  structure  with  those  of  closely  related 
families,  and  if  the  determination  of  homologies  in  this  study 
is  correct,  they  more  nearly  approach  the  hypothetical  type 
than  do  any  of  the  other  Hemiptera. 

It  has  been  shown  in  the  wing  of  the  Cicada'^-  that  all  the 
trachese  in  the  wing  arise  from  one  main  trunk''*-\  In  the 
closely  related  family  of  Membracidae  it  would  naturally  be 

32.     Wings  of  Insects,  pp.  243-249. 

.33.     Wings  of  Insects,  p.  244,  Fig.  14  and  the  accompanying  discussion. 


92  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

supposed  that  this  important  feature  would  also  hold  true,  but 
this  appears  not  to  be  the  case.  Instead,  the  tracheas  arise 
from  two  main  trunks,  the  most  anterior  of  which  gives  rise  to 
costa,  subcosta,  radius  and  media,  while  the  other  furnishes  the 
origin  of  cubitus  and  the  anals. 

The  two  trunks  come  from  the  thorax  at  different  angles, 
and  so  far  as  has  been  observed,  are  never  united  (Fig.  21). 
This  does  not  prove,  to  be  sure,  that  the  connection  never 
occurs,  but  it  would  seem  that  in  the  study  of  a  very  large 
number  of  nymphal  wings  the  connection  would  sometimes 
have  appeared  if  it  were  present.  On  the  contrary,  the  study 
of  a  long  series  of  wings  of  many  genera  and  species  seems  to 
show  that  in  this  particular  family  the  original  hypothetical 
type  of  two  main  trunks  has  been  preserved  and  that  in  this 
respect  at  least,  the  Membracidse  can  be  said  to  be  the  most 
generalized  of  the  Hemiptera,  being  more  conservative  in  this 
particular  than  even  the  Cicada. ■''^ 

Marginal   Veins 

The  scalloped  appearance  given  to  the  venation  by  the 
marginal  vein  inside  the  membrane,  is  characteristic.  The 
extremities  of  the  longitudinal  veins  are  connected  by  strong 
regular  veins  which  form  a  smooth  edge  for  the  veined  portion 
of  the  wing  (Fig.  1).  The  origin  of  this  structure  is  explained 
by  the  manner  in  which  the  ends  of  the  longitudinal  tracheae 
branch  and  overlap  when  they  reach  the  region  under  consider- 
ation (Fig.  22).  Since  the  reduction  of  the  wing  has  left  at  the 
tip  branches  of  radius  two-plus-three,  radius  four-plus-five, 
media  one-plus-two,  media  three-plus-four  and  cubitus  one- 
plus-two  which  have  not  entirely  coalesced,  it  is  natural  that 
these  tracheae,  which  have  probably  in  the  wing  of  past  times 
represented  separate  veins,  should  remain  more  or  less  distinct. 
This  has  happened,  and  the  wing  tip  shows  that  these  tracheae 
tend  to  pull  apart  and  run  along  the  marginal  lines  (Fig.  23). 
It  seems  rather  remarkable  that  any  of  these  tracheae  should 
ever  actually  turn  backward,  but  such  is  the  case.  The  normal 
method  is  as  follows:  subcosta  continues  along  the  cephalic 
margin  to  the  extreme  tip  of  the  wing;  Ri  unites  with  subcosta 

34.  Comstock  and  Needham  state,  "The  conservative  Hemiptera  that 
retain  most  perfectly  the  fashions  of  ancient  times  so  far  at  least  as  concerns  the 
venation  of  the  wings,  are  the  cicadas." — Wings  of  Insects,  p.  243. 


1913]  Wing   Veins  of  MembracidcE  93 

from  the  point  of  its  coalescence  outward;  R2  turns  upward  to 
meet  Sc  plus  Rr,  R3  turns  outward  and  downward  and  coalesces 
with  the  tip  of  R4 ;  R4  turns  upward  to  unite  with  R3 ;  R5  contin- 
ues outward  to  touch  the  end  of  Mi;  Mi  bends  upward  to  R5; 
M2  turns  backward  to  unite  with  the  tip  of  M3;  M3  continues 
forward  to  meet  M2;  M4  also  turns  backward  to  meet  the 
tracheae  of  Cui+2  and  1st  A  which  have  continued  outward, 
and  the  tips  of  the  other  trachese  have  proceeded  distad  in  their 
natural  position,  extending  to  points  which  enable  them  to 
coalesce  with  the  tracheae  ahead. 

In  this  way  a  strong  marginal  vein  has  been  formed  along 
the  lines  laid  down  by  these  trachcce  which  is  as  strong  and 
sometimes  stronger  than  the  longitudinal  veins  themselves, 
since  it  contains  at  various  places  in  its  course,  the  tips  of  two, 
three,  and  sometimes  even  four  tracheae. 

Variation 

This  study  would  be  incomplete  if  some  mention  were  not 
made,  in  the  consideration  of  the  fore  wing,  of  the  variations 
which  often  occur.  The  venation  which  has  been  outlined  has 
been  in  the  main  that  of  the  normal  structure.  Considerable 
variation  occurs,  however,  often  within  a  species,  and  this 
deserves  some  mention. 

The  wing  of  Thelia  bimacidata  has  been  chosen  as  an  illus- 
tration because  this  species  shows  perhaps  the  greatest  range 
of  variation  found  in  any  one  species.  In  the  diagram  shown 
(Fig.  24)  the  dotted  lines  represent  the  maximum  variation,  and 
all  stages  between  the  normal  and  this  maximum  may  be  found. 
It  will  be  noted  that  Ri  sometimes  leaves  radius  two-plus-three 
at  a  point  very  close  to  the  fork  of  radial  sector.  This  would 
represent  a  less  specialized  condition  than  the  normal.  R4+5 
and  Mi+2  sometimes  approach  each  other  with  a  wide  curve 
and  barely  touch,  instead  of  coalescing  in  the  usual  manner, 
and  this  does  away  with  the  sharp  bend  of  M1+2.  M3  and  M4 
are  occasionally  separate,  forming  an  additional  cell  M3.  As 
might  be  supposed  from  the  discussion  of  the  cross-veins,  that 
one  between  media  and  cubitus  shows  the  greatest  irregulari- 
ties. It  ranges  from  the  most  proximal  position  shown  by  the 
dotted  lines  at  the  left,  to  one  very  close  to  the  point  at  which 
media  branches,  and  in  some  cases  even  disappears  altogether, 
media  and  cubitus  bending  toward  and  touching  each  other. 


94  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

Such  variation  as  this  is  not  uncommon  in  the  Mem- 
bracidse.  For  this  reason  it  would  seem  that  taxonomic 
characters  based  on  the  shape,  size  and  number  of  cells  should 
not  be  attached  with  the  greatest  importance  unless  it  can  be 
clearly  proven  that  these  irregularities  do  not  occur  in  the 
forms  in  question. 

It  may  be  mentioned  in  passing,  that  Thelia  bimaculata 
shows  also  a  great  variation  in  the  length  of  the  pronotal  horn. 
An  attempt  has  been  made  to  compare  this  variation  with  that 
of  the  wing  but  the  results  were  negative,  and  the  variation  of 
the  two  structures  seems  to  be  entirely  independent. 

THE   HIND   WING 

As  has  been  stated  (p.  81)  the  hind  wing  in  the  Membracidae 
has  more  nearly  kept  pace  with  the  fore  wing  in  specialization 
than  is  usually  the  case  in  Hemiptera.  An  interpretation, 
therefore,  of  the  fore  wing  leaves  little  to  be  determined  so  far 
as  homologies  are  concerned  and  in  fact  the  venation,  after  the 
tracheation  has  been  worked  out,  is  almost  self-evident.  In 
the  hind  wing  the  reduction  has  gone  further  than  in  the  fore 
wing  as  is  shown  in  the  nymphal  tracheation  (Fig.  25).  The 
tracheae  for  costa  and  subcosta  have  disappeared.  The  wing, 
however,  shows  a  thickening  or  ridge  along  the  cephalic  margin 
which  is  probably  due  to  subcosta  or  perhaps  in  some  cases  to 
costa-plus-subcosta,  although  the  preceding  tracheae  are  not 
distinguishable  and  the  vein  itself  not  prominent.  Radius 
behaves  much  as  in  the  fore  wing.  The  trachea  is  apparently 
two-branched  but  high  magnification  shows  that  Ri  is  present, 
running  close  to  R2+3  (Fig.  26).  Occasionally  also,  Ri  upon 
reaching  the  margin  of  the  wing  turns  backward  to  meet  the 
costal  thickening  so  that  in  some  cases  the  point  at  which 
costa-plus-subcosta  unites  with  R2+3  represents  what  remains 
of  Ri  (Fig.  27).  The  most  important  point  of  difference 
between  the  two  wings  is  found  in  the  cross  vein  r-m  connecting 
R4+5  with  Mi+2.  This  difference  has  been  noted  by  Redten- 
bacher  in  his  explanation  of  the  hind  wing  of  Centrotiis  cornutus^'" 
the  only  Membracid  which  he  figures  and  which  happens  •  to 
show  this  character.  In  the  fore  wing  these  longitudinal 
veins  (R4+5  and  M1+2)  usually  anastomose.     In  the  hind  wing 


35.     Redtenbacher,  Josef.    Vergleichende  Studien  uber  das  Flugelgeader  der 
Insecten,  Ann.  k.  k.  Naturh.  Hofmus.  I,  1886,  p.  187. 


1913]  Wmg   Veins  of  Membracidce  95 

they  are  often  some  distance  apart  and  connected  by  a  strong 
cross-vein. ^"^  The  explanation  to  the  disappearance  of  costa 
and  subcosta  which  causes  this  condition  —  which  is  of  course 
the  more  generaHzed  one  —  is  probably  that  the  median  part 
of  the  wing,  having  an  advantageous  blood  supply,  has  devel- 
oped to  such  an  extent  as  to  crowd  the  cephalic  region,  causing 
radius  to  move  over  into  that  part  of  the  wing  usually  occupied 
by  costa  and  subcosta,  and  forcing  these  trache£e  out  of  existence. 

Media  is  typical  (Fig.  28),  branching  in  about  the  center 
of  the  wing  into  M1+2  and  M3+4  which  continue  their  respective 
courses  toward  the  tip,  there  to  turn  along  the  marginal  line 
as  in  the  fore  wing. 

Cubitus  likewise  presents  the  same  condition  that  it  does  in 
the  fore  wing  (Fig.  29).  At  times  the  tracheae  representing  Cui 
and  Cu2  respectively  may  be  traced  side  by  side  for  some 
distance  back  into  the  wing,  but  in  no  case  do  they  separate. 

First  anal  differs  from  the  front  wing  in  being  stronger  and 
not  paralleling  the  suture.  The  wing  membrane  at  this  point 
in  the  hind  wing  is  smooth  and  firm. 

Second  and  third  anals  are  usually  coalesced  to  form  one 
vein  in  the  adult  hind  wing,  although  the  individual  tracheae 
are  to  be  seen  in  the  nymphal  structure.  Occasionally  these 
two  veins  separate  to  form  the  cell  2nd  A  as  in  Ceresa  bubalus. 

This  is  the  normal  venation.  Some  slight  modifications  can 
be  found  in  a  few  genera.  In  Smilia,  Cyrtolohus,  Xantholobus, 
Ophiderma,  and  others,  the  characteristic  cross-vein  between 
R4+5  and  Mi+2  is  lacking,  these  two  veins  anastomosing  as  in  the 
front  wing.  In  other  respects  the  hind  wings  vary  far  less 
among  the  genera  and  species  than  in  the  fore  wing,  even  in 
minor  details.  In  many  cases  they  are  identical  and  it  has 
been' hard  to  find  forms  with  differences  marked  enough  to  be 
worth  figuring.  It  will  be  remarked  in  the  figures  that  in  shape 
and  general  appearance  the  agreement  is  quite  noticeable. 

36.  See  figures  of  Carynota  mera,  Thelia  himaculata,  Glossonolus  crataegi, 
Telemona  ampelopsidis,  Archasia  beljragei,  and  Heliria  scalaria. 


96  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America     [Vol.  VI^ 


BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

The  paper  which  has  been  the  principal  basis  for  this  study  and  which  has  been 
a  source  of  constant  inspiration  throughout  the  work,  is  Comstock-Needham's. 
"Wings  of  Insects,"  pubHshed  in  the  American  NaturaHst,  Vols.  XXXII  and 
XXXIII,  1898  and  1899.    Other  publications  and  texts  used  are  the  following: 

CoMSTOCK.    Manual  for  the  Study  of  Insects. 

Stal.     Hemiptera  Africana,  Vol.  IV. 

Coding.      Bibliograohical  and  Synonymical  Catalogue  of  the  Described  Mem- 

bracidae    of    North    America,    Bulletin    Illinois    State    Laboratory    Natural 

History,  Vol.  3,  Art.  XIV. 
V.-vnDuzee.     Studies  in  North  American  Membracidae,  Bulletin  Buffalo  Society 

Natural  Science,  1908,  Vol.  IX. 
Fowler.    Biologia  Centrali  Americana,  Insecta:   Rhynchota,  Homoptera  Part  II. 

Cambridge  Natural  History,  Vol.  VI,  Insects,  Part  II. 
MacCillivray.    Wings  of  Tenthredinoidea,  Proceedings  U.  S.  Natural  Museum, 

1906,  Vol.  XXIX. 
Patch,  Miss  Edith  M.  Homologies  of  the  Wing  Veins  of  the  Aphididae,  Psyllidae, 

Aleurodidae  and  Coccidae,  Annals  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  America, 

1909,  Vol.  II. 
WooDWORTH.    The  Wing  Veins  of  Insects,  University  of  California  Publications, 

Agricultural  Experiment  Station  Technical  Bulletin,  Entomology,  Vol.  1,1906. 
Redtenbacher.    Vergleichende  Studien  uber  das  Flugelgeader  der  Insecten,  Ann. 

k.  k.  Naturh.  I,  1886. 
HoDGKiss.    The  Apple  and  Pear  Membracids,  Geneva  Agricultural  Station  Tech- 
nical Bulletin  No.  17,  1910. 
Fairmaire.    Revue  de  la  tribu  des  Membracides,  Ann.  de  la  Soc.  Ent.  de  France, 

1846,  Ser.  II,  Tome  IV. 
Schmidt.    Beitrag  zur  Kenntnis  der  Membraciden.    Stett.  ent.  Ztg.,  1906,  Vol.  67. 

FIGURES. 

The  figures  of  nymphal  wings,  and  the  diagrams  used,  are  arbitrarily  arranged 
in  the  order  in  which  reference  is  made  to  them  in  the  text,  without  respect  to 
relationship  of  species. 

The  figures  of  adult  wings  are  arranged  according  to  subfamilies  to  facilitate 
reference.  The  order  of  subfamilies  is  based  on  Van  Duzee's  "Studies  in  North 
American  Membracidae." 

The  following  is  the  explanation  of  the  figures  in  order: 

Nymphal  wings  and  diagrams. 

Fore  and  hind  wings  of  Thelia  bimaculata. 

Fore  wing  nymph — Thelia  bimaculata. 

Fore  wing  nymph — Thelia  bimaculata,  showing  costa. 

Fore  wing  nymph — Telemona  ampelopsidis,  showing  costa. 

Fore  wing  nymph — Ceresa  borealis,  showing  costa. 

Fore  wing  nymph — Vanduzea  arquata,  showing  costa. 

Fore  wing  nymph — V'anduzea  arquata,  showing  base  of  costa. 

Diagram  showing  typical  radius. 

Fore  wing  nymph — Vanduzea  arquata,  showing  Ri. 

Highly  magnified  portion  of  fore  wing  nymph  of  Vanduzea  arquata, 

showing  region  of  Ri. 
Highly  magnified  portion  of  fore  wing  nymph  of  Telemona  ampelopsidis, 

showing  region  of  Ri. 
Fore  wing  nymph — Enchenopa  binotata,  showing  Ri. 
Fore  wing  nymph — Ceresa  diceros,  showing  media  and  the  coalescence 

of  R  4+5  with  Mi+2. 


Fig. 

1. 

Fig. 

2. 

Fig. 

3. 

Fig. 

4. 

Fig. 

5. 

Fig. 

6. 

Fig. 

7. 

Fig. 

8. 

Fig. 

9. 

Fig. 

10. 

Fig. 

11. 

Fig. 

12. 

Fig. 

13. 

1913] 


Wing   Veins  of  Membracidce 


97 


Fig.  14.  Base  of  fore  wing  nymph — Ceresa  diceros,  showing  origin  of  media. 

Fig.  15.  Base  of  fore  wing  nymph — Thelia  bimaculata. 

Fig.  16.  Fore  wing  nymph — Ceresa  bubalus,  showing  anals. 

Fig.  17.  Fore  wing  nymph — Ceresa  diceros,  showing  cubitus. 

Fig.  18.  Fore  wing  nymph — Thelia  bimaculata,  showing  cross-vein. 

Fig.  19.  Fore  wing  nymph — Telemona  ampelopsidis,  showing  anals. 

Fig.  20.  Fore  wing  nymph— Vanduzea  arquata,  showing  2nd  and  .3rd  anals. 

Fig.  21.  Base  of  fore  wing  nymph^Thelia  bimaculata,  showing  basal  tracheation. 

Fig.  22.  Fore  wing  nymph — Ceresa  bubalus,   showing  branches  of  longitudinal 

veins. 

Fig.  23.  Diagram    of   tracheation   in    tip   of   fore    wing,    showing   formation   of 

marginal  vein. 

Fig.  24.  Diagram  of  variations  in  wing  of  Thelia  bimaculata. 

Fig.  25.  Hind  wing  nymph — -Thelia  bimaculata. 

Fig.  26.  Highly  magnified  portion  of  hind  wing  nymph  of  Thelia  bimaculata 

showing  region  of  Ri. 

Fig.  27.  Diagram  showing  position  of  the  remains  of  Ri  in  hind  wing. 

Fig.  28.  Hind  wing  nymph — Vanduzea  arquata,  showing  media. 

Fig.  29.  Hind  wing  nymph — Ceresa  diceros,  showing  cubitus. 

Adult  fore  wings. 

Fig.  30.  Ceresa  bubalus. 

Fig.  31.  Stictocephala  lutea. 

Fig.  32.  Acutalis  tartarea. 

Fig.  33.  Micrutalis  calva. 

Fig.  34.  Micrutalis  dorsalis. 

Fig.  35.  Carynota  mera. 

Fig.  36.  Thelia  bimaculata. 

Fig.  37.  Glossonotus  crataegi. 

Fig.  38.  Telemona  ampelopsidis. 

Fig.  39.  Telemonanthe  pulchella. 

Fig.  40.  Archasia  belfragei. 

Fig.  41.  Heliria  scalari. 

Fig.  42.  Smilia  camelus. 

Fig.  43.  Crytolobus  vau. 

Adult  hind  wings. 

Fig.  58.  Ceresa  bubalus. 

Fig.  59.  Carynota  mera. 

Fig.  60.  Thelia  bimaculata. 

Fig.  61.  Glossonotus  crataegi. 

Fig.  62.  Telemona  ampelopsidis. 

Fig.  63.  Archasia  belfragei. 

Fig.  64.  Heliria  scalari. 

Fig.  65.  Smilia  camelus. 

Fig.  66.  Cyrtolobus  vau. 


Fig.  44.  Atyma  castaneae. 

Fig.  45.  Xanthlobus  trilineatus. 

Fig.  46.  Ophiderma  pubescens. 

Fig.  47.  Vanduzea  arquata. 

Fig.  48.  Entylia  bactriana. 

Fig.  49.  Publilia  concava. 

Fig.  50.  Stictopelta  marmorata. 

Fig.  51.  Platycotis  sagittata. 

Fig.  52.  Campylenchia  curvata.' 

Fig.  53.  Enchenopa  binotata. 

Fig.  54.  Tylopelta  gibberata. 

Fig.  55.  Phylia  ferruginosa. 

Fig.  56.  Centruchoides  perdita. 

Fig.  57.  Platycentrus  acuticornis. 


Fig.  67.  Xantholobus  trilineatus. 

Fig.  68.  Ophiderma  pubescens. 

Fig.  69.  Vanduzea  arquata. 

Fig.  70.  Stictopelta  marmorata. 

Fig.  71.  Platycotis  sagittata. 

Fig.  72.  Campylenchia  curvata. 

Fig.  73.  Enchenopa  binotata. 

Fig.  74.  Centruchoides  perdita. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  III. 


\V.  D.  Funkhoustr. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI.  Plate  IV. 


W.  D.  Funkhouser. 


ANNALS   E.   S.   A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  V. 


'■£".,<. 


W.  D.  Ftinkhottser. 


Vol.  VI.  Plate  VI. 


II'.  D.  Funkhouser. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  VII. 


3'-*  A 

W.  D.  Funkhotiser. 


3--»A       '^--M 


THE  WING  VENATION  OF  THE  JASSIDAE. 

Z.  P.  Metcalf. 

The  present  paper  was  undertaken  several  years  ago  at  the 
suggestion  of  Professor  Herbert  Osborn.  At  that  time  it  was 
thought  that  the  wing  veins  of  Homopterous  insects  could  be 
identified  in  the  adult  stage  by  carefully  comparing  them  with 
the  venation  of  the  Cicadidas  as  determined  by  Comstock  and 
Needham  '98-'99.  This,  however,  was  found  to  be  impractic- 
able as  it  was  soon  discovered  that  the  wing  veins  of  most  of 
the  Homoptera  have  been  greatly  reduced  and  much  modified 
from  the  Cicadid  type.  The  study  was  then  discontinued 
until  the  spring  of  1910,  when  it  was  resumed  by  studying  it 
from  the  standpoint  of  the  nymphal  wing  pads. 

At  first  the  wing  pads  were  removed  as  carefully  as  possible 
and  mounted  in  glycerine  jelly,  as  recommended  by  Comstock 
and  Needham  '98-'99.  Later  on  many  wing  pads  were  mounted 
in  xylene  damar  as  recommended  by  Miss  Patch  '09.  It  was 
soon  discovered,  however,  that  just  as  good  results  could  be 
obtained  by  mounting  the  wing  pads  in  water.  These  wing 
pads  were  then  either  photographed  or  drawn  with  the  aid  of 
the  camera  lucida.  For  most  Jassidae  it  was  found  more  satis- 
factory to  draw  them  with  the  camera  lucida.  This  is  due  to 
the  fact  that  the  outer  covering  of  the  wing  pad  is  very  thick 
and  frequently  dark  colored.  In  addition  many  of  the  wing 
pads  were  so  thick  that,  using  the  high  powers  necessary,  it 
was  found  to  be  impossible  to  bring  all  parts  of  all  the  tracheae 
into  sharp  focus  at  the  same  time.  This  lead  to  some  confusion 
as  many  of  the  wing  pads  are  provided  with  long  spines  which 
make  the  interpretation  of  the  tracheae  difficult,  as  many  of  the 
spines  are  so  placed  as  to  appear  in  photographs  as  branches  of 
the  tracheae  which  are  slightly  out  of  focus. 

After  the  drawings  were  finished  they  were  carefully  com- 
pared many  times  over  with  wing  pads  from  nymphs  collected 
at  later  dates.  If  any  marked  differences  were  noted  drawings 
were  made  and  these  again  compared  with  the  pads  from 
nymphs  collected  at  later  dates.  In  this  way,  it  is  believed 
that  all  errors  that  might  arise  have  been  corrected  or  elimin- 
ated. The  nymphal  wing  pads  shown  in  the  plates  have  been 
carefully  selected  from  these  drawings  or  redrawn  from  pho- 
tographs. 

103 


104  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

The  adult  wings  shown  have  been  drawn  with  the  aid  of  the 
Edinger  drawing  apparatus  and  have  been  selected,  for  the 
most  part,  from  adults  showing  the  normal  venation.  In  a 
few  cases,  however,  wings  have  been  used  which  show  the  pres- 
ence of  unusual  cross  veins  or  the  absence  of  usual  cross  veins. 

In  spite  of  the  fact  that  many  different  methods  of  mounting 
were  tried,  several  genera  did  not  yield  satisfactory  mounts. 
The  most  conspicuous  genera,  in  this  respect,  were  Kolla  and 
Tettigoniella.  In  spite  of  the  fact  that  several  hundred  wing 
pads  of  these  two  genera  were  mounted  from  specimens  collected 
from  early  spring  to  late  summer,  no  satisfactory  mounts  were 
secured.  Certain  species  in  other  genera  show  this  same 
characteristic.  Perhaps  the  most  conspicuous  species,  in  this 
respect,  is  Diedrocephala  versuta  Say.  Nymphs  of  this  species 
can  be  found  in  great  numbers  at  Raleigh,  North  Carolina, 
throughout  the  season.  Yet  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  they  were 
collected  in  large  numbers  and  treated  in  many  different  ways 
no  satisfactory  wing  pads  of  Diedrocephala  versuta  have  been 
secured. 

It  is  also  necessar^^  to  secure  the  nymphs  at  the  proper  time. 
Some  little  time  before  the  insect  molts,  the  wing  is  very  much 
crumpled  in  its  sheath.  This  is  especially  true  of  the  last  molt. 
This  is  unfortunate  as,  in  many  cases,  the  older  wing  pads  are 
necessary  for  determining  the  homologies  of  some  of  the  tra- 
cheae and  veins.  As  already  pointed  out  by  Comstock  and 
Needham  '98-'99  the  best  results  can  be  secured  by  selecting 
the  paler  colored  individuals. 

In  all  twenty-five  genera  of  JassidcE  have  been  studied  in 
the  preparation  of  this  paper.  These  genera  represent  such 
forms  as  could  be  readily  secured  in  the  vicinity  of  Raleigh, 
North  Carolina.  They  contain  representatives  of  all  of  the 
subfamilies  and  tribes  of  Jassidce  commonly  found  in  Eastern 
North  America. 

In  the  course  of  this  study  many  hundreds  of  nymphs  have 
been  collected  and  their  wing  pads  studied.  It  has  not  always 
been  found  possible  to  remove  the  wing  pads  so  as  to  secure  the 
body  tracheae.  The  writer  does  not  consider  this  important, 
however,  as  all  of  the  pads  have  been  removed  close  enough  to 
the  base  to  assure  him  of  the  homologies  of  the  principal 
trachea. 


1913]  The  Wing  Venation  of  the  Jassidce  105 

This  paper  is  founded  upon  the  work  of  Comstock  and 
Needham  '98-'99.  It  adopts  the  same  system  they  propose  for 
naming  the  veins  and  for  naming  and  numbering  the  cells,  as 
the  writer  believes  that  this  system  is  the  only  logical  one  that 
has  been  offered.  An  attempt  made  to  homologize  the  veins 
of  adult  Homoptera  and  a  subsequent  study  of  the  tracheation 
that  precedes  venation,  has  thoroughly  convinced  the  writer 
that  the  Comstock-Needham  system  is  the  only  logical  one. 

THE    FORE   WING. 

The  type  of  the  fore  wing  of  Jassidce  is  fairly  uniform  but  in 
order  to  point  out  the  difference  that  exists  the  tracheae  will  be 
considered  in  detail  beginning  at  the  costal  margin. 

The  wings  of  Jassidce  show  marked  specialization  by  reduc- 
tion. This  reduction  is  usually  accompanied  by  the  atrophy 
of  one  of  the  branches  of  one  of  the  main  tracheae  and  the  shifting 
of  a  branch  of  a  neighboring  trachea  until  it  occupies  the  region 
of  the  atrophied  trachea.  This  is  well  illustrated  in  the  atrophy 
of  Mi+2  of  the  fore  wing  which  is  discussed  below.  Another 
excellent  example  of  the  same  thing  is  found  in  the  Typhlocy- 
bidce  where  M3+4  occupies  the  region  usually  traversed  by  Cui. 
The  atrophy  of  these  trachese  with  the  subsequent  shifting  of 
other  tracheae  which  take  their  places  gives  to  the  wings  of  the 
Jassidce  their  characteristic  aspect. 

THE  COSTA  OF  FORE  WING. 

The  costal  trachea  is  absent  in  all  of  the  Jassid  wings  that 
have  been  examined  with  the  exception  of  Gypona  (Fig.  8). 
Here  the  costal  trachea  is  long  being  almost  as  long  as  subcosta 
and  running  parallel  with  it  throughout  its  length.  In  no  other 
Jassid  was  any  trace  of  Costa  found.  In  all  cases  the  nymphal 
pad  was  removed  as  near  the  base  as  possible  and  the  body 
trachea  was  examined  for  traces  of  the  costal  spur  but  no  trace 
of  such  spur  was  found.  This  was  due  to  the  fact,  perhaps,  that 
it  is  impossible  to  get  any  great  length  of  the  body  trachea  in 
such  a  dissection.  In  a  few  cases,  however,  a  considerable 
length  of  the  body  trachea  was  secured  (Figs.  3,  5,  62,  64). 
This  indicates  that  Costa  has  practically  disappeared  from 
the  Jassidce. 


106  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


THE  SUBCOSTA  OF  THE  FORE  WING. 

The  subcostal  trachea  in  the  Jassidce  is  very  anomalous. 
It  reaches  its  greatest  length,  in  the  genera  examined,  in  the 
genus  Jassus  (Fig.  60),  where  it  passes  beyond  the  apex  of  the 
wing  and  replaces  R2  and  R3  in  the  ambient  vein.  Subcosta  is 
slightly  shorter  in  Gypona  (Fig.  8),  of  about  the  same  length  in 
Spangbergiella  (Fig.  20),  also  in  Agallia  (Fig.  1).  In  Acinop- 
terus  (Fig.  41)  it  is  still  shorter  barely  reaching  R2.  In  Platy- 
metopius  (Fig.  26)  it  is  about  half  the  length  of  the  main  stem 
of  Radius.  No  further  evidence  of  the  presence  of  Subcosta 
was  found  although  the  Subcostal  vein  on  the  border  of  the  wing 
is  well  developed  in  all  of  the  adult  wings  which  the  writer  has 
examined  and  it  shows  very  clearly  as  a  distinctly  lighter  area 
in  all  the  older  nymphs  examined.  This  series  undoubtedly 
shows  how  the  subcosta  has  atrophied  in  Jassidae. 

THE  RADIUS  OF  THE  FORE  WING 

The  radial  trachea  in  the  fore  wing  of  Jassidce  is  typically 
two-branched  although  in  some  forms  three  and  even  four 
branches  do  occur.  The  two  branches  of  the  typical  radius 
represent  R2+3  and  R4+5.  Ri  has  almost  completely  disappeared 
from  the  fore  wings  of  the  Jassidce.  It  does  occur,  as  a  delicate 
branch,  in  a  few  genera  but  gives  rise  to  a  very  characteristic 
cross  vein  between  subcosta  and  radius  which  is  known  cur- 
rently as  the  "nodal  vein".  The  nodal  vein,  however,  is  a 
very  anomalous  one  and  its  characters  will  be  discussed  later. 
Ri  has  been  found  in  the  following  widely  separated  genera, 
Oncometopia  (Fig.  3),  Scaphoideus  (Fig.  44)  and  Typhlocyba 
(Fig.  64).  In  other  genera  there  remains  a  distinct  cross  vein 
connecting  subcosta  with  the  main  stem  of  radius,  or  subcosta 
with  R2+3.  This  vein,  which  is  usually  referred  to  as  the  nodal 
vein,  undoubtedly  represents  the  remnant  of  Ri  or  R2.  Or  it 
may  be  considered  as  a  vein  which  merely  followed  a  weak 
lateral  branch  of  R  or  R2+3,  which  either  happened  to  be  con- 
nected with  the  main  stem  of  radius,  when  it  resembles  Ri,  or 
it  may  have  happened  to  be  connected  with  R2+3  in  that  case 
it  resembles  R2.  The  writer  is  inclined  to  think  that  this  is  a 
distinct  vein  representing  in  some  cases  Ri  and  in  others  R2. 

Trachea  Ri  is  very  conspicuous  in  Oncometopia  (Fig.  3), 
Scaphoideus  (Fig.  44)  and  Typhlocyba  (Fig.  64).     The  resulting 


1913]  The  Wing  Venation  of  the  JassidcB  107 

cross  vein  is  attached  to  radius  in  some  species  of  Scaphoideus 
(Fig.  53)  and  in  Typhlocyba  (Fig.  77),  but  in  Oncometopia  the 
resulting  cross  vein  is  sometimes  absent  in  the  adult  wing,  and 
is  sometimes  present  as  a  fairly  strong  cross  vein  uniting  with 
radius  near  the  point  where  it  branches  into  R2+3  and  R4+5.  In 
other  cases,  it  appears  as  a  fairly  strong  cross  vein  distinctly 
uniting  subcosta  with  R2+3.  The  whole  question  seems  to  be 
settled  by  reference  to  figure  3  which  was  taken  from  a  half 
grown  nymph.  This  wing  pad  shows  a  weak  Ri  which  runs 
parallel  to  R2+3  for  a  considerable  distance  and  then  bends 
toward  the  costal  margin.  All  attempts  to  secure  older  nymphs 
whose  wing  pads  would  show  the  forming  veins  along  the 
tracheae  failed  owing  to  the  thickness  of  the  pads  and  the  large 
amount  of  coloring  matter.  Inasmuch  as  trachea  Ri  does  run 
parallel  with  R2+3  for  some  distance  it  would  seem  to  indicate 
that  the  point  of  attachment  of  the  cross  vein  which  follows 
the  trachea  might  be  at  any  one  of  various  points  along  the 
radial  vein  over  a  considerable  length  of  that  vein. 

In  other  cases  this  cross  vein  is  very  evidently  R2.  It 
appears  as  a  weak  lateral  branch  of  R2+3  in  Parabolocratus 
(Fig.  23),  as  a  somewhat  stronger  branch  in  Goniagnathiis 
(Fig.  25),  as  a  still  stronger  branch  in  Phlepsiiis  (Fig.  48).  In 
Acinopteriis  (Fig.  41)  the  trachea  gradually  diverges  but  the 
forming  vein  is  set  at  nearly  a  right  angle  to  R2+3.  In  Jassus 
(Fig.  60)  trachea  R2  reaches  its  greatest  size  for  any  of  the 
genera  examined  and  the  vein  in  the  adult  wing  seems  to  follow 
the  course  of  the  trachea  rather  closely.  In  Chlorotettix  (Fig.  43) 
tracheae  R2  and  R3  are  united  for  nearly  their  entire  length, 
being  separated  only  at  their  tips.  This  character  seems  to  be 
comparatively  constant  for  the  genus  (Fig.  52).  In  still  other 
genera  the  nodal  cross  vein  is  formed  without  being  preceded  by 
any  trachea.  This  is  especially  conspicuous  in  certain  species 
of  Draeculacephala  (Fig.  6)  which  have  only  one  cross  vein 
connecting  subcosta  with  R2-f3.  In  Eutettix  (Fig.  46)  two 
cross  veins  are  formed,  one  occupying  the  position  of  Ri  and 
the  other  the  position  of  Ro.  Neither  one  of  these  cross  veins 
is  preceded  by  a  trachea.  There  is  an  interesting  question 
involved  in  the  genus  Scaphoideus.  As  pointed  out  by  Osborn 
'00  the  nodal  vein  arises  from  radius  in  auronitens  and  certain 
other  species  while  in  jucundus  and  allied  species  it  arises  from 
R2+3.     Unfortunately  the  writer  was  able  to  secure  nymphs  of 


108  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI^ 

only  the  first  group  but  he  believes  that  the  nodal  cross  vein  in 
the  juciindus  group  is  the  untracheated  cross  vein  between  Ri 
and  R3  (Fig.  44).  In  this  case  the  nodal  cross  vein  in  Sca- 
phoideiis  would  be  Ri  when  the  "nodal  vein  arises  from  discal 
cell"  and  R2  when  the  "nodal  vein  arises  from  anteapical  cell". 
In  most  of  the  genera  of  the  Jassidce  radius  branches  once 
and  only  once,  the  resulting  branches  being  R2+3  and  R4+5 
(Figs.  1,  5,  6,  20,  22,  26,  28,  62),  In  several  cases  referred 
to  above  R2  separates  from  R,3.  In  only  one  genus  examined, 
Eutettix  (Fig.  46)  has  R4  and  R5  been  found  separated.  In  this 
case  R4  occurs  as  a  cross  vein  between  R2+3  and  R5.  R2+.S  is 
much  atrophied  and  R4  extends  to  the  margin  traversing  the 
region  usually  occupied  by  R2+3.  In  a  single  genus  examined, 
Empoasca  (Fig.  66),  radius  extends  as  a  single  unbranched 
trachea  from  the  base  of  the  wing  pad  to  the  apex.  Although 
in  the  adult  wing,  in  many  cases,  there  is  a  cross  vein  con- 
necting radius  with  the  margin  of  the  wing. 

MEDIUS    OF   THE    FORE   WING. 

Medius  in  the  Jassidce  is  typically  two-branched.  These 
branches  embrace  Mi  and  M2,  and  M3  and  M4  respectively. 
Mi+2  is  well  developed  in  Chlorotettix  (Fig.  43)  where  it  runs 
parallel  to  R4+5.  It  is  not  so  well  developed  in  Parabolocratus- 
(Fig.  23)  Platy?netopius  (Fig.  26)  and  Gypona  (Fig.  8).  In 
Deltocephalus  (Fig.  28)  M1+2  is  reduced  to  a  mere  spur.  In  the 
other  genera  studied  medius  consists  of  a  single  unbranched 
trachea  which  extends  from  the  base  to  the  apex  of  the  wing  pad,, 
although  in  most  cases  there  is  a  strong  transverse  vein  connect- 
ing medius  with  R4+5.  The  writer  believes  that  the  above 
series,  as  outlined,  represents  fairly  well  the  development  of 
medius  from  a  two-branched  condition  to  a  single  unbranched 
trachea.  If  this  conception  be  correct  M1+2  must  have  come  to 
lie  parallel  with  R4+5  and  has  been  gradually  reduced  until  the 
present  time  it  is  at  most  merely  a  cross  vein  connecting  medius 
with  R4+5.  The  vein  having  persisted  in  some  cases  notwith- 
standing the  fact  that  the  trachea  has  been  lost.  This  is 
especially  evident  in  Agallia  (Fig.  1),  Scaphoideus  (Fig.  44) 
and  Eutettix  (Fig.  46). 

In  the  Typhlocybida  (Fig.  64  and  66)  medius  is  very  evidently 
two  branched.     In  Typhlocyba  (Fig.  64)  R4+5  is  greatly  reduced 


1913]  The  Wing  Venation  of  the  Jassidce  109 

and  resembles  a  cross  vein.  '  The  usual  position  of  R4+5  is 
occupied  by  Mi+2.  In  Empoasca  (Fig.  66)  Rs  coalesces  with 
Mi+2  for  a  short  distance  and  then  diverges  toward  the  costal 
border  M3+4  being  very  distinct. 

CUBITUS  AND  FIRST  ANAL  OF  THE  FORE  WING. 

In  all  of  the  genera  of  Jassidce  examined  the  cubital  and  first 
anal  tracheae  were  the  most  constant  and  formed  one  of  the  best 
landmarks  in  the  study  of  the  relations  of  the  tracheae.  They 
are  coalesced  for  some  little  distance  from  the  base  of  the  wing. 

Cubitus  is  frequently  two  branched  (Figs.  8,  22,  23,  25,  43, 
48,  60).  Here  again  we  can  trace  almost  a  complete  series  from 
a  form  like  Jassus  (Fig.  60)  or  Goniognathus  (Fig.  25),  where 
Cu2  is  equally  as  important  as  Cui,  through  intermediate  forms 
like  Gypona  (Fig.  8),  to  forms  like  Phlepsius  (Fig.  48)  where  Cu2 
is  reduced  to  a  mere  spur. 

In  the  TyphlocybidcB  (Fig.  64  and  66)  M34-4  has  come  to 
occupy  the  region  usually  occupied  by  Cui  and  cubitus  is 
unbranched  and  diverges  strongly  toward  the  anal  border 
which  gives  it  the  appearance  of  having  lost  branch  Cui  and 
having  retained  Cu2. 

The  first  anal  vein  lies  along  the  anal  border  of  the  claval 
suture.  It  has  not  been  usually  recognized  as  a  distinct  vein 
owing  to  the  fact  that  as  a  vein  it  is  rather  inconspicuous  while 
the  claval  suture  or  fold  is  very  distinct.  It  is,  however,  pre- 
ceded by  a  conspicuous  trachea  in  all  of  the  genera  studied. 

SECOND  AND  THIRD  ANALS  OF  THE  FORE  WING. 

The  second  and  third  anal  tracheae  in  the  fore  wing  are  well 
developed  and  the  third  anal  is  frequently  two  branched 
(Figs..  3,  5,  6,  20,  23,  25,  41,  46,  60). 

THE   HIND    WING. 

In  all  of  the  Jassidce  proper  the  hind  wing  is  very  uniform. 
No  costal  or  subcostal  tracheae  have  been  discovered  although 
the  subcostal  vein  was  well  defined  in  all  of  the  older  nymphs 
studied  (Figs.  9,  24,  45,  47). 


110  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


RADIUS    OF    THE    HIND    WING. 

The  radius  is  typically  two  branched  in  the  hind  wing  of  the 
JassidcB.  Several  mounts  of  Spangbergiella  (Fig.  21)  failed  to 
reveal  anything  but  a  single  unbranched  radial  trachea.  In 
the  adult  hind  wing  (Fig.  35)  there  is  faint  indication  of  a  vein 
in  the  position  usually  occupied  by  R24-3. 

R2+3  reaches  its  greatest  development  in  Draeculacephala 
(Fig.  7)  where  it  forms  the  tracheae  that  precedes  the  whole  of 
the  ambient  vein.  In  many  forms,  however,  it  is  very  much 
atrophied  (Figs.  24,  45,  47,  65)  while  in  Empoasca  (Fig.  67)  the 
radius  is  a  simple  unbranched  trachea.  The  radius  of  the 
Typhlocybidce  coalesces  for  a  considerable  distance  with  Mi +2 
(Figs.  65  and  67). 

MEDIUS    OF    THE    HIND    WING. 

Medius  of  the  hind  wing  is  two  branched  in  all  of  the  genera 
that  have  been  examined.  In  the  Typhlocybidce,  however, 
Mi+2  coalesces  with  radius  for  some  distance  and  M3+4  coalesces 
with  cubitus  for  almost  its  entire  length  so  as  to  appear  as  a 
cross  vein  in  the  adult  wing  connecting  medius  with  cubitus 
(Fig.  80).  In  the  other  genera  studied  M1+2  is  connected  with 
R4+5  by  a  short  cross  vein  and  M3+4  is  connected  with  cubitus 
by  a  similar  short  cross  vein.  In  some  cases  the  latter  cross 
vein  is  greatly  reduced  and  in  Jassus  (Fig.  69)  R4+5  and  M1+2 
coalesce  for  a  short  distance  and  again  separate  before  reaching 
the  margin  of  the  wing. 

In  all  of  the  genera  studied  cubitus  is  a  single  unbranched 
trachea  in  the  hind  wing.  Its  relations  with  medius  in  the 
Typhlocybidce  have  already  been  discussed.  As  in  the  fore 
wing,  cubitus  and  first  anal  are  very  closely  united.  Second 
and  third  anal  are  also  present  in  nearly  all  cases  and  third  anal 
is  frequently  two  branched.  The  second  anal  and  the  anterior 
branch  of  the  third  anal  generally  coalesce  for  a  considerable 
distance  near  the  middle  of  their  course  and  are  usually  sepa- 
rated again  near  the  base  of  the  wing  (Figs.  16,  38,  57).  There 
is  always  a  conspicuous  fold  just  posterior  to  the  anterior 
branch  of  the  third  anal. 

HISTORICAL   DISCUSSION. 

A  comparison  of  the  nomenclature  here  suggested  with  the 
nomenclature  current  in  America  and  with  the  nomenclature  as 
suggested  by  Edwards  '94-96  is  given  in  the  subjoined  table. 


1913] 


The  Wing  Venation  of  the  JassidcB 


111 


NOMENCLATURE  OF  VEINS 


TERMINOLOGY 

SUGGESTED 

Subcosta 

R+M 

Radius 

Ri 

R2 

R2+3 

R3 

R4+5 

R4 

Rs 

Medius 

Mi+2 

M3+4 

Cubitus 

Cui 

CU2 

Anal  furrow 
First  Anal 
Second  anal 
Third  anal 
Ambient 


AFTER 
EDWARDS 


CURRENT 
TERMINOLOGY 

Costal  border 
Cubital  First  sector 

Upper  branch  of  cubital     Outer  branch  of  first  sector 

Nodal 
Angular  Nodal 

Anterior  branch  of  outer  sector 

Posterior  branch  of  outer  sector 


Lower  branch  of  cubital     Inner  branch  of  first  sector 


Brachial 


claval  suture 

anal 
axillary 


Second  sector 


claval  suture 

outer  claval 
inner  claval 


NOMENCLATURE  OF  THE  CELLS 


TERMINOLOGY 
SUGGESTED 

Subcosta 

Radius 

Ri 

R2 

First  R3 

Second  R3 

First  R5 

Second  R5 

First  Medius 

Second  Medius 

First  M4 

Second  M4 

Cubitus 

Cui 


AFTER 
EDWARDS 

costal 
subcosta 

Apical 

subapical 

apical 

apical 

apical 

basal 

superbrachial 

Subapical 

apical 

brachial 

apical 


CURRENT 
TERMINOLOGY 


apical 

anteapical 

apical 

anteapical 

apical 


anteapical 
apical 

apical 


112  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


SUMMARY, 

The  present  paper  homologizes  the  wing  veins  of  Jassidce 
with  the  wing  veins  of  other  orders.  The  wing  veins  of  Jassidce 
differ  in  the  following  important  respects  from  those  of  other 
insects. 

1.  The  costal  trachea  is  practically  eliminated  from  the 
wings  of  Jassidce. 

2.  The  subcostal  trachea  is  well  developed  in  some  genera 
and  absent  in  others,  which  indicates  that  it  is  disappearing 
from  Jassidce. 

3.  The  radial  trachea  is  typically  two  branched  in  Jassidce, 
the  branches  present  being  R2+3  and  R4+5. 

4.  The  medial  treachea  is  typically  two  branched,  these 
branches  being  M1+2  and  M3+4. 

5.  The  cubital  trachea  is  two  branched  in  some  cases  and 
unbranched  in  others. 

6.  All  three  anal  trachea  are  present,  the  first  anal  being  very 
closely  connected  with  cubitus.  Third  anal  is  frequently 
two  branched. 

7.  The  ambient  vein  is  a  composite  vein  in  Jassidce,  being 
formed  along  the  overlapping  tips  of  the  principal  trachea. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

The  writer  wishes  to  express  his  appreciation  to  the  following 
persons  who  have  assisted  in  the  preparation  of  this  paper: 
Professor  Herbert  Osborn,  Mr.  R.  L.  Webster,  Mr.  Frankhn 
Sherman,  Jr.,  Mr.  C.  L.  Metcalf  and  Mrs.  Luella  Correll 
Metcalf. 

The  writer  also  wishes  to  express  his  indebtedness  to  the 
writings  of  Osborn  and  Ball  on  the  Jassidce  of  North  America, 
without  which  the  work  of  preparing  this  paper  would  have 
been  much  more  difficult. 


1913]  The  Whig  Venation  of  the  J assidce  113 


REFERENCES. 

Ball,  E.  D.— 1901.  A  Review  of  the  Tettigonidas  of  North  America,  North  of 
Mexico.     Proc.  Iowa  Acad,  Sc.  VIII:  35-75. 

Ball,  E.  D.— 1907.     The  genus  Eutettix.     Proc.  Davenport  Acad.  Sc.  XII:  27-94. 

Comstock,  J.  H.  and  Needham,  J.  G.— 1898-1899.  The  Wings  of  Insects.  Amer. 
Nat.  Chapter  III:  243-249. 

Gillette,  C.  P. — 1898.  American  Leaf  Hoppers  of  the  Subfamily  Typhlocybinse. 
Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.  XX:  709-773. 

Edwards,  J. — 1894-1896.  The  Hemiptera  Homoptera  of  the  British  Islands. 
Parts  I-VIII. 

Melichar,  L. — 1896.     Cicadinen  von  Mittel-Europa. 

Patch,  Edith  M. — 1909.  Homologies  of  the  Wing  Veins  of  the  Aphididae,  Psyl- 
lidse,  Aleurodidse  and  Coccidae.     Ann.  Ent.  Soc.  of  America.     II:  101-129. 

Osborn,  H. — 1900.  The  Genus  Scaphoideus.  Jour.  Cin.  Soc.  Nat.  Hist.  XIX: 
187-209. 

Osborn,  H.— 1905.  Jassidse  of  New  York  State.  20th  Rept.  State  Ent.  of  New 
York.     498-545. 

Osborn,  H. — 1911.  Remarks  on  the  Genus  Scaphoideus  with  a  Revised  Key  and 
New  American  Species.     Ohio  Nat.  XI:  249-261. 

Osborn,  H.  and  Ball,  E.  D. — 1897.  Contributions  to  the  Hemipterous  Fauna  of 
Iowa.     Proc.  Iowa  Acad.  Sc.  IV:  172-234. 

Osborn,  H.  and  Ball,  E.  D. — 1898.  Studies  of  North  American  Jassoidea.  Proc. 
Davenport  Acad.  Nat.  Sc.  VII:  45-100. 

Osborn,  H.  and  Ball,  E.  D. — 1902.  A  Review  of  the  North  American  Species  of 
Athysanus  (Jassideas)  Ohio  Nat.  II:  231-256. 

Signoret,  V. — 1878.     Essai  sur  les  Jassides. 

Van  Duzee  E.  P. — 1892.  A  Synoptical  Arrangement  of  the  Genera  of  the  North 
American  Jassideae  with  Descriptions  of  some  new  species.  Trans.  Am. 
Ent.  Soc.     XIX:  295-307. 

Van  Duzee,  E.  P.— 1894.  A  catalogue  of  the  Described  Jassoidea  of  North  Amer- 
ica.    Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc.     XXI:  245-317. 

Van  Duzee,  E.  P. — 1908.  Observations  on  some  Hemiptera  taken  in  Florida  in 
the  Spring  of  1908.     Bull.  Buffalo  Soc.  Nat.  Sc.  IX:  149-230. 


114 


Annals  Entomological  Society  Jo  America     [Vol.  VI, 


EXPLANATION  OF  PLATES. 
Plate  VI IL 


Fi 

g.     1- 

Fore  wing  pac 

1  of  Agallia  J^-punctata  Prov. 

'      2. 

Hind 

<i 

'       Agallia  ^-punctata  Prov. 

'       3. 

Fore 

" 

'       Oncometopia  undata  Fabr. 

'       4. 

Hind 

" 

'       Oncometopia  undata  Fabr. 

'       5. 

Fore 

" 

'       Diedrocephala  coccinea  Forst. 

'       6. 

Fore 

<( 

'       Draeculacephala  mollipes  Say. 

'      7. 

Hind 

" 

'       Draeculacephala  mollipes  Say. 

'       8. 

Fore 

" 

'       Gypona  8-lineata  Say. 

'       9. 

Hind 

"         "       Gypona  8-Hneata  Say. 
Plate  IX. 

Fig.  10. 

Fore  wi 

ng  of  A  gal  Ha  cons  trie  ta  Van  Duzee. 

'     11. 

Hind 

"         Agalia  constricta  Van  Duzee. 

'     12. 

Fore 

"         Oncometopia  iindata  Fabr. 

'     13. 

Hind 

"         Oncometopia  nndata  Fabr. 

'     14. 

Fore 

"         Diedrocephala  coccinea  Forst. 

'     15. 

Fore 

"         Draeculacephala  mollipes  Say. 

'     16. 

Hind 

"         Draeculacephala  mollipes  Say. 

'     17. 

Fore 

"         Penthimia  americana  Fitcli. 

'     18. 

Fore 

"         Gypona  8-lineata  Say. 

'     19. 

Hind 

"         Gypona  8-lineata  Say. 
Plate  X. 

Fi 

g.  20. 

Fore  wi 

ng  pad  of  Spangbergiella  vidnerata  Uliler. 

'     21. 

Hind 

" 

'       Spangbergiella  vidnerata  Uhler. 

'     22. 

Fore 

" 

'       Athysanns  sp. 

'     23. 

Fore 

" 

'       Parabolocratus  viridis  Uhler. 

'     24. 

Hind 

" 

'       Parabolocratus  viridis  Uhler 

'     25. 

Fore 

" 

'       Goniagnathus  palmeri  Van  Duzee. 

'     26. 

Fore 

" 

'       Platymetopius  sp. 

'     27. 

Hind 

u 

'       Platymetopius  sp. 

'     28. 

Fore 

" 

'       Deltocephalus  sp. 

'     29. 

Hind 

"         "       Deltocephalus  sp. 
Plate  XI. 

Fi 

g.  30. 

Fore  wi 

ng  Xerophloea  viridis  Fabr. 

'     31. 

Fore     ' 

Spangbergiella  vidnerata  Uhler. 

'     32. 

Hind    ' 

Athysanns  exitiosns  Uhler. 

'     33. 

Fore     ' 

Athysanus  exitiosns  Uhler. 

'     34. 

Fore     ' 

Parabolocratus  viridis  Uhler 

'     35. 

Hind     ' 

Spangbergiella  vidnerata  Uhler. 

'     36. 

Fore     ' 

Goniagnathus  palmeri  Van  Duzee, 

'     37. 

Fore     ' 

Platymetopius  sp. 

'     38. 

Hind    ' 

Platymetopius  sp. 

'     39. 

Fore     ' 

Deltocephalus  obtectus  0.  &  B. 

'     40. 

Hind     ' 

Deltocephalus  obtectus  0.  &  B. 
Plate  XII. 

Fi 

g.  41. 

Fore  wi 

ng  pad  of  Acinopterus  aciiminatus  Van  Duzee 

'     42. 

Hind 

" 

'       Acinopterus  aciiminatus  Van  Duzee 

*     43. 

Fore 

(1 

'       Chlorotettix  viridia  Van  Duzee. 

'     44. 

Fore 

" 

'       Scaphoideus  sp. 

'     45. 

Hind 

" 

'       Scaphoideus  sp. 

'     46. 

Fore 

" 

'       Eutettix  sp. 

'     47. 

Hind 

li 

'       Eutettix  sp. 

'     48. 

Fore 

"         ' 

'       Phlepsius  sp. 

'     49. 

Hind 

"         ' 

'       Phlepsius  sp. 

1913]  The  Wing  Venation  of  the  Jassidce  115 


Plate  XIII. 

Fig.  50.  Fore  wing  of  Acinoptenis  aciiminatus  Van  Duzee. 

"  51.  Hind      "         Acinopterus  acuminatns  Van  Duzee. 

"  52.  Fore       "         Chlorotettix  viridia  Van  Duzee. 

"  53.  Fore       "         Scaphhoideus  productiis  Osb. 

"  54.  Hind       "         Scaphhoideus  productus  Osb. 

"  55.  Fore       "         Thamnotettix  kennicottii  Uhler. 

"  56.  Fore       "         Eulettix  subaenea  Van  Duzee. 

"  57.  Hind      "         Eutettix  subaenea  Van  Duzee. 

"  58.  Fore       "         Phlepsius  sp. 

"  59.  Hind       "         Phlepsius  sp. 

Plate  XIV. 
Fig.  60.     Fore  wing  pad  of  Jassus  olitoritis  Say. 
"       Jassus  olitorius  Sav. 


61.  Hind 

62.  Fore 

63.  Hind 

64.  Fore 

65.  Hind 

66.  Fore 

67.  Hirid 


"  Cicadula  sp. 

"  Cicadula  sp. 

"  Typhlocyba  sp. 

"  Typhlocyba  sp. 

"  Empoasca  mail  Le  B. 

"  Empoasca  mail  Le  B. 

Plate  XV. 

Fig.  68.  Fore  wing  of  Jassus  olitorius  vSay. 

69.  Hind  "  Jassus  olitorius  Say. 

70.  Fore  "  Cicadula  slossoni  Van  Duzee. 

71.  Hind  "  Cicadula  slossoni  Van  Duzee. 

72.  Fore  "  Dicraneura  mollicula  Bohem.,  redrawn  ivomMelichar. 

73.  Hind  "  Dicraneura  mollicula  Bohem.,  redrawn  from  Melichar. 

74.  Fore  "  En pter yx  vanduzei  GiW.,  redrawn,  irom  Gillette. 

75.  Hind  "  Eupteryx  vanduzei  G\\l.,  redrawn  irom  Gillette. 

76.  Fore  "  Dicraneura  crucntata  Gill.,  redrawn  ironi  Gillette. 

77.  Fore  "  Typhlocyba  illinoiensis  Gill. 

78.  Hind  "  Typhlocyba  illinoiensis  Gill. 

79.  Fore  "  Empoasca  mali  Le  B. 

80.  Hind  "  Empoasca  mali  Le  B. 


Annai.s  E.  S.  a. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  VIII. 


Z.  P.  Metcalf. 


Annai,s  E.  s.  a. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  IX. 


Z.  P.  Metcalf. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  X. 


Z.  P.  Meicalf. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XI. 


Z.  P.  Metcalf. 


Annals  E.  S.  a. 


Vol.  VI,  I'LATE  Xir. 


Z.  P.  Metcalf. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  Vr,  Plate  XIII. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XIV. 


M,+a 


66 


s— 


<5c 


X 


RtM, 


67 


Z.  P.  Metcalf. 


ANNAI.S  E.  S.    A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XV. 


Z.  P.  Mttcalf. 


A  NEW  HYMENOPTEROUS  PARASITE  ON  ASPIDIOTUS 
PERNICIOSUS  COMST.* 

By  Daniel  G.  Tower,  Amherst,  Mass. 

This  parasite  was  reared  during  October,  1912,  from  Aspid- 
iotus  perniciosus  Comst.  at  Amherst,  Mass.  Specimens  were 
sent  to  Dr.  L.  O.  Howard,  who  returned  them  with  the  state- 
ment that  they  were  a  new  species  of  Prospaltella  and  could 
safely  be  described  as  such.  Acting  on  this  advice  the  following 
descriptions  of  male  and  female  have  been  prepared,  under  the 
supervision  of  Dr.  H.  T.  Fernald. 

This  new  species  can  be  inserted  in  Dr.  Howard's  key  to  the 
species  of  Prospaltella  (Ann.  Ent.  Soc.  Am.,  I,  281,  1908),  by 
adding  a  fourth  alternative  to  section  five  as  follows:     "Wings 

with  a  broad  dusky  band  below  marginal  vein, 6," 

and  by  adding  to  section  six  the  alternative,  "Wings  with  a 
broad  dusky  band  below  marginal  vein:  abdomen  nearly 
black"  which  would  lead  to  this  species. 

Prospaltella  perniciosi  n.  sp. 

Female:  Length,  0.61  mm.;  expanse,  1.73  mm.;  greatest  width  of 
fore-wing,  0.25  mm.  General  color  of  living  specimens  black  with  the 
meso-scutellum  showing  as  a  prominent  light  dot.  In  zylol-balsam 
mounts  the  head  and  central  portions  of  the  thorax  are  light  brown. 
Head:  vertex  yellowish  brown;  occiput  dark;  ocelli  dark;  eyes  black 
and  hairy,  the  hairs  about  as  long  as  the  diameter  of  a  facet.  Antenna: 
brownish  yellow;  bulb  twice  as  long  as  wide,  cylindrical  and  nearly 
hyaline ;  scape  nearly  five  times  as  long  as  wide,  nearly  hyaline  at  each  end, 
more  or  less  cylindrical  to  spindle  shaped;  pedicle  slightly  longer  than 
wide,  narrow  at  its  base,  widest  well  toward  its  tip,  its  inner  side  much 
farther  from  the  axis  of  the  antenna  than  its  outer  side;  first  funicle 
segment  connected  with  pedicle  by  a  narrow  somewhat  elongate  stalk, 
which  is  quite  hyaline;  this  segment  a  trifle  more  than  half  the  length 
of  the  next  and  irregular  in  outline;  second  and  third  segments  of  the 
funicle  nearly  equal  in  size  and  nearly  cylindrical ;  segments  of  the  club 
more  closely  articulated  to  each  other  than  to  the  funicle  or  than  are 
the  segments  of  the  funicle  to  each  other;  club  slightly  longer  than 
funicle;  first  two  segments  about  equal  in  length,  their  greatest  diameter 
being  at  their  outer  ends;  terminal  segment  elongate,  triangular  in 
outline,  and  longer  than  either  of  the  other  segments,  bluntly  pointed 
at  tip;  all  segments  of  antenna  bearing  scattered  hairs. 

*  Contribution  from  the  Entomological  Laboratory,  Massachusetts  Agri- 
cultural College. 

125 


126  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

Thorax:  Pronotum  dark;  nicsoscutum  brownish  yellow,  darker 
near  the  anterior  edge,  mesoscutar  parapsida  same  color  or  lighter  than 
mesoscutum  with  a  darker  spot  well  forward  toward  the  base  of  the 
fore-wing;  scapula  dark;  mesoscutellum  noticeably  paler  than  meso- 
scutum. Behind  the  mesoscutellum  are  two  narrow  transverse  plates 
dark  toward  their  lateral  margins  and  light  near  the  middle,  the  poster- 
ior plate  with  a  spiracle  near  each  lateral  margin.  Marginal  and  sub- 
marginal  veins  of  fore-wing  nearly  equal  in  length;  end  of  stigmal  vein 
obscurely  pointed,  not  reaching  wing  margin,  its  upper  side  slightly 
emarginated,  its  anal  margin  broadly  rounded;  a  broad  dusky  band 
crosses  the  fore-wing  below  the  marginal  vein;  hind  wing  lanceolate; 
legs  pale  yellow  except  the  coxse,  femora,  and  basal  halves  .of  the  tibiag, 
these  being  dark,  the  coxa  being  the  darkest  portion  of  each  leg,  those 
of  the  hind  legs  being  the  darkest;  fore-legs  as  a  whole  the  lightest  and 
the  hind  legs  the  darkest;  trochanters  nearly  hyaline. 

Abdomen:  Short,  broad,  nearly  quadrangular  in  outline;  quite 
dark  with  faint  transverse  lighter  bands  and  a  yellowish  brown  area  near 
the  genitalia:  with  spines  directed  backward  evident  on  the  sides 
(above  and  below  also?). 

Male:  Length,  0.56  mm.;  expanse,  1.54  mm.;  greatest  width  of 
fore-wings,  0.20  mm.  Living  and  mounted  specimens  appear  the  same 
as  females,  except  that  they  are  smaller,  and  the  mesoscutellum  is  not 
as  light  in  color.  The  antenna  differs  in  that  the  first  funicle  segment 
is  as  long  as  the  second,  and  its  diameter  at  its  distal  end  is  greater  than 
the  diameter  of  either  of  the  other  two  funicle  segments.  Its  base  is 
rounded  and  stalked,  and  it  does  not  give  the  effect  of  a  bead  as  does 
the  corresponding  segment  in  the  female  antenna.  The  articulation 
between  the  second  and  third  segments  of  the  club  is  not  as  evident  as 
between  the  first  and  second  segments,  while  in  the  female  both  articu- 
lations are  very  clear  and  well  defined.  The  thorax  as  a  whole  is  darker 
than  that  of  the  female,  the  only  light  portions  being  the  mesoscutellum 
and  the  portion  of  the  mesoscutar  parapsida  nearest  it.  The  hind 
margin  of  the  stigmal  vein  is  more  angular  than  in  the  female.  The 
faintly  cloudy  band  below  the  marginal  vein  is  hardly  distinguishable. 
The  abdomen  is  short,  much  narrower  than  the  thorax,  truncate,  dark 
and  not  showing  lighter  bands,  but  lighter  near  the  genitalia  which 
extrude,  the  tips  of  these  being  nearh'  hyaline. 

Described  from  one  female  type  and  forty-three  paratypes 
(on  twelve  slides)  and  one  male  type  and  four  paratypes  (five 
slides).  The  male  type  (one  slide)  and  the  female  type  with 
eleven  paratypes  (one  slide)  in  the  collection  of  the  Massachu- 
setts Agricultural  College,  Amherst. 

One  male  and  nine  female  paratypes  (two  slides)  deposited 
in  the  U.  S.  National  Museum  (Type  No.  15453). 

The  remaining  paratypes  male  and  female  together  with 
some  female  metatypes,  have  been  retained  by  the  author. 


ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  AMERICA. 
Organized    1906. 


Officers  for  1913. 

President. 
Ch.^rles  J.  S.  Bethune Ontario  Ao^r'l  College,  Guelph,  Ontario 

First    Vice-President. 
Philip  P.  Calvert University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadclphai,  Pa. 

Second  Vice-President. 
William  M.  Marshall University  of  Wisconsin,  Madison,  Wis. 

Secretary-Treasurer . 
Alex.  D.  MacGillivray University  of  Illinois,  Urbana,  111. 

ADDITIONAL  MEMBERS  OF  EXECUTIVE  COMMITTEE. 

Herbert  Osborn,  Ohio  State  University,  Columbus,  Ohio. 
C.  P.  Gillette,  Colorado  Agricultural  Experiment  Station, 

Fort    Collins,    Colorado. 
Vernon  L.  Kellogg,  Leland  Stanford  Jr.,  University, 

Stanford  University,  California. 
James  G.  Needham,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  New  York. 
C.  T.  Brues,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts. 
Nathan  Banks,  United  States  National  Museum,  Washington,  D.  C. 

committee  on  nomenclature. 
T.  D.  A.  Cockerell,  University  of  Colorado,  Boulder,  Colorado,  1913. 
H.  T.  Fernald,  Massachusetts  Agr'l  College,  Amherst,  Mass.,  191-1. 
E.  P.  Felt,  New  York  State  Entomologist,  Albany,  N.  Y.,  1915. 

councilors  for  the  AMERICAN  ASSOCIATION  FOR  THE 
ADVANCEMENT    OF    SCIENCE. 

Charles  J.  S.  Bethune,  Ontario  Agricultural  College,  Guelph,  Ontario. 
Stephen  A.  Forbes,  University  of  Illinois,  Urbana,  Illinois. 

editorial  board  of  annals. 
Herbert  Osborn,  Managing  Editor,  Ohio  State  University, 

Columbus,   Ohio. 
J.  H.  CoMSTOCK,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  New  York. 
Charles  J.  S.  Bethune,  Ontario  Agricultural  College  Guelph,  Ontario. 
C.  W.  Johnson,  Boston  Society  of  Natural  History,  Boston,  Mass. 
Vernon  L.  Kellogg,  Leland  Stanford  Jr.,  University, 

Stanford  University,   Cal. 
L.  O.  Howard,  Chief,  Bureau  of  Entomology,  Washington,  D.  C. 
W.  M.  Wheeler,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts. 
Philip  P.  Calvert,  University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
J.  W.  Folsom,  University  of  Illinois,  Urbana,  Illinois. 

127 


128  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America     [Vol.  VI, 


RESOLUTIONS 
On  the  Death  of  John  B.  Smith, 

John  Bernard  Smith,  D.  Sc.  Professor  of  Entomology 
Rutgers  College,  Entomologist  N.  J.  Agricultural  Experiment 
Station,  Fellow  and  former  President  of  the  Entomological 
Society  of  America,  died  at  his  home  in  New  Brunswick,  New 
Jersey,  on  March  12,  1912. 

As  an  ardent  collector,  systematist,  and  morphologist ; 
Editor  of  Entomologica  Americana;  Assistant  Curator  of 
Insects  in  the  National  Museum;  Professor  of  Entomology, 
and  Entomologist  of  the  Agricultural  Experiment  Station  of 
New  Jersey,  Dr.  Smith's  contributions  to  American  Entomology 
have  been  of  such  extended  and  valuable  character  that  his 
name  has  been  and  will  remain  a  familiar  one  to  workers  in 
Entomology. 

He  was  a  genial  friend  and  companion  and  remembrance  of 
his  personal  traits  will  be  treasured  as  among  the  lasting  pos- 
sessions of  memory  among  his  associates. 

As  a  devoted  member  and  officer  in  this  society  he  labored 
faithfully  in  promoting  its  welfare  and  we  now  resolve  that  this 
tribute  to  his  character  be  printed  in  the  Annals  of  the  Society 
as  the  public  expression  of  our  admiration  for  the  man  and  our 
sense  of  loss  in  his  death. 

Committee  Herbert  Osborn, 

Henry  Skinner, 
E.  P.  Felt. 


JOHN  B.  SMITH. 


Plate  XVI. 


THOMAS  H.  MONTGOMERY. 


Plate  XVII. 


1913]  Resolutions  129 


RESOLUTIONS 

On  the  Death  of  Thomas  H.  Montgomery. 

In  the  death  of  Professor  Thomas  H.  Montgomery,  Jr.,  on 
March  19,  1912,  the  Entomological  Society  of  America  lost  a 
member  whose  entomological  work  was  concerned  mainly  with 
the  Hemiptera  and  the  Araneina,  dealing  with  various  phases 
of  the  morphology,  embryology  and  ecology  of  these  groups  in 
themselves,  and  as  furnishing  material  for  studies  on  the  deeper 
problems  of  inheritance  and  sex-determination.  He  did  not 
confine  himself  to  these  groups  of  animals  but  extended  his 
researches  to  other  non-entomological  fields  of  zoology  and  in 
all  he  made  valuable  contributions  to  knowledge  and  to  theory. 
In  appreciation  of  his  accomplishments  and  in  sorrow  at 
his  early  death,  we  enter  this  record  on  our  minutes  and  extend 
to  Mrs.  Montgomery  our  deep  sympathy  in  her  and  our  loss. 

Committee         Philip  P.  Calvert, 
Henry  Skinner, 
j.  h.  comstock. 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY 

OF  AMERICA. 


Cleveland  Meeting. 

The  seventh  annual  meeting  of  the  Entomological  Society 
of  America  was  called  to  order  by  President  Stephen  A.  Forbes 
at  10:00  A.  M.,  Tuesday,  December  31st,  in  the  Auditorium  of 
the  Normal  School.  All  the  meetings  of  the  Society  were  well 
attended,  seventy-five  or  more  at  each  session,  and  it  was  pro- 
nounced by  several  the  best  meeting  of  the  Society  that  they 
had  attended.  The  following  committees  appointed  previous 
to  the  meeting,  were  named: 

Committee  to  draft  resolutions  on  the  death  of  Dr.  John 
Bernhardt  Smith — Herbert  Osborn,  Henry  Skinner,  E.  P.  Felt. 

Committee  to  draft  resolutions  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Thomas 
Harrison  Montgomery,  Jr. — Philip  P.  Calvert,  Henry  Skinner, 
J.  H.  Comstock. 

The  chair  was  directed  by  motion  to  appoint  the  following 
committees:  Committee  on  Resolutions;  Committee  on  Nom- 
inations; Auditing  Committee. 

The  following  papers  were  then  read : 

C.  Betten,  Lake  Forest  University;  A?i  Interesting  Feature  in 
the  Venation  of  Flelico psyche,  the  Molannidce,  and  the  Lepto- 
ceridce.     (Printed  in  this  number  of  Annals). 

Discussion:  W.  A.  Riley — Dr.  Betten's  interpretation  of 
the  modifications  of  R5  is  especially  interesting  as  still  further 
emphasizing  the  close  relationship  in  wing  venation  between 
the  Trichoptera  and  the  Lepidoptera.  The  lepidopterous 
wing  venation  exhibits  specialization  by  reduction  and  Dr. 
Betten  has  clearly  demonstrated  that  what  has  been  regarded 
as  an  accessory  vein  is  really  a  branch  of  a  primary  vein. 

Lucy  W.  Smith,  Mt.  Holyoke  College:  Mating  and  Egg- 
laying  Habits  of  Perla  immarginata.  (To  appear  in  June  num- 
ber of  Annals.) 

Alvah  Peterson,  University  of  Illinois:  Head  and  Mouth 
parts  of  Cephalothrips  yuccce. 

A  preliminary  report  on  the  asymmetry  of  the  mouth-parts  of 
Thysanoptera.  A  detailed  description  of  the  anatomy  of  the  mouth- 
parts  and  head  capsiile  of  Cephalothrips  yuccce,  a  species  belonging  to  the 
suborder  Tubulifera,  was  given.  Numerous  details  and  parts  hereto- 
fore undescribed  as  to  mandibles,  hypopharynx,  epipharynx,  arms  of 
tentorium,  etc.,  were  shown.  Similar  observations  were  made  on 
A  nthothrips  verbasci  in  order  to  verify  results  found  in  Cephalothrips  yuccce. 


1913]  Proceedings  of  the  Cleveland  Meeting  131 

Comparing  the  work  done  by  H.  Garman  on  Limothrips  cerealium, 
a  species  of  Terebrantia,  with  the  work  done  by  Muir  and  Kershaw,  on 
a  species  of  Tubulifera,  a  difference  in  interpretation  exists  as  to  whether 
the  asymmetrical  parts  are  mandibles  or  maxillag.  Muir  and  Kershaw 
interpret  the  asymmetrical  parts  as  maxillse.  Observations  made  by  the 
writer  on  two  species  of  Tubulifera  verify  their  position  in  general. 
The  writer  expects  to  continue  his  observations  on  species  of  the  sub- 
order Terebrantia  to  determine  if  possible  whether  the  interpretation 
of  H.  Garman  is  correct  or  not. 

Discussion:  R.  A.  Cooley — It  was  asked  as  to  whether  any 
evidence  of  glandular  secretion  from  the  mouth  was  found, 
which  being  answered  in  the  negative,  it  was  stated  that  in  a 
species  feeding  on  terminals  of  currant  and  gooseberry  we  have 
noticed  a  considerable  distortion  of  the  leaves  and  stem,  sug- 
geting  the  possibility  of  a  secretion  introduced  while  feeding. 

J.  E.  Wodsedalek,  University  of  Wisconsin:  Life  History 
and  Habits  of  Trogoderma  tarsale,  a  Museum  Pest.  Read 
by  Title. 

Leonard  Haseman,  University  of  Missouri:  Life  Cycle  and 
Development  of  the  Tarnished  Plant  Bug,  Lygus  pratensis  Lin. 
Presented  by  the  Secretary. 

Owing  to  the  very  serious  injury  to  peach  and  pear  in  the  early 
spring  which  seemed  to  be  due  to  the  work  of  the  tarnished  plant-bug, 
the  writer  has  undertaken  a  careftil  study  of  the  life  cycle,  habits  and 
development  of  this  insect.  The  work  has  been  carried  through  the 
late  summer  and  fall  months  and  will  be  continued  throughout  the 
following  spring  and  siimmer. 

In  this  work  it  has  been  found  that  the  tarnished  plant-bug  breeds 
largely  upon  various  flowering  weeds  such  as  wild  asters,  daisies,  and 
mare's  tail  {Erigeron  canadensis).  The  tarnished  plant-bug  deposits 
its  eggs  in  the  blossoms  of  the  host  plant  and  not  in  the  tissue  of  the 
leaves  or  stems.  These  eggs  hatch  in  from  five  to  seven  days  and  the 
insect  passes  through  five  distinct  nymphal  stages  in  its  development 
in  the  place  of  four,  as  other  writers  have  maintained.  The  insect 
remains  in  each  nymphal  stage  for  about  the  same  length  of  time  and 
completes  its  growth  in  from  thirty  to  thirty-five  days. 

Discussion:  P.  J.  Parrott — There  occurs  in  New  York  a 
species  (Lygus  invitus)  Say  which  is  during  some  seasons  quite 
destructive  to  pears.  In  feeding  on  the  fruit,  the  epidermis  is 
ruptured  by  the  proboscis  and  protruding  granular  areas  form 
about  the  wounds.  This  species  closely  resembles  pratensis  and 
is  easily  confused  with  it.  In  order  to  establish  distinguishing 
characters  we  have  bred  the  two  insects  through  their  various 
life  stages.     Both  species  have  five  nymphal  instars  and  can 


132  .  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

easily  be  separated  by  certain  characters  which  we  hope  to 
explain  later.  I  noted  with  much  interest  the  remarks  on 
oviposition  habits  of  pratensis,  and  I  would  also  add  that  we 
have  obtained  the  eggs  of  this  species  from  ripe  strawberries, 
raspberries  and  blackberries,  and  for  rearing  the  insect  during 
its  various  nymphal  stages  we  have  found  nothing  more  satis- 
factory than  the  berries  of  these  different  fruits. 

Victor  E.  Shelford,  University  of  Chicago:  The  Ontogeny  of 
Elytral  Pigmentation  in  Cicindela. 

The  pigment  develops  in  the  form  of  a  faint  pattern,  somewhat 
variable  but  with  certain  lighter  areas  occurring  in  the  same  general 
position  in  several  species.  These  lighter  areas  lie  between  the  trachea? 
and  in  certain  transverse  bands:  their  positions  correspond  to  those  of 
certain  white  markings  of  Ethiopian  and  Oriental  species. 

Discussion:  Miss  Annette  Braun — The  question  was  raised 
as  to  whether  the  position  of  the  dark  transverse  bands  on  the 
elytra  of  Cicindela  is  determined  by  structural  characters  of  the 
elytra,  citing  work  on  the  ontogeny  of  wing  pattern  in  certain 
moths  where  the  position  of  the  tip  of  the  veins  decides  the 
position  of  markings,  the  tip  of  the  vein  remaining  unpigmented. 

V.  E.  Shelford.  The  dark  cross  bands  which  separate  the 
spots  are  not  correlated  with  any  known  elytral  structures. 
There  is  no  evidence  of  metamerism  in  the  wing.  The  pigment 
develops  throughout  the  elytron,  the  base  does  not  appear 
oldest. 

N.  L.  Partridge,  University  of  Illinois:  The  Tracheation  of 
the  Pupal  Wings  of  some  Saturnians. 

A  method  of  preparing  permanent  mounts  of  lepidopterous  pupal 
wings  was  described.  The  pupal  wings  were  removed  in  the  customary 
manner  and  the  specimens  secured,  floated  upon  clean  water  to  straighten 
the  wings  and  remove  any  dirt  which  might  adhere  to  them.  Then 
they  were  placed  on  a  clean,  untreated,  glass  slide,  smoothed,  and  allowed 
to  dry,  without  further  treatment.  The  result  was  a  transparent 
mount  showing  all  the  tracheoles  as  well  as  the  tracheae.  Some  of  these 
mounts  were  used  as  lantern  slides  giving  clear  images  on  the  screen. 

It  was  shown  that  a  greater  amount  of  variation  was  found  in  the 
pupal  wings  than  in  the  adult  wings.  The  homologies  between  the 
tracheae  and  veins  of  the  specimens  shown  was  indicated. 

L.  B.  Walton,  Kenyon  College:  Studies  on  the  Month-parts 
of  Rhyparobia  maderice  (Blattidce)  with  a  consideration  of  the 
Homologies  existing  between  the  Appendages  of  the  Hexapoda. 

The  question  as  to  the  homologies  existing  among  the  paired  append- 
ages of  the  Hexapoda  has  received  attention  from  various  investigators. 


1913]  Proceedings  of  the  Cleveland  Meeting  133 

and  in  particular  from  Hansen,  Heymons,  Borner,  Verhoeff,  and  Esch- 
erich,  none  of  whom  however  have  progressed  far  toward  a  satisfactory 
solution  of  the  problem.  In  general  it  has  been  accepted  that  the 
stipes  and  mentum  correspond  to  the  thoracic  and  abdominal  coxas 
while  the  maxillary  and  labial  palpi  were  equivalent  to  the  trochanter, 
femur,  etc.,  or  the  functional  leg. 

Studies  on  Rhyparobia  maderice  the  "giant  cockroach  "  from  Panama, 
particularly  of  10  mm.  and  12  mm.  embryos,  as  well  as  other  investiga- 
tions in  connection  with  the  appendages  of  the  Thysanura,  make  it 
evident  that  the  typical  appendage  (mouth-parts,  thoracic,  abdominal, 
caudal)  of  the  Hexapoda  consists  of  seven  definite  areas  best  represented 
by  the  maxillas  with  the  galea,  lacina,  ectostipe,^  endostipe,  ectocardo, 
endocardo,  and  palpus.  Futhermore  the  palpus  should  be  homologized 
with  the  stylus  of  the  thoracic  and  abdominal  coxas  and  not  with  the 
functional  leg,  inasmuch  as  both  palpus  and  stylus  are  appendages  of 
homodynamous  areas  (ectostipe,  ectomentum,  meron)  while  the  leg  is 
an  appendage  of  the  area  (endocoxa)  corresponding  to  the  endostipes. 

The  facts  noted  suggest  the  origin  of  the  biramose  appendage  of  the 
Hexapoda  directly  from  the  parapodium  of  the  Polychaeta,  the  noto- 
podium  and  neuropodium  arising  in  connection  with  the  dorsal  and 
ventral  bundles  of  setae  and  corresponding  to  the  outer  (ectal)  and  inner 
(endal)  groups  of  sclerites  as  outlined  above.  It  would  thus  appear  that 
the  Arthropoda  are  a  polyphyletic  group,  and  that  the  relationship 
between  the  appendages  of  the  Hexapoda  and  Crustacea  is  a  more 
remote  one  than  generally  accepted  in  connection  with  the  studies  of 
Hansen  and  Borner. 

The  historical  development  of  the  problem  as  well  as  the  presenta- 
tion of  the  facts  which  would  seem  to  establish  the  views  here  advanced, 
will  appear  in  the  completed  paper  of  which  this  is  a  partial  summary. 

Discussion:  W.  A.  Riley — I  have  been  especially  inter- 
ested to  learn  that  Dr.  Walton  is  swinging  away  from  his  earlier 
belief  in  the  double  nature  of  the  insect  segment.  It  has 
seemed  to  me  that  embryological  data  afforded  no  evidence  in 
support  of  the  theory  though  there  are  indications  of  the 
biramous  nature  of  the  appendages.  The  theory  of  the  origin 
of  the  insect  appendages  from  the  pleuropodes  receives  much 
additional  support  from  the  work  here  presented. 

The  President  announced  the  following  committees : 

Committee  on  Resolutions — S.  J.  Hunter,  W.  A.  Riley,  and 
L.  B.  Walton. 

Committee  on  Nominations— Herbert  Osbom,  R.  A.  Cooley,  and 
Cornelius  Betten. 

Auditing  Committee — P.  J.  Parrot,  A.  F.  Burgess,  and  W.  E.  Britton. 

1.  The  prefixes  "  ecto  "  and  "  endo  "  have  been  utilized  in  an  attempt  to 
establish  a  better  nomenclature  while  minor  changes  have  been  made  in  the 
terminology  of  older  parts,  e.  g.  "  ectostipes  "  is  a  more  cumbersome  term  than 
"  ectostipe." 


134  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

The  Society  then  adjourned  to  meet  at  2:00  p.  m.  when  the 
following  business  was  transacted  and  papers  read : 

The  Committee  appointed  to  draft  resolutions  on  the  death 
of  Dr.  John  Behrnhardt  Smith  presented  their  report.  It  was 
ordered  accepted  and  printed. 

James  Zetek,  Sanitary  Commission  Canal  Zone:  Determin- 
ing the  Flight  of  Mosquitoes.     Read  by  Title, 

William  A.  Riley,  Cornell  University:  Some  Sources  of 
Laboratory  Material  for  Worlz  on  the  Relation  of  Insects  to 
Disease. 

The  demand  for  at  least  elementary  courses  on  the  relation  of  insects 
to  disease  brings  up  the  question  as  to  available  laboratory  material. 
There  is  comparatively  little  difficulty  in  obtaining  the  parasitic  mites, 
ticks,  lice,  house-flies,  mosquitoes  and  fleas  in  their  various  stages,  but 
it  is  usually  assumed  that  most  of  the  pathogenic  Protozoa  are  tropical 
species  and  that  nothing  can  be  substituted  for  them  in  laboratory 
work.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  a  number  of  insect-borne  Protozoa  and 
worms  occur  in  this  country  and  together  with  other  blood  parasites 
whose  life-history  is  less  better  known,  are  available  for  laboratory 
work.  The  species  discussed  were  Trypanosoma  lewisi  a  widely  dis- 
tributed parasite  of  brown  rats;  Trypanosoma  rotator ium  from  the  frog; 
the  related  Corithidia  from  the  "sheep  tick";  Herpetomonas  from  the 
house-fly;  Monocystis  from  the  seminal  vesicles  of  the  earth  worm  as 
introductory  to  the  study  of  the  Haemosporidia ;  Lankesterella  ranarum 
Haemogregarina  sp.;  Proteosoma,  Halteridium,  Babesia  hilaria  in  the 
blood  of  the  crow  and  English  sparrow,  and  Dipylidium  caninum,  the 
double-spored  tape  worm  of  dogs,  cats,  and  man. 

Discussion:  F.  L.  Washburn — It  was  asked  whether  Dr. 
Riley  had  ever  found  acridids  killed  by  the  presence  of  an 
excessive  number  of  gregarines.  Being  answered  in  the  nega- 
tive, it  was  stated  that  a  party  in  western  Oregon  had  recently 
written  him  of  the  occurrence  of  large  swarms  of  locusts  in  the 
Willamette  valley  which  did  not  lay  eggs,  but  perished  in  large 
numbers  and  a  microscopical  examination  disclosed  a  very 
large  number  of  gregarines  in  each  insect  and  the  reproductive 
glands  entirely  disintegrated. 

,  Y.  H.  Tsoii  and  S.  B.  Fr acker,  University  of  Illinois:     The 
Homology  of  the  Body  Setce  of  Lepidopterous  LarvcE. 

This  paper  consisted  (1)  of  a  statement  of  the  difficulties  involved 
in  homologizing  the  body  setas  of  these  larvae,  (2)  of  a  consideration  of 
the  serial  homology  of  the  setas  of  the  different  segments  and  (3)  of  the 
specific  homology  in  the  larger  groups.  Greek  letters  were  employed 
to  designate  the  setae  in  order  to  obviate  the  confusion  which  has  arisen 
from  the  use  of  numbers  in  different  ways  by  different  authors.     The 


1913]  Proceedings  of  the  Cleveland  Meeting  135 

prothorax  of  Hepialus  was  shown  to  represent  the  primitive  arrangement 
of  setae  and  was  used  as  a  type  for  determining  the  homology  of  the  seta) 
on  the  different  segments.  The  authors  had  studied  many  species  and 
gave  figures  of  four:  Hepialus  lectus  and  H.  humuH  of  the  Jugatas,  Pseu- 
danaphora  arcanella  of  the  Tineidse  and  Mamestra  picta  of  the  NoctuidcE. 
Each  of  these  was  compared  with  the  type,  segment  for  segment.  This 
is  the  first  time  the  setas  of  the  prothorax  have  been  homologized  with 
those  of  the  other  segments. 

Discussion:  W.  A.  Riley — I  wish  to  speak  in  appreciation 
of  the  important  work  which  Mr,  Tsou  and  Mr.  Fracker  have 
reported  upon — work  which  is  especially  difficult  to  present  in  a 
non- technical  manner.  It  is  quite  customary  to  ridicule  work 
upon  such  a  subject  as  the  "hair  of  a  caterpillar"  and  even 
some  entomologists  are  inclined  to  question  the  possibility  of 
homologizing  such  structures.  Yet,  as  Professor  Comstock 
sometimes  says,  "We  read  that  the  very  hairs  of  our  head  are 
numbered,  and  in  the  case  of  lepidopterous  larvae  this  may 
be  literally  true".  That  certain  hairs  or  groups  of  hairs  may 
be  persistent  and  may  be  homologized  throughout  a  wide  series 
of  forms,  is  due  to  the  fact  that  they  possess  important  sensory 
functions.  Pioneer  work  in  this  country  on  the  homologizing 
of  setag  was  done  by  Dyer,  and  the  late  C.  B.  Simpson  extended 
this  by  an  important  study  which  is  deposited  as  a  thesis  in  the 
Cornell  University  library.  It  is  gratifying  to  see  the  work 
continued  under  Dr.  MacGillivray  who  is  best  qualified  to 
supervise  it. 

Anna  H.  Morgan,  ML  Holyoke  College:  Eggs  and  Egg- 
laying  of  May -flies. 

This  study  of  May- fly  eggs  was  made  to  determine  the  relative 
fecundity  of  different  species.  This  led  to  the  study  of  a  series  of 
elaborate  sciilpturings  found  upon  the  chorion.  In  several  species  the 
chorion  bears  long  thread  like  extensions  which  tenninate  in  viscid 
spheres  or  disks.  These  seem  to  help  buoy  up  the  eggs.  Threads  two 
and  three  inches  long  were  found.  In  nature  these  threads  are  probably 
entangled  in  sticks  and  vegetation  and  this  prevents  the  eggs  from  being 
covered  by  silt.  In  the  ovaries  of  half  grown  nymphs  these  structures 
are  well  defined  and  are  of  aid  in  connecting  up  the  life  histories  where 
rearing  is  impossible. 

Discussion:  Philip  P.  Calvert — It  was  remarked  that  Miss 
Morgan's  statements  that  Heptagenia  inter punctella  and  H. 
piilchella  closely  resembled  each  other  as  adults  and  lived  in  the 
same  situation  as  larvae  and  eggs  might  seem  to  indicate  an 
exception  to  Jordan's  law  that  the  nearest  related  species  are 


136  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

always  separated  from  each  other  by  some  kind  of  a  barrier, 
but  in  view  of  the  great  differences  in  the  eggs  of  the  two 
species,  it  might  be  doubtful  whether  these  two  species  are 
really  so  closely  related.  It  is  therefore  evidently  necessary  to 
know  all  the  stages  of  two  species  before  one  can  pronounce  on 
their  relationships  and  whether  they  do  or  do  not  contradict 
the  law  mentioned. 

Herbert  Osborn,  Ohio  State  U^iiversity:  Notes  on  Cicadidce 
with  Especial  Reference  to  the  Ohio  Species. 

Cicadas  constitute  a  conspicuous  element  in  an  Insect  fauna  and  their 
relation  to  varied  forest  conditions  was  discussed  especially  for  the  species 
occurring  in  Ohio.  The  origin  and  function  of  the  tympanal  organs 
present  problems  for  study  and  the  suggestion  is  made  that  this  struc- 
ture is  primarily  a  secondary  sexual  character  functioning  in  sexual 
excitation  and  only  incidentally  a  sound  producing  organ. 

Frank  E.  Lutz,  American  Museum  Natural  Elistory:  On  the 
Biology  of  Drosophila  ampelophila. 

This  insect  is  remarkably  useful  in  laboratory  work  since  it  can  be 
kept  going  throughout  the  year  on  bananas  as  food  and  its  short  life- 
cycle  (about  ten  days  to  two  weeks)  enables  one  to  get  a  large  number 
of  generations.  Sexual  difference  characterizes  the  insect.  Not  only 
do  the  sexes  differ  in  adult  color  and  structure  but  they  differ  in  the 
duration  of  the  immature  stages,  in  their  reactions  to  light  and  the 
age  at  death. 

E.  P.  Felt,  State  Entomologist,  New  York:  Observations  on 
the  Biology  of  a  Blow  Fly  and  a  Flesh  Fly. 

A  study  of  Phormia  regina  Meign.  and  Sarcophaga  georgina  Wied. 
was  undertaken  primarily  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  data  which 
could  be  used  as  a  basis  for  estimating  the  period  a  human  body  had 
lain  exposed  to  the  elements  in  midsummer.  Our  knowledge  of  these 
two  species  is  summarized  and  original  data  are  given  of  the  habits 
and  duration  of  the  various  stages  under  known  climatic  conditions. 
The  egg  of  Phormia  and  the  three  larval  stages  and  puparium  of  both 
species  are  described  and  a  bibliography  of  each  appended. 

The  Society  adjourned  at  4:30  p.  m.,  to  meet  Wednesday, 
January  1st,  at  10:00  a.  m. 

The  annual  business  meeting  of  the  Society  was  held  upon 
reconvening  and  the  following  reports  presented : 

.The  Secretary  presented  the  following  report  for  the  Execu- 
tive Committee,  which  met  at  the  Hotel  Euclid,  Tuesday 
evening,  December  31. 


1913]  Proceedings  of  the  Cleveland  Meeting  137 


REPORT  OF  THE  EXECUTIVE  COMMITTEE. 

Your  Secretary  asks  the  privilege  of  departing  from  the  custom  of 
former  secretaries  in  reporting  the  various  matters  that  have  been 
submitted  to  the  Executive  Committee  in  the  interim  between  meetings. 
The  secretary  feels  that  all  these  matters  should  be  reported  at  the 
annual  meeting  of  the  Executive  Committee  and  put  on  record  in  the 
proceedings  of  the  Society. 

The  following  matters  were  considered  during  the  year  1912: 

1.  The  revision  of  Bv-Law  No.  9  as  reported  in  the  Annals,  Vol. 
V,  p.  S3. 

2.  The  appointment  of  Professor  Herbert  Osborn,  the  retiring 
President,  as  the  second  councilor  of  the  Society  to  the  American 
Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science. 

3.  The  following  were  named  as  delegates  to  the  second  Interna- 
tional Congress  of  Entomologists,  held  at  Oxford.  England,  August 
5-10,  1912: 

Professor  J.  H.  Comstock,  Dr.  Henrv  Skinner,  Dr,  W.  J.  Holland, 
Professor  V.  L.  Kellogg,  Dr.  Philip  P.  Calvert,  Dr.  L.  O.  Howard,  Dr. 
W.  M.  Wheeler,  Professor  Herbert  Osborn,  Professor  S.  A.  Forbes, 
and  Professor  J.  G.  Needham. 

4.  The  apointment  of  a  committee  of  three  to  draft  resolutions 
inviting  the  International  Congress  of  Entomology  to  hold  its  next 
meeting,  1915,  in  America.  The  following  were  named:  Professor 
S.  A.  Forbes,  Chairman;  Dr.  Henry  Skinner,  and  Professor  J.  H.  Com- 
stock. The  success  attending  the  efforts  of  this  committee  are  reported 
in  another  place. 

5.  That  there  be  printed  at  the  head  of  the  list  of  papers  on  the 
program  for  each  annual  meeting  the  following  statement:  Each 
paper  will  be  limited  to  fifteen  minutes,  second  titles  will  be  placed  at 
the  end  of  the  program  and  read  in  the  order  listed. 

Upon  an  invitation  from  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  of  Phila- 
delphia, the  President  named  the  following  as  delegates  to  the  celebra- 
tion of  the  centenary  anniversarv  of  the  academv:  Professor  John  B. 
Smith,  Dr.  L.  O.  Howard,  Dr.  E^  P.  Felt,  Dr.  W.  E.  Britton,  and  Dr. 
W.  M.  Wheeler. 

The  following  twenty-seven  new  members  were  elected  by  the 
Executive  Committee,  June  1,  1912: 

J.  Lyonel  King.  H.  R.  Niswonger.  James  McDunnough. 

H.  M.  Parshly.  C.  L.  Metcalf.  Miss  E.  D.  Faville. 

M.  M.  High.  Prof.  O.  W.  Oestlund.       N.  L.  Partridge. 

E.  H.  Strickland.  P.  W.  Mason.  Col.  T.  L.  Casey. 

A.  C.  Burrill.  J.  C.  Faure.  S.  C.  Bishop. 

J.  H.  Paine.  Harold  Morrison.  D.  L.  Crawford. 

D.  C.  Mote.  E.  M.  Schalck.  E.  C.  Cotton. 

Prof.  T.  D.  Jarvis.  R.  A.  Grizzell.  A.  W.  Baker. 

Lawson  Caesar.  Prof.  R.  W.  Hegner.  A.  B.  Johnson. 

The  following  have  died  during  the  year: 

Dr.  John  B.  Smith.  Prof.  G.  W.  Taylor. 

Prof.  T.  H.  Montgomery,  Jr.  E.  L,  Jenne. 


138  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol   VI, 

The  following  resignations  were  presented,  accepted  by  the 
Executive  Committee,  and  the  membership  terminated: 

Prof.  C.  E.  Johnson.  E.  T-  Kraus.  H.  G.  Smith. 

E.  D.  Keith.  Prof.  F.  H.  Shoemaker.      E.  S.  Tucker. 

G.  Chagnon. 

A  list  of  twenty  names  of  persons  who  had  been  dropped  for  the 
non-payment  of  dues  for  two  j^ears  or  within  one  year  of  election  to 
membership,  was  presented  and  adopted.  This  is  in  accordance  with 
Sections  7  and  S  of  the  By-Laws. 

The  following  twenty-four  names  were  proposed  for  membership 
and  elected  by  the  Executive  Committee  at  its  meeting  last  evening: 

C.  J.  Drake.  C.  Carter.  H.  Fox. 

W.  J.  Phillips.  W.  E.  Snyder.  D.  Milton  Brumfiel. 

A.  G.  Vestal.  C.  E.  Hood.  J.  J.  Culver. 

M.  M.  Wells.  Margaret  Washington.      C.  H.  Baldwin. 

C.  W.  Creel.  F.  W.  L.  Sladen.  P.  S.  Welch- 

C.  W.  Long.  W.  A  Ross.  E.  M.  R.  Lamkey. 

R.  W.  Leiby.  E.  H.  Gibson.  R.  H.  Wilson. 

O.  C.  Bartlett.  C.  R.  Neillie.  W.  J.  Kostir. 

The  membership  of  the  society  as  given  in  the  last  volume  of  the  Annals 
contains  two  honorary  fellows,  33  fellows,  and  356  members,  or  a  total 
of  391.  There  is  reported  above  the  death  of  one  fellow  and  three 
members,  the  resignation  of  seven  members,  and  the  dropping  of  20 
others,  which  reduces  the  roll  to  359.  To  this  number  should  be  added 
the  27  members  elected  in  June  and  the  24  elected  at  this  meeting, 
which  makes  the  present  total  membership  of  the  society  410. 

treasurer's  report. 
Cash  on  deposit  in  the  First   National   Bank  of  Champaign,    Illinois, 

December  19,  1911 %    696.60 

Life  Membership  Fees  deposited  in  Rothschild  Bros.  Savings  Bank  of 

Ithaca,  New  York,  with  interest  at  4%  to  May  3,  1912 107.85 

Cash  received  from  Herbert  Osborn,  Managing  Editor  of  the  Annals   .  .        428.35 
Cash  collected  as  dues 812.56 

$2,045.36. 

Bills  Paid $1,904.49 

Life  Membership  Fees  deposited  in  the  Citizens  Savings  and 

Trust  Co.,  of  Cleveland,  Ohio 100.00 

Cash  on  deposit  in  the  First  National  Bank  of  Champaign, 

Illinois,  December  9,  1912 40.87 

$2,045.36 

If  the  cash  balance  for  1 912  is  compared  with  that  of  1911,  it  might 
seem  that  the  .financial  condition  of  the  society  was  not  very  good.  The 
financial  conditions  on  the  contrary  are  the  best  for  any  year  of  which 
your  treasurer  has  made  any  study  of  the  accounts.  He  has  paid  for 
six  numbers  of  the  Annals  in  addition  to  handling  the  expense  of  mailing 
certificates  of  membership.  Certificates  have  been  sent  to  all  persons 
included  on  the  membership  roll  of  the  society  and  if  there  are  any  who 
have  not  received  a  certificate,  the  secretary  should  be  notified.  The 
net  expense  of  issuing  the  six  above  mentioned  ntunbers  of  the  Annals 
alone  was  $1731.93.  The  only  outstanding  account  is  for  the  Decem- 
ber Annals,  which  had  not  been  issued  when  the  Treasurer's  accounts, 
were  closed. 


1913]  Proceedings  of  the  Cleveland  Meeting  139 

The  Executive  Committee  apointed  the  Secretary-Treasurer  and 
Professor  J.  H.  Comstock  at  the  Washington  meeting  a  committee  to 
deposit  the  fees  of  Hfe  members  in  a  bank  that  they  should  consider  safe 
at  a  good  rate  of  interest.  After  considerable  correspondence  the 
Citizens  Savings  and  Trust  Company  of  Cleveland,  Ohio,  was  selected 
and  the  funds  deposited  there  May  3,  1912,  where  they  will  draw  four 
per  cent  interest. 

The  following  amendment  to  the  Constitution  submitted  at  the 
Boston  meeting  and  voted  upon  at  the  Washington  meeting  was  referred 
back  to  the  Executive  Committee  by  the  latter  meeting  for  further 
consideration : 

Article  IV.  Section  3.  The  President  shall  represent  the  Society  upon  the 
Council  of  the  American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science  until  such 
time  as  the  Society  shall  be  qualified  for  representation  by  two  councillors,  in 
which  case  the  second  councillor  shall  be  elected  from  the  fellows  by  the  Execu- 
tive Committee. 

To  be  amended  to  read: 

Section  3.  Councillors  to  the  American  Association.  The  President  and 
the  preceding  Past-President  shall  represent  the  Society  upon  the  Council  of  the 
American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  vScience. 

The  Executive  Committee  would  recommend  the  following 
amendment : 

Section  5.  Councillors  to  the  American  Association:  The  President  and 
the  preceding  Past-President  shall  represent  the  Society  upon  the  council  of  the 
American  Association  of  the  Advancement  of  Science.  In  case  of  the  death  or 
resignation  of  either  or  both  councillors,  the  vacancy  shall  be  filled  by  the  Execu- 
tive   Committee. 

The  Executive  Committee  took  the  following  action :  It  was  moved 
that  the  President  and  the  preceding  Past-President  should  represent 
the  Society  upon  the  Council  of  the  American  Association  for  the 
Advancement  of  Science  during  the  year  1913. 

Mr.  Edward  P.  VanDuzee,  Librarian  of  the  Grosvenor  Public 
Library,  Buffalo,  New  York,  who  has  made  a  special  study  of  the 
Hemiptera,  was  by  a  unanimous  vote  of  the  Executive  Committee 
elected  a  fellow  of  the  society. 

The  following  amendments  and  additions  to  the  constitu- 
tion are  recommended: 

Article  V.  Section  3.  Election  of  Officers — All  officers  shall  be  elected  by 
ballot  at  the  annual  meeting  for  the  term  of  one  year  and  shall  be  eligible  for 
re-election.  Their  term  of  office  shall  commence  with  the  first  of  June  following 
their  election. 

To  be  amended  to  read  as  follows : 

Article  V.  Section  3.  Election  of  Officers — All  officers  shall  be  elected  by 
ballot  at  the  annual  meeting  for  the  term  of  one  year  and  shall  be  eligible  for 
re-election. 

The  following  additional  article  to  the  Constitution,  dealing  with 
the  publication  and  management  of  the  Annals,  to  be  ntimber  VII  and 
the  present  article  of  that  number,  to  be  numbered  VIII : 


140  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America     [Vol.  VI, 


ARTICLE  VII. 

Section  1.  Publication — The  official  publication  of  the  Society  shall  be 
known  as  the  Annals  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  America.  Each  volume 
shall  consist  of  four  quarterly  fascicles  and  the  first  fascicle  of  each  volume  shall 
contain  the  proceedings  of  the  annual  meeting. 

Sec.  2.  Editorial  Board — The  publication  shall  be  under  the  charge  of  an 
Editorial  Board  consisting  of  ten  members,  one  of  whom  shall  be  Managing  Editor. 
The  Managing  Editor  and  his  associates  shall  be  responsible  for  the  selection  of 
the  material  to  be  published. 

Sec.  3.  Election  of  Editorial  Board — The  members  of  the  Editorial  Board 
shall  be  elected  by  the  Executive  Committee.  Each  member  of  this  board, 
except  the  Managing  Editor,  shall  serve  for  three  years  or  until  his  successor  has 
been  elected,  three  members  retiring  annually. 

Sec.  4.  Report  Managing  Editor — The  Managing  Editor  shall  present  a 
report  at  each  annual  meeting  to  the  Executive  Committee  and  the  accounts  of 
his  office  shall  be  reported  upon  by  the  Auditing  Committee. 

The  Executive  Committee  took  the  following  action  regarding  the 
mailing  of  the  Annals,  this  action  is  to  be  printed  on  page  three  of  the 
cover  of  each  number  of  the  magazine : 

The  Managing  Editor  is  provided  with  the  most  recent  address  of  all  members 
on  record  in  the  Secretary's  office  for  mailing  the  numbers  of  the  Annals  and  here- 
after members  complaining  of  the  non-receipt  of  numbers  must  present  their 
complaint  to  the  Secretary  within  four  months  from  the  date  of  the  mailing  of 
the  issue.  After  that  time  the  numbers  will  be  furnished  only  at  the  regular 
published  rate. 

The  Secretary  reported  the  receipt  from  Jas.  A.  Barr,  Manager  of 
Conventions  for  the  Panama-Pacific  Umvcrsal  Exposition  of  an  em- 
bossed invitation  issued  by  the  president  and  directors  of  the  Exposition, 
inviting  the  society  to  hold  its  meeting  for  1915  on  the  Pacific  coast. 
This  meeting  is  to  be  held  either  in  the  Auditorium  provided  by  the 
Exposition  and  located  about  half  a  mile  from  the  Exposition  entrance 
or  at  the  University  of  California  or  at  Stanford  University.  The  Execu- 
tive Committee  offers  the  following  recommendation:  That  the 
Executive  Committee  recommend  to  the  Society  that  a  special  com- 
mittee of  five  be  appointed,  to  include  two  Pacific  coast  members,  to 
consider  and  report  at  the  next  annual  meeting  concerning  the  desira- 
bility of  holding  a  meeting  in  vSan  Francisco  in  the  summer  of  1915. 

On  motion,  the  report  of  the  Executive  Committee  was 
adopted. 

The  President  named  the  following  committee  to  consider 
the  desirability  of  holding  a  meeting  in  San  Francisco  in  1915: 
E.  P.  Felt,  New  York  State  Entomologist,  Albany,  N.  Y., 
Chairman;  Vernon  L.  Kellogg,  Stanford  University,  California; 
A.  J.  Cook,  Horticultural  Commission,  Sacramento,  California; 
W.  M.  Wheeler,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Mass. ; 
T.  D.  A.  Cockerell,  University  of  Colorado,  Boulder,  Colorado. 

The  committee  appointed  to  draft  resolutions  on  the 
death  of  Dr.  Thomas  Harison  Montgomery,  Jr.,  presented  their 
report.     It  was  ordered  accepted  and  printed. 


1913]  Proceedings  of  the  Cleveland  Meeting  141 

The  following  reports  were  presented: 

REPORT  or  THE  MANAGING  EDITOR  OF  THE  ANNALS. 

The  report  upon  the  progress  of  the  Annals  for  the  year  1912  might 
follow  very  closely  the  statement  for  the  year  previous  but  I  feel  that 
we  are  warranted  in  counting  the  past  year  as  one  of  even  more  solid 
growth  and  that  we  may  look  with  still  greater  confidence  to  future 
improvement. 

In  the  matter  of  financial  support  there  has  been  a  distinct  gain  and 
the  receipts  of  the  editor  which  show  a  total  of  $551.53  of  which  $193.40 
were  for  subscriptions,  $176.55  for  back  voltunes  sold  and  $181.58  for 
reprints,  etc.,  from  authors  indicates  what  may  be  expected  as  practic- 
ally permanent  revenue  though  we  may  not  be  equally  successful  every 
year  in  sale  of  back  volumes. 

The  editor's  expenses  have  been  $63.05  for  engravings,  $35.20  for 
labor  and  stenographic  service,  $24.93  for  express  and  postage,  and 
$428.35  has  been  turned  over  to  the  treasurer. 

In  this  connection  it  may  be  mentioned  that  a  little  effort  by  mem- 
bers in  helping  to  place  sets  of  the  back  volumes  in  libraries  not  yet 
supplied  will  assist  materially  in  increasing  income  and  giving  support 
to  enlargement  and  improvement.  I  am  sure  that  such  effort  was 
helpful  in  the  past  year. 

While  we  have  not  published  quite  as  many  pages  of  matter  as  for 
1911  the  volume  will  reach  over  450  pages  and  includes  a  very  cred- 
itable series  of  papers.  The  editor  has  in  hand  matter  enough  to 
practically  fil]  a  good  March  number  and  other  desirable  papers  in 
sight.  This  with  the  prospect  of  a  somewhat  larger  fund  to  devote  to 
printing  the  coming  vear  assures  us  I  believe  an  excellent  voliune  for 
1913. 

The  Managing  Editor  desires  to  take  this  opportunity  to  express 
his  gratitude  for  the  many  important  aids  rendered  by  the  members  of 
the  Editorial  Board  in  securing  desirable  contributions.  He  is  especially 
indebted  to  Professors  Folsom  and  MacGillivray  for  assistance  in  the 
issuing  of  the  September  number. 

He  appreciates  particularly  the  cordial  and  hearty  cooperation 
which  has  marked  the  relation  of  the  members  of  the  society  to  this 
enterprise.  Respectfully  submitted, 

Herbert  Osborn, 
Managing  Editor. 

REPORT   OF   THE   AUDITING   COMMITTEE. 

We,  the  undersigned,  have  this  day  examined  the  accounts  of 
Alexander  D.  MacGillivray,  Treasurer  and  Secretary  of  the  Entomolog- 
ical Society  of  America  for  the  year  ending  December  10,  1912,  compared 
the  vouchers  therewith  and  found  the  same  correct  and  properly  cast. 

Signed  P.  J.  Parrott, 

A.  F.  Burgess, 
W.  E.  Britton. 


142  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


REPORT  or  THE  COMMITTEE  ON  NOMENCLATURE. 

Your  Committee  on  Nomenclature  has  to  report  that  no  questions 
have  been  submitted  to  it  for  consideration  during  the  past  year. 

The  discussion  of  the  idea  of  nomina  conservanda  has  been  much  in 
evidence  of  late,  and  the  members  of  the  committee  have  very  decided 
personal  opinions  upon  that  subject.  They  realize,  however,  that  any 
expression  of  their  opinion  as  a  committee  would  have  no  more  weight 
than  the  sum  total  of  their  individual  views,  and  therefore  do  not 
present  any  recommendation  on  the  subject.  Attention  should  be 
called  to  the  point,  however,  that  in  the  numerous  lists  of  workers 
published,  who  have  expressed  themselves  on  the  subject,  many  are 
morphologists  only  secondarily  interested  in  questions  of  nomenclature, 
and  rarely  doing  anything  themselves  in  this  subject.  It  would  seem 
that  the  opinions  of  this  class  should  hardly  be  given  equal  weight  with 
those  offered  by  persons  constantly  engaged  in  systematic  work  and 
who  are  therefore  much  more  familiar  with  the  difficulties  constantly 
presenting  themselves  under  either  method. 

It  may  also  be  appropriate  here  to  call  attention  to  earlier  proposals 
nearly  forty  years  ago,  for  the  establishment  of  nomina  conservanda 
which  were  favorably  received  at  first,  and  to  some  extent  adopted  for 
a  few  years,  but  generally  abandoned  after  a  time.  (Rules  of  Nomen- 
clature as  avithorized  to  be  published  bv  the  Entomological  Club, 
A.  A.  A.  S.,  July,  1877). 

Your  committee  is  inclined  to  regard  the  International  Code  as 
the  one  to  accept  in  all  cases,  representing  as  it  appears  to,  the  formu- 
lated opinions  of  the  largest  body  of  scientific  zoological  workers  in  the 
world,  and  therefore  presenting  the  largest  number  of  supporters,  to 
serve  as  a  nucleus  around  which  scientific  opinion  at  large  should 
concentrate  and  crystallize.  They  regret,  however,  that  recent  inter- 
pretations of  the  code  seem  to  imply  that  a  generic  name  accompanied 
by  more  or  less  of  a  description,  but  without  reference  either  by  name, 
figure,  description  or  otherwise  to  any  described  and  named  species  of 
animal,  should  be  held  as  valid.  They  do  not  feel  that  this  is  any  real 
use  of  a  binomial  nomenclature,  and  would  welcome  a  ruling  that  any 
generic  name  to  be  applicable  to  any  animal  must  be  published  in  con- 
nection with  some  described  or  otherwise  clearly  indicated  species,  and 
that  all  generic  names  not  so  pubhshed  should  be  regarded  as 
nomina  nuda.  Signed, 

H.  T.  Fernald, 
E.  P.  Felt, 

T.    D.    A.    COCKERELL.- 

The  report  of  the  Committee  on  Nomenclature  was  accepted 
and  ordered  printed. 

The  following  motion  presented  by  Philip  P.  Calvert  and 
seconded  by  F.  L.  Washburn  was  presented : 

Moved  that  it  is  the  sense  of  this  meeting  of  the  Entomolog- 
ical Society  of  America  that  the  use  of  the  International  Code 


1913]  Proceedings  of  the  Cleveland  Meeting  143 

of  Nomenclature  be  recommended  for  the  use  of  Entomologists 
generally.     Carried. 

The  following  report,  of  the  delegates  to  the  International 
Congress,  in  attendance  at  the  Cleveland  meeting,  was  pre- 
sented: 

REPORT    OF   DELEGATES    TO    THE   INTERNATIONAL   CONGRESS 
OF   ENTOMOLOGY,    AT    OXFORD,    ENGLAND. 

While  no  official  report  has  been  called  for  from  the  delegates  of  the 
Society,  and  while  from  the  fact  that  the  delegate  representation  was 
not  provided  for  at  the  Congress,  such  report  may  be  unnecessary,  it 
seems  that  some  statement  as  to  the  work  accomplished  and  scope  of 
the  Congress  may  be  in  order. 

The  delegates  can  all  report  a  very  enjoyable  occasion  with  delight- 
ful opportunities  for  acquaintance  with  Entomologists  from  various 
countries  who  were  at  the  Second  International  Congress.  They  can 
also  report  with  much  appreciation  the  advantages  of  the  place  of  meet- 
ing, and  the  enthusiasm  with  which  the  Congress  was  entertained  by 
the  local  Entomologists. 

In  the  various  sectional  meetings  there  were  presented  a  large 
number  of  creditable  papers  and  these  provoked  profitable  discussions. 
The  sections  in  Taxonomy  and  Economic  Entomology  were  particu- 
larly well  attended  and  successful.  The  questions  upon  nomenclature 
introduced  by  the  resolution  from  the  Entomological  Society  of  London, 
were  the  subject  of  much  discussion,  and  resulted  in  the  provision  for  an 
international  committee  to  consider  the  particulars  of  nomenclature. 
The  details  for  this  arrangement  will  doubtless  in  time  come  to  the 
Society  with  a  request  for  the  designation  of  a  member  of  the  Society  to 
serve  on  such  committee. 

The  constitution  of  the  Congress  appears  to  jrour  delegates  to  be 
faulty  in  that  it  does  not  provide  delegate  representation  from  the 
different  countries  or  from  National  Societies,  and  until  such  provision 
is  made  it  appears  to  us  that  the  results  of  action  in  the  Congress  must 
fail  to  secure  any  general  acceptance. 

The  Congress,  as  at  present  constituted,  is  composed  simply  of 
members  who  may  pay  the  fee,  and  such  membership  is  open  to  all 
persons  whether  entomologists  or  not,  so  it  follows  that  any  individual 
subscribing  the  membership  fee  has  just  as  much  weight  in  voting  as  a 
delegate  or  representative  from  a  country,  representing  hundreds  of 
society  members.  Further,  the  constitution  of  the  Executive 
Committee,  which  seems  not  to  be  subject  to  election  by  the  Congress 
at  large,  as  well  as  the  election  of  officers  and  decision  as  to  place  of 
meeting,  are  entirely  in  the  hands  of  the  Executive  Committee  of 
four  members. 

While  the  arrangement  for  the  committee  on  nomenclature  may 
prove  successful,  there  are  certainly  many  other  questions  of  interna- 
tional importance,  which  should  be  considered  by  such  a  Congress, 
and  we  believe  that  it  should  be  urged  upon  the  Executive  Committee 


144  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

that  some  provision  be  made  for  delegate  representation  from  different 
countries,  and  from  different  Entomological  Societies,  and  that  a 
definite  constitution  be  prepared  and  submitted  to  Entomological 
Societies  of  different  countries,  with  carefully  prepared  plans  for  the 
election  of  officers,  the  fonnation  of  the  Executive  Committee  and 
other  details  of  organization  not  yet  provided  for. 

As  delegates  we  wish  to  emphasize  the  value  of  the  social  features 
of  the  Congress,  and  to  express  the  belief  that  such  meetings  will  be  of 
great  ultimate  advantage  to  entomological  science  in  bringing  together 
the  entomological  workers  of  different  countries.  We  wish  also  to 
express  our  appreciation  of  the  cordiality  of  the  local  representatives. 

In  accordance  with  directions  from  the  Society  we  presented  the 
invitation  to  the  Congress  to  meet  in  America  for  its  next  session,  but 
the  question  of  place  of  meeting,  had  evidently  been  determined  by  the 
Executive  Committee,  and  while  our  presentation  of  the  case  was  listened 
to,  there  was  evidently  no  chance  to  secure  a  favorable  decision  for  the 
next  Congress.  We  were  assured,  however,  that  the  Congress  would  hope 
to  meet  in  America  in  the  near  future,  and  it  seemed  well  understood 
that  an  invitation  to  meet  in  America  in  1918,  would  receive  cordial 
response  and  favorable  action. 

The  next  Congress  is  to  be  held  in  Vienna  in  1915,  under  the  presi- 
dency of  Dr.  Handlirsch. 

Signed  Herbert  Osborn,        Stephen  A.  forbes, 

Philip  P.  Calvert,      L.  O.  Howard. 

REPORT  OF  COMMITTEE  ON  NOMINATIONS. 

Your  committee  begs  leave  to  report  the  following  names  as  nom- 
inees for  the  respective  offices  for  1913: 

OFFICERS. 

President:     C.  J.  S.  Bethune,  Ontario  Agricultural  College,  Guelph,  Ontario. 

First  Vice-President:  Philip  P.  Calvert,  University  of  Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania. 

Second  Vice-President:  William  M.  Marshall,  University  of  Wisconsin, 
Madison,  Wisconsin. 

Secretary-Treasurer:  Alexander  D.  MacGillivray,  University  of  Illinois, 
Urbana,  Illinois. 

ADDITIONAL  MEMBERS  OF  EXECUTIVE  COMMITTEE. 

Herbert  Osborn,  Ohio  State  University,  Columbus,  Ohio. 

C.  P.  Gillette,  Colorado  Agricultural  Experiment  Station,  Fort  Collins, 
Colorado. 

Vernon  L.  Kellogg,  Leland  Stanford  Jr.  University,  Stanford  University, 
California. 

James  G.  Needham,  Cornell  University,  Ithaca,  New  York. 

C.  T.  Brues,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge,  Massachusetts. 

Nathan  Banks,  United  States  National  Museum,  Washington,  D.  C. 

MEMBER  OF  COMMITTEE  ON  NOMENCLATURE. 

E.  P.  Felt,  New  York  State  Entomologist,  Albany,  New  York. 

(Signed)  Herbert    Osborn, 

r.  a.  cooley, 
Cornelius  Betten. 


1913]  Proceedings  of  the  Cleveland  Meeting  145 

On  motion,  the  secretary  was  instructed  to  cast  a  single 
ballot  for  the  officers  named.     They  were  declared  elected. 

REPORT  OF  THE  COMMITTEE  ON  RESOLUTIONS. 

Resolved,  That  we  express  to  the  authorities  of  the  Western  Reserve 
University  and  of  the  Normal  School  our  deep  appreciation  of  the 
courtesies  extended  this  society; 

Resolved,  That  the  thanks  of  this  Society  be  extended  to  Mr.  E.  H. 
Edwards  for  his  generous  assistance  in  arranging  rooms  for  our  use  at 
the  Normal  School  as  well  as  his  personal  help  toward  the  success 
of  this  meeting; 

Resolved,  That  we  commend  the  Editorial  Management  of  the  Annals 
of  this  Societ}''  and  hereby  recognize  the  value  of  Professor  Osbom's 
painstaking  work  in  furthering  the  interests  of  this  publication. 

Signed  S.  J.  Hunter, 

W.  A.  Riley, 
L.  B.  Walton. 

On  motion  the  report  was  adopted. 

Upon  the  recommendation  of  the  Committee  on  Resolu- 
tions of  and  by  action  of  the  Society  at  the  Washington  meeting, 
the  following  committee  on  types  was  appointed.  Their 
report  follows: 

report  of  the  committee  on  entomolotgcal  types. 

Your  Committee,  appointed  to  report  on  Entomological  Types, 
submits  the  following: 

Location  of  Types.  According  to  reports  kindly  fiunished  by  the 
Directors  or  Curators,  some  of  the  larger  museums  of  this  country 
contain  types  as  follows : 

U.  S.  National  Museum.     About  16,000. 

Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology.     Over  10,000. 

Philadelphia  Academy  and  American  Entomological  Society. 
About  7,100. 

Dr.  Skinner  states  that  this  includes  only  holotypes  and  lectotypes. 
It  is  believed  that  the  combined  Philadelphia  collections  probably 
contain  35,000  "t^'^pes",  counting  all  the  cotypical,  paratypical  and 
typical  specimens. 

Carnegie  Museum,  including  Dr.  Holland's  collection  (on  deposit). 
About  4,000. 

The  number  owned  by  the  Boston  Society  of  Natural  History 
(several  hundreds,  at  least),  American  Museum  of  Natural  History  and 
Musetmi  of  the  Brooklyn  Institute  cannot  be  given  at  the  present 
moment,  but  will  be  ascertained  later.  A  list  of  the  types  of  insects, 
other  than  Lepidoptera  and  Formicoidea,  in  the  American  Museum 
has  just  been  published  (Biill.  Amer.  Mus.  Nat.  Hist.  XXXI,  pp. 
353-379).  The  Milwaukee  PubHc  Museimi  has  71  types.  Doubtless 
the  British  Museum  has  more  insect  types  than  any  other  museum  in 


146  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

the  world,  but  there  is  no  catalogue  and  the  number  is  not  known,  even 
approximately.  The  New  York  vState  Museum  at  Albany  possesses  a 
large  number  of  types  under  the  care  of  the  State  Entomologist.  A 
catalogue  was  published  in  N.  Y.  Museum  Bulletin  141  (1909)  pp. 
119-122,  but  Dr.  Felt  informs  me  that  probably  about  700  Cecido- 
myiidas  are  to  be  added.  Stanford  University  has  about  500  types, 
the  majority  Mallophaga.* 

There  are  some  very  large  private  collections,  such  as  those  of  Dr. 
William  Barnes  at  Decatur,  Illinois,  (890  types).  Dr.  Nathan  Banks  at 
East  Falls  Church,  Va.,  (about  1500  types  and  about  300  cotypes  or 
paratypes)  and  Col.  Thos.  L.  Casey.  In  the  above  estimates  cotypes 
or  paratypes  are  in  nearly  every  case  reckoned  as  types. 

Opinions  on  the  Location  of  Types.  We  have  sought  to  ascertain 
the  opinions  of  representative  entomologists  regarding  the  location  of 
types,  and  cite  the  following  as  examples : 

"We  believe  that  privately  owned  types  should  eventually  go  to 
some  good  museum." — H.  Skinner. 

"I  consider  it  unwise  to  make  any  suggestion  as  to  restricting  types 
to  certain  institutions. " — S.  Henshaw. 

"I  believe  that  it  should  be  the  policy  of  authors  to  place  their  types 
where  they  will  be  cared  for  in  the  future.  " — W.  J.  Holland.  (See  also 
The  Conservation  of  Types,  First  International  Entomological  Congress, 
p.  366,  where  six  museums  are  named  as  the  only  ones  in  the  United 
States  to  which  types  should  be  consigned) . 

"I  do  not  believe  that  types  should  remain  permanently  in  private 
collections." — ^W.  M.  Wheeler. 

"  I  do  not  see  how  any  fixed  rules  regarding  the  distribution  of  types 
can  be  made,  nor  can  we  prohibit  them  from  being  private  property. 
With  many  a  zoologist  his  collection  and  books  are  his  only  assets,  and 
while  he  is  working  they  are  probably  doing  as  much  good  in  his  own 
collection  as  in  a  public  museum.  When  I  am  through  with  my  col- 
lection I  want  it  to  go  into  the  hands  of  a  dipterist.  " — C.  W.  Johnson. 

"It  would  be  of  course  a  very  good  thing  to  have  the  types  in  a 
limited  number  of  public  institutions,  or  still  better  in  one  only,  but  I 
am  afraid  this  ideal  condition  will  never  be  reached.  In  regard  to  a 
privately  owned  type,  I  am  of  the  opinion  that  as  soon  as  a  new  species 
is  described  the  type  becomes  public  property,  and  the  author,  if  he 
keeps  it  in  his  own  collection,  should  take  great  pains  to  keep  the  type 
safe  and  in  good  condition,  and  provide  sooner  or  later  for  a  resting 
place  in  a  public  institution.  " — Chas.  Schaeffer. 

"Personally  I  am  inclined  to  the  view,  that  types  ought  to  be 
restricted  to  as  few  institutions  as  possible.  As  to  the  number  of  these, 
or  how  they  should  be  selected,  I  have  no  opinion.  " — S.  Graenicher. 

"We  deposit  all  particularly  perishable  types  (such  as  pinned 
insects)  in  the  U.  S.  National  Museum." — A.  G.  Ruthven,  Head 
Curator,  University  of  Michigan  Museum. 

*  Since  the  report  was  read,  the  University  of  Kansas  has  reported  the  pos- 
session of  897  types  and  36  cotypes,  etc.  The  University  of  Kansas  does  not  loan 
types. 


1913]  Proceedings  of  the  Cleveland  Meeting  147 

"It  seems  to  me  that  the  committee  ought  to  strongly  urge  the 
designation  of  only  one  specimen  as  type,  and  that  all  such  types  should 
be  put  in  institutions  easy  of  access,  having  fire-proof  buildings  and 
careful  curators." — -F.  E.  Lutz,  American  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

"I  think  that  insect  types  ought  to  be  especially  available  to  the 
men  most  active  in  working  with  the  groups  represented  by  them.  If 
these  men  are  in  or  near  the  greater  museums,  then  the  types  should  be 
in  these  museums.  My  belief  is  that  the  types  should  be  where  they 
can  be  and  will  be  most  effectively  used. " — ^V.  L.  Kellogg. 

"Respecting  types  in  general,  I  believe  that  they  should  be  most 
carefully  cherished  and  available  for  study  by  any  competent  party. 
The  ideal  arrangement  would  be  to  deposit  all  such  types  at  some 
central  point,  for  example,  the  National  Museum,  but  as  matters  are 
now  I  fear  this  is  impractical.  Even  were  I  personally  willing  to  deposit 
all  my  types  in  the  National  Museum,  I  do  not  believe  that  the  parties 
responsible  for  the  integrity  of  the  Museum  and  its  collections  would 
for  a  moment  consider  such  a  proposition.  In  any  event,  I  should  not 
care  to  part  with  types  until  certain  that  my  studies  in  the  group  were 
completed.  You  can  readily  understand  that  in  many  cases  it  would  be 
extremely  difficult  to  fix  any  such  date.  It  seems  to  me  very  desirable 
to  segregate,  so  far  as  practical,  the  types  of  any  one  group;  for  example, 
the  type  of  a  single  species  of  Coleoptera  might  much  better  be  deposited 
in  a  large  collection  where  there  are  numerous  types  of  allied  forms, 
than  retained  in  some  other  collection  possibly  equally  extensive,  with 
practically  no  other  type  inaterial  in  that  order.  My  reason  for  sug- 
gesting this  is  that  it  is  so  easy  by  scattering  types  in  widely  separated 
groups  for  them  to  be  lost  unless  they  are  in  some  collection  known  to  be 
valuable  because  of  the  large  amount  of  such  material  it  may  contain. 
It  should  at  least  be  possible  to  deposit  co-types  with  workers  in  special 
groups  or  in  our  larger  collections,  for  example,  those  of  the  National 
Museum."— E.  P.  Felt. 

"In  general  I  do  not  approve  of  types  being  held  by  private  individ- 
uals where  the  collection  is  not  properly  looked  after  and  liable  to 
destruction  at  any  time  {vide  the  French  collection,  which  is  now 
totally  destroyed  by  Dermestes,  types  and  all).  Of  course  in  Dr.  Barnes' 
case  it  is  different.  His  collection  has  assumed  museum  proportions 
just  as  the  Walsingham  collection  in  England. " — ^J.  McDunnough. 

Location  of  Types  in  the  Collections.  In  nearly  all  collections,  so 
far  as  we  have  ascertained,  the  types  are  placed  in  the  systematic  series. 
At  the  British  Museum  certain  special  collections,  as  the  Banks  collec- 
tion (types  of  Fabricius)  and  the  Wollaston  collection  (Coleoptera  from 
the  Atlantic  Islands)  are  kept  separate;  while  other  types  are  in  the 
accession  drawers  or  in  special  cabinets,  awaiting  the  rearrangement  of 
the  groups  to  which  they  belong.  At  the  Museum  of  the  University 
of  Michigan  all  types  (including  cotypes  and  paratypes)  are  kept 
together  in  a  fire-proof  case  on  the  first  floor  of  the  building.  They  are, 
however,  not  very  numerous.  At  the  Carnegie  Museuni  the  Ulke 
collection  of  Coleoptera  remains  in  the  boxes  exactly  as  received  from 
Mr.  Ulke,  and  the  Smith  collection  of  Brazilian  bees  studied  by  Cockerell 


148  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

is  also  still  as  received  from  that  author.  At  the  Museum  of  Compara- 
tive Zoology  some  recent  accessions  have  not  yet  been  placed  in  the 
series. 

It  is  the  nearly  universal  policy  not  to  separate  the  types  from  the 
rest  of  the  collection. 

Labelling  of  Types.  It  is  usual  to  label  the  types,  and  in  no  case  is 
it  the  regular  policy  not  to  do  so.  In  some  of  the  older  collections  the 
types  are  not,  or  not  all  marked.  In  several  instances  the  labelling  of 
the  types  has  been  done  by  curators  after  the  collections  had  passed  out 
of  the  hands  of  the  describers.  This  has  of  course  been  necessary,  but 
it  has  not  always  been  carefully  done,  and  we  know  of  cases,  in  large 
museums,  where  so-called  types  are  either  not  of  the  same  species,  or 
from  the  same  locality,  as  the  specimens  originally  described  under 
the  name. 

Red  is  the  favorite  color  for  type  labels,  but  great  diversity  prevails. 
Some  museums  have  different  labels  for  types,  cotypes,  etc.  A  sheet 
of  type-labels  is  appended  for  inspection  at  the  meeting.  The  U.  S. 
National  Museum  has  special  red  labels  for  slides  and  alcoholic 
specimens. 

Catalogues  of  Types.  Some  institutions,  as  the  American  Museum 
of  Natural  History  and  the  New  York  State  Museum,  have  published 
partial  or  complete  catalogues  of  their  types.  In  many,  such  as  the 
U.  S.  National  Miiseum,  a  manuscript  catalogue  is  kept,  and  each  type 
receives  a  number.  Some  institutions  have  no  catalogues;  several 
report  one  in  progress.  At  the  British  Museum  the  types  are  not 
catalogued,  except  in  the  published  catalogues  of  the  Museum,  such  as 
that  of  Sir  G.  F.  Hampson,  which  will  when  complete  cite  all  the 
types  of  moths. 

Loaning  Types.  The  following  replies  have  been  received  in  answer 
to  our  questions : 

"It  has  never  been  legal  for  a  type  to  leave  the  building,  and  the 
rule  has  been  invariably  enforced.' ' — G.  Meade- Waldo,  British  Mussum. 

"Recently  the  rule  against  the  loaning  of  holotypes  has  been 
enforced.  Cotypes  or  paratypes  are  loaned  when  we  have  the  type  or 
others  of  the  same  sort.  If,  however,  the  cotype  or  paratype  is  the  only 
type  specimen  we  have  it  is  treated  as  a  holotype,  i,  e.,  not  loaned. " — 
J.  C.  Crawford,  U.  S.  National  Museum. 

"The  American  Entomological  Societ}^  does  not  loan  unique  types. " 
The  Philadelphia  Academy  treats  each  case  on  its  merits. — H.  Skinner. 

"All  M.  C.  Z.  rules  are  elastic,  but  we  do  not  loan  types  except  there 
is  especial  reason  for  so  doing.  " — S.  Henshaw,  Museum  of  Comparative 
Zoology. 

' '  The  Society  has  loaned  types ;  whether  it  will  continue  to  do  so  is  a 
question. " — C.  W.  Johnson,  Boston  Society  of  Natural  History. 

"There  is  a  rule  against  sending  types  out  of  the  Museum,  though 
the  Director  has  loaned  his  private  types." — Hugo  Kahl,  Carnegie 
Museum. 

"It  is  against  our  rules  to  loan  types." — C.  Schaeffer,  Museum  of 
Brooklyn  Institute. 


1913]  Proceedings  of  the  Cleveland  Meeting  .  149 

"We  do  not  make  a  practice  of  loaning  type  material.  " — E.  P.  Felt, 
New  York  State  Museum. 

"We  do  not  loan  holotypes.  We  do  loan  cotxqjcs  and  ]jaratypes.  " — ■ 
V.  L.  Kellogg,  Stanford  University. 

"We  have  a  rule  against  loaning  types.  When,  however,  all  the 
following  conditions  exist  wc  do  occasionally  send  them  out.  The 
borrower  must  be  a  trustworthy  man  who  cannot  con\^cniently  get  to 
New  York.  The  specimens  must  be  of  such  a  character  that  they 
would  not  be  likely  to  be  injured  in  transportation,  and  there  must  be  a 
series,  all  of  which  are  designated  "type"  by  the  author.  The  latter 
seems  to  be  a  bad  practice,  but  when  there  is  such  a  series  and  the  other 
conditions  are  met  we  have  occasionally  sent  out  one  or  two  s]3ecimens.  " 
— F.  E.  Lutz,  American  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

"I  think  the  question  of  loaning  types  is  a  delicate  one.  I  believe 
in  institutions  loaning  them  to  thoroughly  accredited  persons  and  under 
very  stringent  conditions." — W.  M.  Wheeler. 

The  Milwaukee  Public  Museum  has  no  rules  governing  the  loan 
of  types. 

Fireproof  Buildings.  Experience  has  shown  that  so-called  fireproof 
buildings  are  sometimes  destroyed  by  fire.  Nevertheless,  the  following 
information  is  of  value.  The  new  National  Museum  "is  absolutely 
fireproof,  the  only  wood  in  construction  being  a  skin  floor  on  the  top 
floor  and  wooden  window  casing  on  this  same  floor.  The  doors  are  of 
steel.  The  onh^  thing  that  would  bum  is  the  exhibits,  and,  in  the  case 
of  insects,  we  store  them  in  steel  cases,  making  it  impossible  for  them  to 
catch  fire  if  anything  exposed  should  burn. "  It  should  be  said,  however, 
that  very  large  alcoholic  collections  are  kept  in  the  basement.  At  the 
British  Museum  the  collections  of  fishes  and  reptiles  (except  the  public 
exhibits)  are  in  a  separate  building,  on  account  of  the  danger  from  fire. 
It  is  hardly  conceivable  that  a  fire  among  the  alcoholics  in  the  basement 
of  the  U.  S,  Museum  would  effect  the  insects,  which  are  on  an  upper  floor. 

The  American  Museum  of  Natural  History  "is  as  completely  fire- 
proof as  it  is  possible  to  be  made.  " 

' '  The  collections  (of  the  New  York  State  Museum)  at  the  present 
time  are  not  in  a  fireproof  building,  though  we  expect  to  move  within 
a  few  months  into  a  thoroughly,  modern  fireproof  structure.  " 

"The  Museum  of. the  Brooklyn  Instittite  is  considered  fireproof." 

"The  Carnegie  Museum  building  is  fireproof." 

The  Museum  of  Comparati\"c  Zoology  building  was  considered 
fireproof  when  examined  by  insurance  experts. 

The  Philadelphia  Academy  building  "is  built  of  brick,  steel  and 
concrete ;  the  upright  steel  girders  are  covered  with  terra  cotta  and  then 
cemented.  The  main  rooms  and  floors  are  all  separated  by  aiitomatic 
fire  doors.     The  floors  are  concrete  with  no  wood. " 


150  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


RECOMMENDATIONS. 

Location  of  Types.  It  is  necessary  for  the  progress  of  entomology 
that  specialists  should  frcquenth'  have  in  their  possession  collections 
containing  many  types,  and  experience  shows  that  so  long  as  these 
collections  are  in  use  the  types  are  reasonably  safe  and  well  cared  for. 
Ultimately,  however,  these  types  should  find  a  place  in  some  large 
public  museum,  where  they  will  be  preserved  for  the  use  of  posterity. 
If  entomologists  are  expected  to  make  arrangements  looking  toward  the 
placing  of  their  types  in  public  museums,  they  have  the  right  to  demand 
that  these  museums  shall  be  made  fully  competent  to  take  care  of  them. 
Not  only  must  the  buildings  be  practically  fireproof,  and  the  cabinets 
adequate,  but  there  must  be  a  staff  large  enough  to  take  care  of  the 
specimens  and  keep  them  in  order.  Types  should  never  be  deposited 
where  a  continuous  succession  of  competent  curators  (entomologists) 
cannot  be  depended  uix)n. 

Location  of  Cotypes  and  Paratypes.  New  species  of  insects  are 
frequently  described  from  considerable  series  of  specimens,  designated 
cotypes  or  paratypes.  Authors  would  probably  be  glad  to  distribute 
some  of  these  among  the  principal  museums  or  collections,  if  convenient 
arrangements  existed  for  doing  so.  Such  distribution  would  greatly 
facilitate  entomological  work,  and  we  suggest  the  desirability  of  con- 
sidering whether  some  distributing  center  cannot  be  organized. 

Location  of  Types  in  Collections.  We  believe  that  types  are  best 
kept  in  the  systematic  series,  where  they  can  readily  be  found  and 
compared  with  their  allies. 

Labelling  of  Types.  It  is  highly  desirable  that  uniform  labels 
should  be  used  for  types.  Among  those  submitted  for  examination, 
the  circular  labels  with  colored  margins,  from  the  British  Museum,  seem 
to  have  a  sufficient  degree  of  distinctness  to  enable  them  to  be  readily 
seen,  without  the  rather  offensive  conspicuousness  of  some  other  labels. 
There  should,  however,  be  a  place  for  the  type  number. 

Cataloguing  Types.  Every  museum  should  catalogue  its  types, 
giving  each  a  number.  It  is  very  desirable  to  publish  the  catalogue, 
Avith  supplements  from  time  to  time.  We  also  suggest  that  lists  of  the 
types  received  during  the  year  would  be  useful  additions  to  museum 
reports,  and  might  well  replace  some  of  the  worthless  information 
which  these  usually  contain. 

Loaning  Types.  We  are  of  the  opinion  that  holotypes,  or  specimens 
designated  as  the  type  should  under  no  circumstances  be  loaned;  but 
cotype  or  para  type  material  should  be  loaned  under  proper  restrictions. 

Permanent  Committee.  We  suggest  that  the  type  committee  be 
made  permanent,  with  changing  membership,  like  the  committee  on 
nomenclature,  and  that  its  members  be  requested  to  examine  and  report 
on  museums  and  collections  as  opportunity  offers. 

Signed  T.  D.  A.  Cockerell, 

L.  O.  Howard, 
Henry  Skinner. 


1913]  Proceedings  of  the  Clevelajtd  Meeting  151 

On  motion,  the  report  was  ordered  accepted  and  printed, 
and  the  committee  continued  for  another  year. 

The  following  papers  were  then  read : 

Edith  M.  Patch  and  William  C.  Woods,  Maine  Agricultural 
Experiment  Station:  '  A  Study  in  Antennal  Variation.  Read 
by  title. 

Alex.  D.  MacGillivray,  University  of  Illinois:  Propharynx 
and  Hypopharynx. 

The  pharynx  after  entering  the  occipital  foramen  makes  a  distinct 
bend  toward  the  mouth.  In  the  region  of  the  clypeus,  it  divides  trans- 
versely, one-half  passes  to  the  clypeo-labral  side,  the  other  half  to  the 
labial  side  of  the  mouth,  while  folds  extend  along  each  lateral  margin 
and  unite  with  the  mandibles  and  maxillae.  The  name  of  propharynx 
is  proposed  for  the  portion  lying  adjacent  to  the  clypeo-labral  part  of 
the  mouth  and  hypopharynx  is  vised  for  the  portion  lining  the  labial 
portion.  The  propharynx  consists  of  three  parts:  frontal  lobe,  ei^iphar- 
ynx,  and  fulcrum.  The  frontal  lobe  is  usually  wanting  in  sucking 
insects,  the  cpipharynx  is  modified  into  a  tongue  or  piercing  organ  and 
the  fulcrum  into  a  cuticular  supporting  plate.  In  the  muscids  the 
epipharynx  and  fulcrum  are  located  outside  of  the  mouth,  the  proximal 
end  of  the  fulcrum  is  attached  to  the  distal  margin  of  the  labrum.  The 
hyi^opharynx  also  consists  of  there  parts;  lingua,  superlingua,  and 
pharyngeal  sclerites. 

F.  L.  Washburn,  State  Entomologist,  Minnesota:  A  few 
Experiments  in  Photographing  Living  Insects. 

Thomas  J.  Headlee,  New  Jersey  Agricultural  Experiment 
Station:  Some  Facts  Regarding  the  Influence  of  Temperature 
and  Moisture  changes  on  the  Rate  of  Insect  Metabolism. 

While  connected  with  the  Kansas  State  Experiment  Station  at 
Manhattan,  the  writer  found  by  subjection  of  different  groups  of  the 
Southern  Grain  Louse  {To.voptera  graminum  Rodani)  to  various  constant 
temperatures  under  constant  atmospheric  moisture  conditions  and  other 
groups  to  various  constant  percentages  of  relative  humidity  under 
constant  temperature  conditions:  (1)  that  the  rate  of  increase  in 
metabolism  for  each  10°F.  increase  in  temperature,  starting  at  58°F., 
decreases  as  the  optimum  temperature  is  approached,  and  that  while 
the  metabolism  of  degeneration  becomes  more  rapid  after  the  optimimi 
is  passed  the  rate  of  growth  is  retarded;  (2)  that  a  variation  of  from  60 
to  62%  in  atmospheric  moisture  does  not  effect  the  rate  of  metabolism 
when  the  creatures  have  an  abundant  supply  of  succulent  food. 

Similar  tests  of  the  effect  of  temperature  on  the  rate  of  metabolism 
in  Lysiphlehiis  tritici  Ashm,  and  of  the  effect  of  teniperature  and  mois- 
ture on  the  rate  of  metaboli-sm  of  the  Chinch  Bug  {Blissus  leucopterus 
Say)  infected  and  uninfected  by  the  chinch-bug  fungus  {Sporotrichum 
globuliferum  Speg.)  gave  similar  results. 


152  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

/.■  T.  Abbott,  Washington  University:  The  Strigil  in  Corixi- 
dce  and  its  Probable  Function.     Read  by  Title. 

Edna  Mosher,  University  of  Illinois:  The  Anatomy  of  Some 
Lepidopterous  Pupce.      (Presented  by  Mr.  Alvah  Peterson). 

Figures  of  pupae  of  three  species  were  shown  and  described.  Sthen- 
opis  tliule,  Archips  argyrospila,  and  Lyniantria  leucostigma.  Figures  of 
the  ]ju]jal  cases  of  each  of  these  species  were  shown,  also  figures  of  the 
pupa\  with  the  cases  dissected  away  so  as  to  show  the  parts  underneath. 
Considerable  difificvilty  has  been  encountered  in  homologizing  the  pupal 
structures  from  the  external  appearance  particularl}^  in  the  case  of  the 
fixed  parts  of  the  head  and  the  ap]3cndages  of  the  head  and  thorax. 
The  leg  cases  were  shown  to  be  a  frequent  source  of  error.  In.stead  of 
showing  externally  only  the  cases  for  the  tibiae  and  tarsi,  as  Scudder 
claims  is  the  case  in  the  butterflies,  certain  forms  show  the  femur  cases 
and  either  the  whole  or  part  of  the  coxal  cases  in  certain  pairs  of  legs. 
What  Packard  calls  the  para:clypeal  pieces,  were  shown  in  these  forms 
to  contain  functionless  mandibles  which  had  their  distal  margins 
toothed  in  the  case  of  Lyniantria. 

This  detailed  anatomical  study  is  to  be  made  the  basis  for  a  phy- 
logenetic  and  taxonomic  arrangement  of  the  Le|:)idoptera  based  on  an 
examination  of  the  characters  of  the  pupge. 

Charles  K.  Brain,  Ohio  State  University:  Some  Anatomical 
Studies  of  Stomoxys  calcitrans  Lin.  (Introduced  by  Professor 
Herbert  Osborn).  Printed  in  part  in  December  Annals.  Part 
II  will  appear  in  June  Annals. 

5.  W.  Bilsing,  Ohio  State  University:  Observations  on  the 
Food  of  Spiders.     (Introduced  by  Professor  Herbert  Osborn) 

Spiders  are  kn6wn  to  feed  upon  insects  but  exact  records  of  kind 
and  quantity  of  food  for  particular  species  are  very  meager.  Extended 
observations  and  records  were  made  during  the  summer  and  fall  of  1^)12 
and  data  from  some  of  these  are  presented.  As  an  example  of  the 
records  given,  grasshoppers  constituted  39%  of  the  food  of  Miranda 
aurantia,  59%  of  the  food  of  A  galena  ncevia  and  22%  of  the  food  of 
Aranea  trifolium  during  the  period  under  observation. 

Herbert  Osborn,  Ohio  State  University:  Observations  on 
Insects  of  a  Lake  Beach. 

The  Insect  fauna  of  the  Cedar  Point  Beach  of  Lake  Erie  is  discussed 
with  reference  to  its  derivation  and  adaptation  for  the  conditions 
presented.  The  in.sect  drift,  the  migrant  and  tlie  resident  members  of 
the  association  are  separated  and  records  of  species  in  each  group  given. 

C.  II.  Tyler-Townsend,  Government  Entomologist  of  Pern: 
The  Species-Status  and  the  Species-Concept.     Read  by  Title. 

C.  H.  Tyler-Townsend,  Government  Entonwlogist  of  Peru: 
A  New  Application  of  Taxanomic  Principles.    Read  by  Title. 


1913]  Proceedings  of  the  Cleveland  Meeting  153 

A  smoker  was  held  in  a  grill  room  of  the  Hotel  Euclid  after 
the  annual  public  address,  by  a  number  of  the  entomologists  in 
attendance  at  the  meetings. 

The  annual  public  address  of  the  Society  was  given  on 
Wednesday  evening,  January  1st  in  the  Auditorium  of  the 
Normal  School  by  Dr.  Philip  P.  Calvert,  University  of  Penn- 
sylvania. 

The  following  exhibits  were  shown : 

R.  D.  Glasgow,  University  of  Illinois. — Apparatus  for  orienting 
insects  under  the  microscope. 

F.  E.  Lutz,  American  Museum  Natural  History. — Professor  T.  H. 
Morgan's  mutants  of  Drosophila  ampelophila. 

Herbert  Osborn,  Ohio  State  University. — Some  examples  of  Cica- 
did£e,  especially  the  Ohio  species  of  the  genus  Cicada. 

N.  L.  Partridge,  University  of  Illinois. — Pupal  wings  of  Attacus 
cecropia. 

Victor  E.  Shelford,  University  of  Chicago.- — Experimental  modifica- 
tion of  the  colors  and  color  patterns  of  Cicindela. 

Alex.  D.  MacGillivray,  University  of  Illinois. — The  propharynx  and 
hypopharynx  of  a  cockroach,  a  locust,  and  a  hornet. 

F.  L.  Washburn,  State  Entomologist  of  Minnesota. — Snap  shots  of 
living  insects  in  the  field. 

Anna  H.  Morgan,  Mt.  Holyoke  College. — Drawings  of  the  eggs  of 
May-flies. 

On  motion,  the  Society  adjourned  to  meet  in  one  year  with 
the  American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science  at 
Atlanta,  Georgia. 

Alex.  D.  MacGillivray, 

Secretary. 


NOTICE  TO  MEMBERS  AND  CONTRIBUTORS. 


The  Annals  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  America,  pub- 
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CONTENTS  OF  THIS  NUMBER. 


Calvert,  P.  P. — An  Bntomologist  in  Costa  Rica.. i 

Zetek,  James. — Determining  the  Flight  of  Mosquitos.     5 
Van  Duzee,  M.  C. — A  Revision  of  the  North  American 
Species  of  the  Dipterous  Genus  Neurigona.     (Doli- 

chopodidse.) 22 

Betten,  Cornelius. — An  Interesting  Feature  in   the 
Venation  of  Helicopsyche,  the  Molannidae,  and  the 

Leptoceridae 65 

FuNKHOUSER,  W.  D. — Homologies  of  the  Wing  Veilis 

of  the  Membracidae 74 

Metcalf,  Z.  p.— The  Wing  Venation  of  the  Jassidse. .  103 
Tower,    D.    G. — A   New   Hymenopterous  Parasite   on 

Aspidiotus  Perniciosus  Comst . . . ., 125 

Entomological  Society  of  America 127 


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Volume  VI.  Number  2. 


ANNALS 


OF 

The  Entomological  Society  of  America 


JUNE,    191  3 


EDITORIAL    BOARD 

J.  H.  COMSTOCK,  L.  O.  HOWARD, 

Ithaca,  N.  Y.  Washington,  D.  C. 

a  J.  S.  BETHUNE,  W.  M.  WHEELER, 

GuELPH,  Ontario,  Canada.  Boston,  Mass. 

C.  W.  JOHNSON,  P.  p.  CALVERT, 

Boston,  Mass.  PHii,ADEr<PHiA,  Pa. 

V.  L.  KELLOGG,  j.  w.  FOLSOM, 

Stanford  Univ.,  Cal.  Urbana,  Ills. 

HERBERT  OSBORN,  Managing  Editor, 
Columbus,  Ohio.         ' 


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The  Entomological  Society  of  America. 

FOUNDED  1906. 


OFFIOERS    1913. 

President-^C.  J.  S.  Bethune Guelph,  Ont.,  Canada 

First  Vice-President — P.  P.  Calvert Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania 

Second  Vice-President — Wm.  M.  Marshall Madison,  Wisconsin 

Secretary-Treasurer — A.   D.   MacGillivra Y Urbana,   Illinois 

Executive    Committee — The   Officers,    and   Herbert   Osborn,  C.  P.  Gillette, 

V.  L.  Kellogg,  J.  G.  Needham,  C.  T,  Brues,  Nathan  Banks. 
Committee  on  Nomenclature — H.  T.  Fernald,  E.  P.  Felt,  T.  D.  A.  Cockerell. 


Price  List  of  Pubiications. 

Annals,  Vols.  I,  II,  III,  IV  and  V,  complete,  each.. $3.00 

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REPRlKfTS    from'  VOLUME    X. 

Proceedings  of  first  three  meetings;  Constitution,   By-Laws  and  List  of 

Members 25 

Wheeler,  Wm.  M. — Polymorphism  of  Ants 30 

Osborn,  Heirbert — The  Habits  of  Insects  as  a  Factor  in  Classification 20 

Severin,  H.  H.  and  Severin,  H.  C. — Anatomical  and  Histological  Studies 
of  the  Female  Reproductive  Organs  of  the  American-Saw  Fly,  Cimbex 

Americana,  Leach 25 

Felt,  E.  P.— Some  Problems  in  Nomenclature 10 

Hammar,  A.  G. — On  the  Nervous  System  of  the  Larva  of  Corydalis  comuta  L     .25 
Bradley,  J.   C. — A  case  of  Gregarious  Sleeping  Habits  among  Aculeate 

Hymenoptera 10 

Davis,  J.  J. — Notes  on  the  Life  History  of  the  Leafy  Dimorph  of  the  Box- 
elder  Aphid,  Chaitophorus  negundinis  Thos 10 

Hambleton,  J.  C. — The  Genus  Corizus,  with  a  Review  of  the  North  and 

Middle  American  Species .25 

Girault,  a.  a. — Biological  Notes  on  Colorado  Potato  Beetle 25 

GiRAULT,  A.  a. — A  Monographic  Catalogue  of  the  Mymarid  Genus  Alaptus..     .25 
Severin,  H.  H.  and  Severin,  H.  C. — Internal  Organs  of  Reproduction  of 

Male  Saw-fly 16 

Smith,  C.  P. — A  Preliminary  Study  of  the  Aranae  Theraphosas  of  California..     .75 

Davis,  J.  J. — Studies  on  Aphididae 20 

Riley,  W.  A. — Muscle  Attachment  of  Insects 15 

Needham,  J.  C. — Critical  Notes  on  the  Classification  of  the  Corduliina; 

(Odonata) .     .15 

Howard,  L.  O. — A  Key  to  the  Species  of  Prospaltella  with  Table  of  Hosts 

and  Descriptions  of  Four  New  Species 15 

Hood,  J.  D. — Two  New  Species  of  Idolothrips 10 

Address 

ANNALS  ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  AMERICA, 
Biological  Building,  State  Univ.,  Columbus,  Ohio. 


ANNALS 

OF 

The  Entomological  Society  of  America 

Volume  VI  J  U  N  E  ,    I  9  1  3  Number  2 

A  REVISION  OF  THE  NORTH  AMERICAN  SPECIES  OF 
MEGASTIGMUS  DALMAN, 

C.  R.  Crosby. 

The  genus  Megastigmus  was  founded  by  Dalman  in  1820 
(Svensk.  Vet.-Akad.  Handl.  XLI,  p.  178)  as  a  subgenus  of 
Torymus  to  contain  the  three  species:  hipunctatus  Swederus, 
collaris  and  chloronotus.  Collaris  was  described  by  Boheman 
after  Dalman's  death  in  1833  (Svensk.  Vet.-Akad.  Handl.,  p. 
332).  Chloronotus  was  never  described  but  Boheman  placed 
it  under  Torymus  (Megastigmus)  dorsalis  Fabricius  (1.  c.  p.  334). 
The  type  of  the  genus  therefore  cannot  be  M.  dorsalis  as  stated 
by  Ashmead  (Chalcis-flies,  p.  380,  1904)  but  must  be  M.  hi- 
punctatus Swederus  since  that  is  the  only  one  of  the  three 
species  cited  by   Dalman  which  was  described  at  that  time, 

Megastigmus  is  distinguished  from  other  Torymidae  occur- 
ring in  North  America  by  the  enlarged  and  pigmented  stigmal 
club  and  by  the  presence  of  a  well  developed  basal  vein.  The 
posterior  tibice  have  two  well  developed  apical  spurs  as  in  other 
Torymidae;  Ashmead's  table  to  the  subfamilies  (Chalcis-flies, 
p.  236,  1904)  is  in  error  on  this  point,  and  this  mistake  has 
been  copied  by  Schmiedeknecht  in  Genera  Insectorum,  fasc. 
57,  p.  118,  1909.  The  mandibles  have  three  teeth.  The 
scutellum  has  a  fine  cross  furrow  as  in  Symtomaspis.  The 
ovipositor,  except  in  two  species,  is  longer  than  the  abdomen, 
slender  and  gently  curved  upward.  The  coloration  in  the 
American  forms  is  never  metallic;  usually  yellowish  brown  or 
opaque  blackish. 

As  far  as  known  the  larvae  of  all  our  species  live  in  the  seeds 
of  plants. 

155 


156  An7ials  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

FEMALES.  TABLE  OF  SPECIES. 

1.  Ovipositor  not  longer  than  abdomen 2 

Ovipositor  longer  than  abdomen 3 

2.  Stigmal  club  oval brevicaudis 

Stigmal    club    elongate physocarpi 

3.  Front  wings  marked  with  a  brownish  spot  adjoining  the  hind  margin  of  the 

submarginal  vein albifrons 

Front  wing  not  so  marked 4 

4.  Stigma  surrounded  by  a  clouded  area nigrovariegatus 

Stigma  not  surrounded  by  a  clouded  area 5 

5.  Mesonotum  black  with  an  oblong  redd^h  orange  area  covering  the  posterior 

half  of  the  middle   lobe,   the   inner  angles  of  the  scapulse  and  axillse  and 

all  of  scutellum pinus 

Not  so  marked 6 

6.  Black  species 7 

Yellow  species 8 

7.  Pronotum  with  two  yellow  spots tsugae 

Pronotum  black  without  yellow  spots lasiocarpae 

8.  Axillce  yellow;  stigmal  vein  as  long  as  the  club  is  wide spermotrophus 

Axillae  black  except  inner  angle;  stigmal  vein  shorter  than  the  width  of  the 

club aculeatus 

M.  flavipes  Ash.   (1886)  was  described  from  males  only. 

Megastigmus  brevicaudis  Ratzeburg. 

Megasligmtis  brevicaudis  Ratzeburg.  Ichneum.  Forstinsect.,  Ill,  p.  225.    1852. 
Megastigmus  brevicaudis  Rodzianko.    Comment.  Torym.,  pp.  608-611.    1908. 
Megastigmus  brevicaudis  Crosby.    Cornell  Exp.  Sta.  Bull.,  265,  pp.  375-377,  Figs. 

77-79.     1909. 
Megastigmus  brevicaudis  Rohwer.     U.  S.  Bur.  Ent.,  Tech.  Bull.  20,  pt.  VI,  p.  159. 

1913. 

Female. — Length,  2.4  mm.;  abdomen,   1  mm.;  ovipositor,  .7  mm. 

Face,  cheeks  and  a  partial  ring  around  eye  yellow.  Vertex  and 
occiput  very  dark  brown,  nearly  black.  Vertex  finely  transversely 
rugulose. 

Prothorax  yellowish,  indistinctly  marked  with  dusky  on  the  sides. 
Rest  of  the  thorax  nearly  black  with  a  dull  yellowish  tinge  showing 
through  on  the  scapulas  and  scutellum.  Antennae  brownish  yellow, 
scape  and  pedicel  black  above  and  yellow  beneath.  Anterior  coxas 
yellow;  middle  and  hind  coxse  brownish;  rest  of  legs  light  yellowish. 
Wings  hyaline;  stigmal  club  not  surrounded  by  a  clouded  area. 

Abdomen  brownish  on  the  sides,  nearly  black  above.  Ovipositor 
short,  dark  brown. 

Described  from  1  9 ,  Ratzeburg' s  type.  I  have  three 
females  reared  by  W.  N.  Rodzianko  from  the  seeds  of  Sorbus 
aucuparia  at  Poltawa,  Russia,  which  agree  very  closely  with 
the  type. 


Fig.  1.     Megastigmus  brevicaudis. 


1913]  North  American  Species  of  Megastigmus.  157 

Through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  A.  G.  Hammar  I  received 
some  Sorbus  berries  from  Sweden  from  which  5  females  were 
reared.  In  these  specimens  the  head  is  black  with  the  face 
dark  honey-yellow.  Pro  thorax  honey-yellow,  rest  of  thorax 
black.  Antennae  very  much  darker  than  in  the  type.  Abdo- 
men black  with  brownish  bars  on  the  sides.  Rodzianko  states 
that  he  has  never  been  able  to  rear  the  male. 

I  have  reared  this  species  abundantly  from  the  seeds  of 
Sorbus  in  New  York  State.  The  American  specimens  are 
slightly  smaller  than  those  from  Europe  and  vary  greatly  in 
color,  but  I  have  been  unable  to  find  any  constant  character 
by  which  they  may  be  separated.  The  darker  individuals  are 
very  close  to  the  typical  form.  A  large  proportion  of  the  speci- 
mens are  of  uniform  brownish  yellow.  The  legs  are  light 
yellow  and  the  antennas  and  ovipositor  are  brownish.  Between 
these  and  the  typical  form  all  gradations  occur. 

Male. — Length,  1.7  to  2.1  mm.;  abdomen,  .7  to  .8  mm.  All  the 
males  reared  are  much  darker  than  the  females.  The  face  and  cheeks 
are  yellow;  the  legs  dull  yellowish  and  the  antennas  more  yellowish  than 
in  female.  Head  and  thorax  black  except  a  small  spot  on  each  side 
between  the  ocelli  and  the  eyes  and  an  area  on  the  lateral  aspect  of  the 
prothorax,  which  are  brownish  yellow.  Stigmal  club  surrounded  by 
a  very  narrow  clouded  area. 

Abdomen  compressed,  seen  from  the  side,  elongate  triangular, 
rounded  behind,  brown-black  above  and  yellowish  brown  beneath  and 
at  apex. 

The  larva  is  white,  and  its  mandibles  have  four  teeth  on  the 
inner  margin. 

In  addition  to  rearing  the  adult  insect  at  Ithaca,  infested 
berries  of  the  Mountain  Ash  have  been  found  at  Weedsport, 
Janiesville  and  Wayland,   N.  Y. 

In  the'  National  Museum  collection  is  a  female  specimen 
from  Mt.  Washington  bearing  Ashmead's  manuscript  name 
Megastigmus  slossonce  which  agrees  exactly  with  the  lighter 
specimens  reared  from  Sorbus  seeds  from  New  York  State. 
In  the  National  Museum  there  is  also  a  very  dark  9  from 
Oswego,   N.   Y.,   1  July,   1897. 

As  suggested  by  Mayr.  (Verb,  zool.-bot.  Ges.  Wien, 
XXIV,  p.  139.  1874)  this  species  may  be  the  same  as  M.  bi- 
punctatus  Boheman. 


158  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


Megastigmus  physocarpi  n.  sp. 

Female. — Length,  l.S  mm.;  abdomen,  .8  mm.;  ovipositor,  .8  mm. 

Head  and  prothorax  yellow,  rest  of  thorax  and  abdomen  brownish 
yellow,  the  latter  much  darker.  Head  and  prothorax  delicately  trans- 
versely mgulose;  mesothorax  with  a  more  pronounced  sculpture; 
propodeum  closely  but  distinctly  reticulate,  a  distinct  median  carina 
present.     A  brownish  line  connects  the  ocelli. 

Scape  yellow;  pedicel  dusky  above,  yellow  beneath,  rest  of  antennas 
dusky.  Legs  including  coxee  light  yellow.  Wings  hyaline.  The  stig- 
mal  club  is  narrow  "and  elongate;  not  surrounded  by  a  clouded  area. 

Most  of  the  females  agree  with  this  description  but  there  are  three 
specimens  in  which  the  ovipositor  is  not  over  half  the  length  of  the 
abdomen.  In  these  specimens  the  prothorax  has  a  median  black  stripe 
narrower  behind  and  the  rest  of  the  thoracic  dorsum  is  black  except 
the  scapulce  and  the  posterior  part  of  the  propodeum. 

Male. — Length,  1.6-1.9  mm.;  abdomen,  .7  mm. 


Fig.  2.     Megastigmus  physocarpi. 

Similar  to  the  female  in  color  except  the  abdomen  is  more  or  less 
dark  brown  above,  the  antennse  are  paler  and  the  brown  line  con- 
necting the  ocelli  is  lacking.  Stigmal  club  surrounded  by  a  dark, 
nearly  circular  clouded  area. 

There  are  three  males  marked  with  black  like  the  females  with  the 
short  ovipositor.     The  abdomen  is  nearly  black  above  except  at  tip. 

Described  from  15  females  and  6  males  from  Allentown, 
Mo.,  October,  1893,  and  1  male  from  Kirkwood,  Mo.,  1  July, 
1895.  All  reared  from  Physocarpus  opulijolius,  probably  from 
the  seeds. 

Megastigmus  nigrovariegatus  Ashmead. 

Megastigmus  nigrovariegatus  Ashmead.    Bull.  Colorado  Biol.  Association,  I,  p.  26. 

1890. 
Megastigmus  nigrovariegatus  Cockerell.    Bull.  15,  Ariz.  Exp.  Sta.,  p.  69,  1895. 
Megastigmus  aculeatus  Crosby,    (in  part.)   Cornell  Agr.  Exp.   Sta.,    Bull.  265,   pp. 

377-379.     Figs.  82,  83,  1909. 

Female. — Length,  3.4  mm.;  abdomen,  1.6  mm.;  ovipositor,  2.5  mm. 

Vertex,  antennal  grooves  and  a  spot  above  clypeus  dark  brown; 
face  and  anterior  and  dorsal  eye  margin  dull  brownish  yellow;  cheeks, 
posterior  eye  margin  and  occiput  shining  brownish. 

Prothorax  bright  yellow  posteriorly  and  on  the  sides,  brownish  in 
front  on  the  lateral  angles  and  just  above  the  front  coxae.     Mesonotum 


1913]  North  American  Species  of  Megastigmus.  159 

brownish  yellow,  dark  brown  in  front.  Mesopleurse  brown.  Post- 
scutellum  yellow  in  the  middle,  brown  on  the  sides;  scutellum  brown  in 
front  of  the  furrow,  yellow  behind.  Propodeum  brown,  finely  reticulate 
punctate,  with  a  pair  of  strongly  curved  carinas  most  distinct  posteriorly 
marking  off  a  nearly  circular  central  area. 

Scape  and  pedicel  yellow  beneath,  rest  of  antennae  dark  brownish. 
Legs  pale  yellow;  posterior  coxa  at  base  brownish;  posterior  femora 
slightly  tinged  with  brownish.  Wings  hyaline;  stigmal  club  surrounded 
by  a  distinct  oval  cloud. 

Abdomen  brownish  above,  sides  brownish  yellow,  indistinctly 
marked  with  darker  brownish.     Ovipositor  black. 


Fig.  .3.     Megastigmus  nigrovariegatus . 

Described  from  one    9  ,  Vancouver  Island,  a  paratype. 

In  some  specimens  the  yellowish  band  around  the  eye  is 
complete.  Sometimes  the  brownish  area  above  the  clypeus  is 
lacking  and  the  posterior  femora  are  entirely  yellow. 

Male. — Length  2.8-3mm. ;  abdomen  .9-1.4mm.  (Measurements 
taken  from  alcoholic  specimens).  The  males  vary  greatly  in  size  and 
color.  The  lighter  males  resemble  the  females  closely  in  color. 
Sometimes  the  head  is  all  yellow  except  the  upper  half  of  the 
occiput,  in  others  it  is  black  except  the  face  and  portions  of  the  ring 
around  the  eye.  In  some  the  thorax  is  as  light  as  in  a  female,  while  in 
others  it  is  nearly  black  except  an  irregular  area  on  the  disk  and  two 
greenish  yellow  spots  near  the  posterior  margin  of  the  pronotum.  In 
most  of  the  males  the  propodeum  is  dark  brown  to  black,  but  in  the 
lightest  specimens  it  is  yellow.  In  the  darkest  specimens  the  abdomen 
is  nearly  black  except  the  yellow  tip.  In  the  light  specimens  the  legs 
are  yellow,  in  the  dark  ones  they  are  more  or  less  brownish  on  the 
femora  and  tibiae.  Stigmal  club  much  larger  and  darker  than  in  female 
and  surrounded  by  a  clouded  area. 

In  the  National  Museum  collection  in  addition  to  the  para- 
type and  4  9  9  from  Vancouver  Island  are  the  following  speci- 
mens belonging  apparently  to  this  species.  1  9  ,  Algonquin,  111., 
June  27,  1894.  Labeled  "Type,  Megastigmus  illinoensis  Ash." 
3    9,  Jamaica  Plain,  Mass.   (J.  G.  Jack).     1  9,  Natrona,  Pa. 


160  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

1  9,  Pullman,  Wash.,  30,  June,  1898  (C.  V.  Piper)  "Reared 
from  Clisiocampa  plumalis."  This  specimen  is  imperfect, 
having  lost  the  abdomen  and  may  not  belong  here. 

Cockerell  captured  specimens  of  this  species  on  rose  hips 
in  Arizona  and  suggested  that  they  may  possibly  breed  in  them. 
I  have  reared  this  species  abundantly  from  rose  seeds  from 
Ithaca,  White  Church,  and  Wellsville,  N.  Y.,  Waukegan,  111., 
Durham,  N.  H.  (Charles  Spooner),  Boston,  Mass.  (Ralph 
Curtis),  Provo,  Utah  (R.  V.  Chamberlin),  and  Newark,  Del. 
(C.  O.  Houghton).  Professor  J.  G.  Sanders  sent  me  specimens 
reared  from  the  seeds  of  Rosa  rugosa,  at  Madison,  Wis.  Mr. 
Nathan  Banks  has  sent  me  9  specimens  reared  from  rose  hips 
at  Falls  Church,  Va. 

Some  of  these  localities  are  listed  under  M.  aculeatus  in 
Cornell  Exp.  Sta.  Bull.  265  because  at  that  time  I  had  not 
separated  these  iwo  species.  It  is  probable  that  nigrovarie gains 
is  the  native  American  species  infesting  rose  seeds  and  that 
aculeatus  has  been  introduced  recently,  since  I  have  reared  it 
from  material  collected  at  Ithaca  only. 

Megastigmus  pinus  Parfitt. 

Megastigmus  piniis  Parfitt.     Zoologist,  pp.  5543,  5545,  5629.    1857. 

Megastigmus  pinus  Roliwer.     U.  S.  Bur.  Ent.,  Tech.  Bull.  20,  pt.  VI,  p.  160.     1913. 

Female. — Length,  4  to  5  mm. ;  abdomen,  2.3  mm. ;  ovipositor,  5  to 
5.5  mm. 

Vertex  and  occiput  black;  face,  cheeks  and  a  ring  around  eye 
yellow,  the  latter  broadly  interrupted  by  the  black  of  the  vertex  which 
attains  the  eye-margin  below  the  level  of  the  front  ocellus;  antennal 
furrows  black;  below  the  insertion  of  the  antennee  there  is  a  circular 
area  cut  off  from  the  rest  of  the  face  by  two  or  four  brownish  spots, 
very  variable  in  shape  and  distinctness;  hairs  on  the  face  light  colored, 
above  the  base  of  antennae,  brown.  Vertex  and  front  transversely 
rugulose;  cheeks  and  lower  part  of  occiput  smooth;  face  with  lines 
radiating  from  the  clypeus. 

Prothorax  black,  with  the  sides  and  a  large  posterior  dorsal  band 
greenish  yellow;  this  band  is  usually  biconvex  in  front.  Mesothorax 
black  with  an  oblong  reddish  orange  area  covering  the  posterior  half  of 
the  middle  lobe,  the  inner  angles  of  the  scapulce  and  axillae  and  all  of 
the  scutellum.  In  some  small  specimens  this  orange  area  is  obscured 
by  blackish  in  the  center.  Sculpture  of  mesonotum  distinctly  trans- 
versely rugulose.  Scutellum  with  the  transverse  stria  distinct.  Pleuree 
black,  scapulae  have  a  large  greenish  yellow  spot  in  front  of  tegulee. 
Postscutellum  black  with  a  transverse  rfiedian  band  of  light  yellow. 
Propodeum  black,  irregularly  rugose  with  a  delicate  median  carina. 


1913]  North  American  Species  of  Megastigmus.  161 

Scape  yellow  below,  black  above;  pedicel  black  above,  paler  at  tip 
beneath;  rest  of  antennas  brownish.  Front  coxae  yellow;  middle  coxae 
yellow  in  front,  black  behind;  hind  coxse  black;  legs  yellowish,  the 
middle  and  hind  pairs  successively  darker;  a  brownish  stripe  on  outside 
of  posterior  femora.  Spines  on  posterior  tibiae  white  and  small.  Wings 
hyaline,  no  cloud  surrounding  stigmal  club. 

Abdomen  strongly  compressed.  Segments  2,  3  and  4  brownish 
black  above,  polished;  rest  of  abdomen  yellow  to  \'ellowish  brown 
with  a  row  of  large  brownish  black  spots  on  each  side;  segment  8  and 
ventral  keel  brownish  black.     Ovipositor  brown  and  strongly  curved. 

Male. — Length,  3  mm.;  abdomen,  1.3  to  1.9  mm. 

Head  marked  as  in  female  but  there  are  no  brownish  spots  below 
the  insertion  of  the  antenna.  Thorax  black;  median  orange-red  area 
lacking;  prothorax  has  the  sides  yellow  and  there  are  two  widely  sep- 
arated transverse  dull  yellowish  spots  near  the  posterior  margin; 
usually  the  outer  angle  of  the  scapulae  has  a  yellow  spot  in  front  of  the 
tegulcB.     Stigmal  club  surrounded    by  a  very  narrow  clouded  area. 

Abdomen  shorter  than  in  the  female,  somewhat  compressed,  seen 
from  above  distinctly  clavate,  yellow  beneath,  black  above,  tip  orange 
yellow. 


Fig.  4.     Megastigmus  pinus. 

This  species  was  first  described  by  Parfitt  from  females 
only  reared  from  seeds  of  Picea  bracteata,  Pinus  Abies  nobilis, 
and  a  new  species  of  Thuja  from  California.  In  a  later  article 
he  described  the  male  reared  from  another  lot  of  seeds.  Mr. 
Charles  O.  Waterhouse  of  the  British  Museum  has  very  kindly 
sent  me  four  specimens  which  he  had  carefully  compared  with 
Parfitt's  types.  He  also  sent  me  three  male  specimens  of  If. 
spermotrophus  which  he  had  found  to  agree  with  the  types  from 
which  Parfitt  drew  his  description  of  the  male  of  M.  pinus. 
Ashmead  seems  to  have  been  misled  by  this  description  of  the 
male  of  M.  spermotrophus  as  the  male  of  pinus  when  he  states 
(Chalcis-flies,  p.  244)  that  the  two  species  are  identical. 

2  9,  2  c^  C.  O.  Waterhouse  (Col.  British  Museum);  16  9, 
10  cf  reared  from  cones  of  Abies  nobilis,  Astoria,  Oregon.  No. 
5818,    Nat.    Mus.     The   following   specimens   were   reared   by 


162  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

Mr.  Herman  Borries,  of  Copenhagen,  from  seeds  from  the 
Western  United  States:  3  9  reared  from  Abies  magnifica 
and  concolor;  1  9  ,  1  cf  from  A.  grandis;  2  9  ,  1  cf  from  A. 
amabilis.  I  have  also  examined  the  following  specimens  from 
the  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Entomology  through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  S. 
A.  Rohwer.  15  9  and  12  cf  reared  from  the  seeds  of  Abies 
magnifica  from  Tahoe,  Calif.  National  Forest.  2  9  and  6  cf 
reared  from  the  seeds  of  Abies  concolor  from  Sierra,  Calif. 
National  Forest,  30  May,  1912,  collected  by  J.  M.  Miller.  The 
specimens  from  A.  coticolor  are  somewhat  smaller  and  generally 
darker    in    coloration. 

The  female  reared  from  A.  grandis  by  Borries  may  represent 
a  distinct  species  but  it  is  impossible  to  decide  from  such  scanty 
material.  The  yellow  area  on  the  prothorax  is  very  large, 
covering  nearly  the  whole  dorsal  aspect  and  on  the  vertex 
there  is  on  each  side  a  branch  of  the  circumorbital  yellow  band 
which  curves  around  behind  the  lateral  ocellus.  The  male  is 
not  in   good   condition  for  study. 

Megastigmus  tsugae  n.  sp. 

Female.- — Length,  2.5  mm.;  abdomen,  1.1  mm.;  ovipositor,  1.8  mm. 

Face  and  cheeks  yellow;  occiput,  vertex  and  front  black;  the  upper 
posterior  orbits  and  a  spot  at  the  upper  angle  of  the  eye  yellowish 
brown.  Antennal  grooves  black.  Prothorax  black  with  two  angular, 
widely  separated  dorsal  spots  and  the  anterior  half  of  the  lateral  part 
yellow.  Rest  of  the  thorax  shining  black.  Mesonotum  and  scutellum 
finely  shingled. 


Fig.  5.     Megastigmus  tsugce. 

Scape  and  pedicel  yellow  beneath.  Anterior  coxee  yellow,  middle 
coxae  brownish  yellow,  posterior  coxae  black;  rest  of  legs  yellowish; 
base  of  femora  and  band  at  middle  of  tibise  on  middle  and  posterior  legs 
brownish.  Wings  hyaline;  stigmal  club  not  surrounded  by  a  clouded 
area.  Abdomen  black  with  five  more  or  less  distinct  yellow  bands  at 
the  sides;  tip  yellowish.     Ovipositor  black. 

Described  from  2  females  reared  by  Mr.  Herman  Borries 
from  seeds  of  Tsiiga  Mertensiana  hookeriana  from  the  Western 
United  States.     Type  in  the  U.   S.   National  Museum. 


1913] 


North  American  Species  of  Megastigmus. 


163 


Megastigmus  lasiocarpae  n.  sp. 

Female. — Length,  3.7  mm.;  abdomen,  1.5  mm.;  ovipositor,  3.  mm. 

Thorax  and  abdomen  black.  Face  and  partial  ring  around  eye 
yellow,  a  pair  of  large  triangular  brownish  spots  on  the  face;  rest  of 
head  black.  An  elongate  light  yellow  spot  on  the  side  of  the  prothorax. 
Transverse  lateral  spots  on  the  sides  of  abdomen  yellow.  Head  finely 
rugulose  with  the  lines  radiating  from  the  mouth  and  ocelli.  Thorax 
transversely  finely  rugulose  and  shingled. 

Antennfe  brownish  black,  scape  and  pedicel  yellow  beneath.  Legs 
brownish,  posterior  femora  black  except  at  tip.  Anterior  coxae  yellow, 
black  at  base,  the  other  coxas  black.  Wings  hyaHne;  stigmal  club  not 
surrounded  by  a  clouded  area. 


Fig.  6.     Megastigmus  lasiocarpcB. 


Male. — Length,  2.4  mm. ;  abdomen,  1  mm. 

Vertex,  upper  part  of  occiput  and  front  half  way  to  base  of  antennas, 
black;  face,  cheeks,  lower  occiput  and  a  narrow  spot  along  upper  eye- 
margin,  yellow.  Whole  dorsal  aspect  of  thorax  black;  the  yellow  spot 
on  side  of  prothorax  is  larger  than  in  female.     Abdomen  black. 

Antennse  brownish,  scape  yellow  in  front,  pedicel  nearly  black 
above.  Front  coxag  yellow,  middle  coxse  yellow,  blackish  at  base,  hind 
coxas  black.  Legs  yellowish,  suffused  with  brownish  distally;  posterior 
femora  brownish  on  outer  surface.  Stigmal  club  darker  than  in  female 
and  more  nearly  circular. 

Described  from  2  9  1  cf  reared  from  seeds  of  Abies  lasiocarpa 
kindly  sent  me  by  O.  S.  Mackelfresh,  from  Rye,  Colorado,  5 
June,  1909. 

Megastigmus  spermotrophus  Wachtl. 

Megastigmus  spermotrophus  Wachtl.    Wien.  Ent.  Zeit.,  XII,  p.  24.    1893. 
Megastigmus  piniis  Parfitt.    Zoologist,  XV,  p.  5731.    1857  (Male  only). 
Megastigmus   spermotrophus   MacDougall.     Trans.    Roy.  Arbor.  Soc,    XIX,    pp. 

52-65.    1906.     Figure  and  account  of  habits. 
Megastigmus  spermotrophus  Crosby.  Cornell  Exp.  Sta.  Bull.  265.  pp.  379-380.    Figs. 

85-89.     1909. 
Megastigmus  spermotrophus  Rohwer.     U.  S.  Bur.  Ent.,  Tech.  Bull.  20,  pt.  VI,  p. 

160.     1913. 


164  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

Female. — Length,  3-3.5  mm. ;  abdomen,  1 .8  mm. ;  ovipositor,  1 .6  mm. 

General  color  a  yellowish  brown.  Face  and  cheeks  lighter  than 
the  vertex.  Face  with  fine  lines  radiating  from  the  clypeus;  vertex 
and  thorax  finely  transversely  rugulose.  Head  and  thorax  clothed 
with  stiff  black  hairs  arising  from  black  tubercles.  Median  area  on 
postscutellum,  greenish  yellow.  Propodeum-  with  a  distinct  median 
carina. 

Antennas  brownish,  scape  yellow  beneath,  pedicel  nearly  black 
above.  Legs  including  the  coxae  paler  than  the  thorax.  The  posterior 
coxae  clothed  with  stiff  light-colored  hairs,  arising  from  black  tubercles. 
Wings  hyaline ;  stigmal  club  not  surrounded  by  a  cloud ;  stigmal  vein  as 
long  as  the  width  of  club. 


Fig.  7.     Megastigmus  spermotrophus. 

Male.— Length,  2.9-3.3  mm.;  abdomen,  1.2-1.7  mm.  (Measure- 
ments taken  from  alcoholic  specimens.) 

Head,  thorax  and  legs  a  clearer  yellow  than  in  the  female.  On  the 
front  of  the  pronotum  a  dark  brown  spot  is  sometimes  present  which  is 
sometimes  divided  into  two.  Sometimes  the  front  of  the  mesothorax  is 
black  and  shows  through  the  posterior  edge  of  the  prothorax.  Median 
and  anterior  portion  of  the  propodeum  black;  sides  and  posterior 
margin  yellow.  Stigmal  club  darker  than  in  female,  not  surrounded  by 
a  clouded  area. 

Abdomen  brownish  yellow,  black  at  base  above. 

Described  from  numerous  specimens  of  both  sexes  reared 
from  seeds  of  the  Douglas  Fir  sent  me  by  Mr.  John  Crozier,  of 
Aberdeenshire,    Scotland. 

The  egg  as  obtained  by  dissection  of  the  female  is  white, 
smooth  and  spindleshaped  v^ith  a  very  long  pedicel  at  the 
anterior  end  and  the  vestige  of  one  at  the  opposite  end.  Length 
of  body  of  egg,  .36  mm.;  tail  like  process,  .9  to  1.2  mm. 

The  full  grown  larva  is  yellowish  white  with  brownish 
mouthparts;  its  length  varies  from  2.5  to  3.5  millimeters.  The 
surface  is  smooth  without  apparent  sculpture  and  the  hairs 
are  very  sparse  and  microscopic  in  size.  The  inner  margin  of 
the  mandibles  is  provided  with  three  sharp  teeth. 


1913]  North  American  Species  of  Megastigmus.  165 

The  pupa  is  yellowish  white  and  in  the  female  has  the 
ovipositor  curved  over  the  back  and  reaching  to  about  the 
middle  of  the  thorax.  Length  of  female  pupa,  3  mm. ;  of  male, 
2.5   mm. 

While  originally  a  native  of  the  Western  United  States  it 
has  been  introduced  into  Europe  and  has  there  become  a 
serious  pest.  The  male  of  this  species  was  described  by  Par- 
fitt  in  1857  as  the  male  of  M.  pinus.  Mr.  Charles  O.  Water- 
house  of  the  British  Museum  has  kindly  sent  me  three  males 
of  this  species  which  he  compared  with  Parfitt's  types.  Safro 
(Jour.  Ec.  Ent.,  VI,  p.  283.  1913.)  records  rearing  this  species 
from  seed  of  Douglas  Fir  in  Washington. 

The  species  listed  under  B  in  Riley's  article  (Proc.  Ent. 
Soc.  of  Wash,  II,  p.  360)  also  belong  to  this  species.  They 
were  reared  from  seeds  of  Pseitdotsuga  douglassi,  [taxifolia], 
Abies  magnifica,  A.  grandis,  A.  amabilis  and  A.  concolor. 

Through  the  kindness  of  Mr,  S.  A.  Rohwer  I  have  been 
able  to  examine  specimens  from  the  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Entomology 
as  follows:  4  9  4  cf  reared  from  seed  of  Pseudotsuga  taxi- 
folia  from  Yreka,  Calif.,  April  and  May.  3  9  2  cf  reared 
from  seed  of  Abies  magnifica  from  Tahoe,  Calif.  National 
Forest,  June,  1912;  1  9  1  cf  from  seeds  of  Abies  concolor,  from 
Sierra,  Calif.  National  Forest  (J.  M.  Miller,  Collector). 

Megastigmus  aculeatus  Swederus. 

Pteromalus  aculeatus  Swederus.     Vetensk.  Akad.  nya  Handl.,  XVI,  p.  221.    1795. 
Torymus  collaris  Boheman.    Vetensk.  Akad.  nya  Handl.,  LIV,  p.  332.   1833. 
Megastigmus  transversus  Walker.    Ent.  Mag.  I,  p.  117.     1833. 
Torymus  punctum  Foerster.    Beitr.  Monogr.  Pteromal,  p.  29.     1841. 
Megastigmus  vexillum  Ratzeburg.    Ichn.  d.  Forstinsect.  II,  p.  182.    1848. 
Megastigmus  transversus  Reirihard.    Berl.  Ent.  Zeitschr.,  I,  p.  76.    1857. 
Megastigmus  flavus  Foerster.    Verh.  Nat.  Ver.  preuss.  Rheinl.  XVI,  p.  109.     1859. 
Megastigmus  collaris  Mayr.     Verh*.  zool.-bot.  Ges.  Wien.  XXIV,  p.  137.     1874. 
Megastigmus  aculeatus  Thomson.     Hymen.  Scand.  IV,  p.  1.    1875. 
Megastigmus  cynorrhodi  Ferris.    Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  Fr.,  1876,  p.  222. 
Megastigmus  aculeatus  Cameron.    Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.,  1879,  p.  118. 
Megastigmus  collaris  Wachtl.    Wien.  Ent.  Zeit.,  Ill,  pp.  38,  39.    1884. 
Megastigmus  aculeatus  Crosby.     (In  part).   Cornell  Exp.  Sta.,  Bull.  265,  pp.  377- 
379.     1909. 

Female. — Length,  3  mm.;  abdomen,   1.5  mm.;  ovipositor,  4  mm. 

General  color  brownish  yellow.  Face  and  cheeks  yellow;  vertex 
brownish  yellow;  occiput  with  a  narrow  band  of  black  above  the  open- 
ing. Pronotum  pale  yellow  behind,  mesonotum  black  in  front  where 
it  shows  through  the  thin  posterior  edge  of  the  pronotum,  the  anterior 
half  reddish  yellow ;  axillse  black  except  the  inner  angle ;  anterior  half  of 
the  propodeum  black  or  dark  brown.  Median  carina  of  propodeum 
not  pronounced.     Median  part  of  the  postscutellum  greenish  j^ellow. 


166  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

Antenrice  very  dark  brown,  nearly  black,  scape  beneath  yellow. 
Legs  yellow,  wings  hyaline.  Stigmal  club  oval,  not  surrounded  by  a 
cloud,  the  stigmal  vein  shorter  than  the  width  of  club. 

Abdomen  brownish  yellow  on  the  sides,  dark  brown  above  banded 
with  yelloAV.    Ovipositor  longer  than  body,  black  and  curved. 


Fig.  8.     Megastigmus  acideatus. 

Described  from  numerous  specimens  reared  from  rose  seeds 
at  Ithaca,  N.  Y.  In  Bull.  265,  Cornell  Exp.  Sta.  I  have  con- 
fused this  species  with  M.  nigrovariegatiis .  All  the  other 
localities  there  given  refer  to  that  species.  Figures  82  and  83 
are  also  of  nigrovariegatiis .  In  the  collection  of  the  U.  S. 
National  Museum  there  is  a  series  of  specimens  reared  from 
rose  seeds  imported  from  Peking,  China.  I  have  also  reared 
several  specimens  from  rose  hips  from  Heilbronn,  Germany, 
procured  for  me  by  Mr.  Carl  Ilg  from  his  friend,  Mr.  Gustav 
Wieland. 

Megastigmus  flavipes  Ashmead. 
Megastigmtis  flavipes  Ashmead.     Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc.  XIII,  p.  128.     1886. 

"Male. — Length,  .12  inch.  Head  and  thorax  bright  golden  green, 
face  finely  reticulately  strigose;  thorax  irregularly,  transversely, 
coarsely  strigose;  antenna  clavate,  scape  and  flagellum  beneath  yellow, 
fiagellum  above  brown-black;  the  collar  is  rather  short;  the  scutellum 
at  tip  is  divided  by  a  transverse  suture  and  with  a  raised  rim  at  border 
posteriorly;  abdomen  ovate,  black;  legs  waxy  yellow;  wings  hyaline, 
veins  pale,  excepting  the  stigmal  vein,  which  is  brown,  and  ends  in  a 
circula!r  stigma. 

"Described  froin  one  specimen  taken  in  August." 

In  the  United  States  National  Museum  collection  there  is 
the  pin  on  which  the  type  was  originally  tag-mounted.  Only 
the  hind  legs  and  one  front  wing  remain.  The  stigmal  club 
is  large,  very  dark  colored  and  appears  to  be  surrounded  by 
a   narrow   clearly   defined   cloud. 

In  1888  (Bull.  3,  Kansas  Agriciiltural  Experiment  Station,  p.  Ill) 
Ashmead  described  another  species  under  the  same  name,  Megastigmus 
flavipes.     Through  the  kindness  of  Professors  T.  J.  Headlee  and  G.  A. 


1913] 


North  American  Species  of  Megastigmus. 


167 


Dean,  I  have  been  able  to  examine  the  type  of  this  species.  It  is  a  male 
Torymus.  As  the  original  description  is  rather  brief  I  will  publish 
a  more  complete  description  elsewhere. 

Megastigmus  albifrons  Walker. 
Megastigmus  albifrons  Walker.     Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  London,  1869.   p.  314. 

Female. — Length,  5  mm.;  abdomen,  2  mm.;  ovipositor,  4  mm. 
(abdomen  contracted  in  dr^dng) . 

Head  yellowish  white,  with  many  black  punctures  from  which  arise 
black  hairs;  on  the  middle  of  the  face  the  hairs  are  yellowish;  an  area 
including  the  ocelli  and  extending  almost  to  the  eye  margin,  black. 

Prothorax  dull  yellowish,  the  dorsum  marked  with  a  wedge-shaped 
black  spot  from  the  front  comer  of  which  a  black  line  curves  around 
along  the  lateral  margin  and  almost  reaches  the  posterior  edge  of  the 
segment.  Central  lobe  of  the  mesonotum  black  except  along  the  lateral 
edge;  lateral  lobes  brownish  blackish  in  the  center.  Scutellum  black 
except  along  side  and  at  apex  where  it  is  yellowish  brown.  Axillae 
black  in  the  center,  surrounded  by  yellowish  brown.  Post  scutellum 
yellowish  white  in  the  center,  black  on  the  sides.  Propodeum  black, 
yellowish  white  at  the  sides.     Pleuras  yellowish  white. 


Fig.   9.     Megastigmus  albifrons, 

Anntenas  brownish,  scape  yellowish  at  base  and  below.  .  Legs 
yellowish  brown;  tarsi  blackish  at  tip.  Front  wings  hyaline  with  a 
distinct  brownish  spot  adjoining  the  hind  margin  of  the  submarginal 
vein  beyond  the  junction  with  the  basal  vein.  Basal  vein  unusually 
distinct.  Stigmal  club  surrounded  by  an  indistinct  clouded  area 
scarcely  discernible  when  viewed  with  a  hand  lens. 

Abdomen  shining  black  above,  spotted  with  dull-yellowish  on  the 
sides  and  below.   Ovipositor  black,  the  extreme  tip  yellowish. 

Male. — Length,  6  mm.;  abdomen,  2.5  mm. 

Head  similar  to  female.  Thorax  dull  yellowish  marked  with  a 
black  median  line,  enlarged  in  front  on  the  prothorax,  narrower  on  the 
median  lobe  of  the  mesothorax  and  again  enlarged  on  the  scutellum. 
The  lateral  black  marking  on  the  prothorax  of  the  female  is  here 
replaced  with  brownish. 


168  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

Mesonotum  distinctly  brownish.     Axillas  black  along  the  anterior 

.margin.     Legs  more  distinctly  brownish  than  in  the  female.     In  the 

fore  wing  the  brownish  spot  adjoining  the  submedian  vein  is  more 

distinct  than  in  the  female,  and  the  stigmal  club  is  surrounded  with  a 

distinct  clouded  area. 

Abdomen  shining  black  above,  brownish  yellow  below. 

Described  from  1  9  and  Id".  Placerville,  Cal.,  8  Feb.,  1913. 
Reared  by  J.  M,  Miller  from  the  seeds  of  Finns  ponder osa. 
Received  through  the  kindness  of  S.  A.  Rohwer. 

Megastigmus  canadensis  Ashmead  (Trans.  Am.  Ent.  Soc., 
XIV,   p.    186.     1887). 

The  type  in  the  United  States  National  Museum  is  a  male 
Pteromalid. 

Through  the  kindness  of  Dr.  Henry  Skinner,  I  have  been 
permitted  to  examine  specimens  of  'the  two  following  species 
in  the  collection  of  the  American  Entomological  Society. 

M.  cecidomyicB  Ashmead  (/.  c.  XIV,  p.  185.     1887). 

Two  specimens,  male  and  female,  both  tag-mounted  on  the 
same  pin,  "E.  Fla.,  Ashmead"  and  labeled  with  the  name  in 
Ashmead's  hand-writing.        They  belong  to  the  genus  Lochites. 

M.  ficigercE  Ashmead  (/.  c.  IV,  p.  185.  1887).  One  male. 
The  head  is  glued  to  the  card  point  separately.  The  antennas 
are  lacking.  It  is  apparently  an£.ncyrtid.  "  E.  Fla.  Ashmead." 
Name    in    Ashmead's    handwriting. 

These  specimens  were  probably  the  ones  from  which  Ash- 
mead drew  up  his  description  of  the  species. 

In  1892  C.  V.  Riley  received  a  series  of  specimens  of  Meg- 
astigmus reared  from  the  seeds  of  various  conifers  by  Mr. 
Herman  Borries,  of  Copenhagen,  Denmark.  He  published 
(Proc.  Ent.  vSoc.  Wash.  II,  pp.  359-363)  an  article  on  the  habits 
of  this  genus  in  which  he  gave  a  list  of  the  specimens  reared 
by  Mr.  Borries  and  data  in  regard  to  the  host  plants.  I  have 
examined  these  specimens  in  the  National  Museum  Collection 
and  for  convenience  quote  the  list  and  indicate  the  species  to 
which  each  lot  belongs. 

"A.  Very  handsome  species  marked  with  black,  red,  and  yellow. 
II  and  V  from  Abies  magnifica  and  concolor,  somewhat  smaller  and  paler; 
III,  from  A.  grandis,  distinctly  smaller,  much  paler;  IV,  from  A. 
amabilis,  larger  and  darker,  cf  and  9  of  all  varieties.  [M.  pinus  Parfitt.] 


1913]  North  American  Species  of  Megastigmus.  169 

"B.  Entirely  yellow  species,  also  variable;  perhaps  two  species 
mixed.  I,  from  Pseudotsuga  douglassi  [taxifolia]  cf  and  9  ;  II,  from 
Abies  magnifica;  III,  from  A.  grandis;  IV,  from  A.  amabilis;  V,  from 
A.  concolor.  [M.  spermatrophus  WachtL] 

"C.  Very  small,  dark  species,  very  similar  to  small  specimens  of 
the  European  M.  strohilobius.    From  Tsuga  [niertensiana]  hookeriana.  2  9 

[M.  tsiigce  n.  sp.] 

"D.     Entirely  black  species  from  Japan.    From  Abies  mariesi  2   9  . 

*[M.  borriesi  n.  sp.] 

"E.    M.  strohilobius  Ratzeb.  from  Denmark.    5  9." 


Megastigmus  borriesi. 


*' Megastigmus  borriesi  n.  sp. 


Female — -Length,  about  3.3  mm. 

Head,  thorax  and  abdomen  dark  brown,  nearly  black;  yellowish  around  mouth. 
Antennse  of  the  type  still  in  pupal  sheaths.  Scape  brownish  lighter  beneath. 
Legs  brownish  yellow,  the  posterior  femora  darker.  Coxae  dark  brown  like  the 
thorax.  Wings  hyaline,  the  stigmal  club  without  a  surrounding  cloud.  Ovi- 
positor* as  long  as  abdomen. 

Described  from  two  females  in  rather  poor  condition.  Reared  by  Mr. 
Herman  Borries  from  seeds  of  Abifs  mariesi  from  Japan. 

TABLE  OF  HOSTS. 

M.  aculeatus  Swederus — Rose  seeds. 

M.  albifrons  Walker — Seeds  of  Pinus  ponderosa. 

M.  brevicaudis  Ratzeburg — Seeds  of  Sorbus. 

A/,  borriesi  Crosby — Seeds  of  Abies  mariesi  from  Japan. 

M.  flavipes  Ashmead — Unknown. 

M.  lasiocarpce  Crosby — Seeds  of  Abies  lasiocarpa. 

M.  nigrovariegatus  Ashmead — Rose  seeds. 

M.  physiocarpi  Crosby — Seed  capsules  of  Physocarpus  opulifoliiis. 

M.  pinus   Parfitt — Seeds   of    " Picea  bracteata,"    Abies    nobilis,    Abies    magnifica, 

Abies  concolor,  Abies  grandis,  Abies  amabilis. 
M.  spermatrophus  Wachtl — Seeds  of  Pseudotsuga  taxifolia,  Abies  magnifica,  Abies 

grandis,  Abies  amabilis,  Abies  concolor. 
M.  tsugce  Crosby — Seeds  of  Tsuga  mertensiana  hookeriana. 


170  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

My  indebtedness  to  the  many  persons  who  have  aided  me 
in  the  preparation  of  this  paper  by  the  loan  of  specimens  and 
other  material  and  in  other  ways  is  duly  acknowledged  in  the 
preceding  pages.  My  thanks  are  especially  due  to  the  author- 
ities of  the  United  States  National  Museum  and  of  the  Bureau 
of  Entomology  at  Washington  for  the  loan  of  many  specimens 
and  to  Mr.  C.  O.  Waterhouse  of  the  British  Museum  for  an 
examination  of  Parfitt's  types. 

The  drawings  were  all  made  by  Miss  Anna  C.  Stryke,  of 
Ithaca,   N.   Y. 


THE  NEUROPTEROUS  GENUS  PALPARES. 

By  Nathan  Banks. 

To  the  genus  Palpares  belongs  the  most  magnificent  of  the 
Neuropterous  insects.  Their  large  size  and  contrasting  mark- 
ings has  attracted  even  the  collector  of  butterflies  so  that  now  a 
considerable  amount  of  material  exists  in  the  various  museums, 
a  much  more  representative  collection  than  any  other  group 
of  exotic  Neuroptera. 

Having  recently  seen  many  of  the  collections  and  having  a 
number  of  species  in  my  own,  I  have  endeavored  to  prepare  a 
table  with  such  notes  as  may  be  useful  in  identifying  the  var- 
ious species. 

Africa  is  the  home  of  the  genus,  two  species  occur  in  Southern 
Europe,  several  in  India  and  Persia,  and  one  has  been  taken  in 
the  Madeira  Islands.  Elsewhere  there  are  none,  nor  even  a 
closely  allied  genus. 

Several  attempts  have  been  made  to  divide  the  genus. 
Hagen  made  Stenares  for  those  species  in  which  the  costal  cells 
were  crossed.  This  character  is  often  variable  in  development, 
in  many  Myrmeleonidae,  but  in  Palpares  it  appears  to  be  more 
constant;  the  species  of  Stenares  always  have  two  rows  of  cells 
for  most  of  the  costal  length,  while  in  the  true  Palpares  it  is 
rare  to  find  even  one  cell  crossed.  Panexis  was  created  by 
Hagen  for  certain  small,  broad-winged  species,  the  type  of 
which  has  a  thickened  subcosta.  Until  better  characters  are 
given,  it  is  best  to  keep  Panexis  as  only  a  subgenus. 

McLachlan  proposed  to  divide  both  Palpares  and  Stenares 
according  to  whether  the  outer  margin  of  the  wings  were  strongly 
sinuated  or  not.  Thus  Symmathetes  is  for  species  of  Palpares 
with  sinuated  margin  and  Crambomorphus  is  for  those  Stenares 
with  a  sinuated  margin.  However  as  we  know- more  species  of 
Palpares  it  becomes  increasingly  difficult  to  tell  whether  the 
margin  is  strongly  sinuated  or  not;  thus  P.  amitinus,  P.  in- 
sularis,  P.  inclemens  and  P.  latipennis  all  have  the  margin 
plainly  sinuated,  and  other  species  show  this  character  in  a 
slight  degree.  Lately  Navas  has  proposed  various  new  genera. 
Nosa  for  P.  tigris  which  has  apparently  two  radial  sectors, 
although  in  reality  it  has  no  more  longitudinal  veins  than 
other  Alyrmeleonidae.  P.  tigris  is  so  closely  related  by  other 
characters  to  species  with  but  one  radial  sector  that  I  cannot 

171 


172  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

consider  it  generically  different  from  Palpares,  Palparellus 
was  made  by  Navas  for  P.  spectrum,  but  P.  ovampoanus  con- 
nects this  group  with  the  section  of  P.  flavofasciatus, 

Golafrus  was  made  for  P.  oneili  on  account  of  the  emargi- 
nation  at  base  of  the  fore  wing.  I  suspect  this  character  exists 
only  in  the  male  sex,  besides  P.  ojieili  is  otherwise  related  to 
P.    radiatus. 

If  these  names  are  to  be  used  for  subgenera,  others  should 
be  created  for  other  sections  or  groups.  In  the  appended  notes 
I  have  given  certain  facts  regarding  the  anal  vena:tion  which, 
although  not  sufficiently  different  to  divide  the  genus,  are 
fairly  constant  for  each  species.  The  color  of  the  legs  is  val- 
uable, and  I  tabulate  the  black  and  pale  legged  species  below. 

The  color  of  the  vertex  and  the  presence  of  spots  on  thorax 
and  on  abdomen  are  also  very  useful.  The  point  of  origin  of 
the  radial  sector  in  the  fore  wings  is  also  useful;  in  P.  libellii- 
loides  it  is  as  far  basad  as  the  cubital  fork,  in  many  other  species 
it  is  plainly  beyond  this  point. 

The  palpi  are  variable  in  length  according  to  the  species; 
in  P.  libelliiloides  the  last  joint  of  the  maxillary  palpi  is  much 
longer  than  the  space  between  the  eyes,  in  P.  speciosus,  P. 
m,oestus  etc.,  it  is  shorter. The  male  appendages  also  vary  in 
length,  but  little  in  structure;  in  P.  speciosus  and  allies  they 
are  very  short,  in  P.  tigris  very  long  and  with  a  basal  tooth. 

The  markings  of  the  wings,  although  variable  in  develop- 
ment, are  extremely  useful,  especially  the  shape  of  the  apical 
marks.  It  is  doubtful  if  the  character  of  median  band  across 
hind  wing  is  of  specific  value.  The  size  of  species  does  not 
vary  much,  but  the  width  of  the  hind  wings  does  vary  to  some 
extent  in  the  same  species.  The  width  of  the  face  between  the 
eyes  is  very  narrow  in  Palparellus  and  the  flavofasciatus  group, 
in  others  wider.  In  the  table  I  have  placed  a  number  of 
names  as  synonyms,  based  (in  most  cases)  on  my  examination 
of  the  types,  but  I  am  quite  certain  that  a  still  greater  number 
should  also  be  placed  as  synonyms,  or  at  most  varieties.  All 
the  species  allied  to  P.  speciosus  are  probably  but  forms  of 
that  species,  for  the  marks  are  all  on  the  same  plan  and  the 
male  genitalia  the  same.  Likewise  several  species  will  later 
fall  under  P.  tristis  as  collections  are  more  extensive. 

P.  cognatus  Rbr  I  have  not  seen,  nor  been  able  to  place  it; 
its  habitat  is  unknown. 


1913]  Neuropterous  Genus  Palpares.  173 

Arranged  according  to  the  color  of  legs  they  are  as  follows: 

Legs  all  black,  or  pale  on  part  of  tarsi. 

speciosus,  caffer,  digitatiis  stuhlmanni,  flavofasciatus,  festivus,  formosiis,  aniitimis, 
instilaris,  spectrum  (and  allies)  damarensis,  tigroides,  cataractce,  immensus, 
conlrariiis,  pardaloides. 

Legs  with  pale  on  femora  or  tibiae. 

lib  ell  id  aides,  hipahus,  pardus,  inclemens,  latipennis,  nyicanus,  cegrotus,  tristis, 
tigris,  obsoletus,  mcBstus,  interioris,  angustus,  oneili,  sparsus,  radiatus,  tessellatus, 
fiirfuraceiis,  zebratus. 

The  species  may  be  arranged  in  the  following  groups: 

voeltzkowi  group. 

Includes  also  obscuripennis. 
mcestus  group. 

Includes  calaracta,  martini  and  contrarius. 
flavofasciatus  group. 

Includes    also    compositus,   formosus,    damarensis,    bifasciatus,   festivus,    and 

elegantulus. 
spectrum  group. 

Includes  also  rothschildi,  astutus,  and  ovampoanus . 
luteiis  group  {Pamexis). 

Includes  also  translatus  and  contaminatus. 
speciosus  group. 

Includes  also  digitatiis,  caffer,  varius,  stuhlmanni,  and  dubiosus. 
libelluloides  group. 

Includes  also  papilionoides ,  hispanus,  percheroni  and  tessellatus. 
solidus  group. 

Includes  also  walkeri,  and  angustus. 
tigris  group  (Nosa). 

Includes  also  cegrotus,  ornatus. 
pardus  group. 

Includes  also  tigroides,  zebratus. 
tristis  group. 

Includes  also  interioris,  obsoletus  klugi,  extensus,  lentus,  similis,  pardaloides, 

nigrita. 
sparsus  group. 

Includes  also  sobrinus,  furfuraceus ,  abyssiniciis,  nyicanus. 
cephalotes  group. 

Includes  also  inclemens,  incommodus,  latipennis,   radiatus,   immensus,   o'neili, 

astarte,  patiens  (infirmus) ,  and  karrooanus. 
insularis  group. 

Includes  also  amitinus. 
gigas  group. 

No  others  known. 

The  African  species  are  tabulated  below,  after  which  are 
the  Indian  species. 

TABLE  OF  AFRICAN  SPECIES. 

1.  Hind  margin  of  fore  wings  with  a  long  emargination  at  base;  wings  narrow, 

streaked  with  dark o'neili  Per. 

Hind  margin  not  emarginate  near  base 2. 

2.  Anterior  apical  margin  of  hind  wings  straight  or  slightly  concave,  tip  acute; 

large  heavily  marked  species  the  outer  margin  of  wings  sinuate. .  -gigas  Dal. 
Anterior  apical  margin  of  hind  wings  convex 3. 

3.  Hind  wings  mostly  black  on  the  basal  part  before  cubital  fork  as  elsewhere; 

with  only  isolated  pale  spots 4. 

Hind  wings  largely  pale,  and  pale  on  basal  part  before  the  cubital  fork. . .  .5. 


174  Aiinals  Efitomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

4.  Wings  slender,  acute  at  tips;  hind  pair  with  a  pale  apical  streak 

karrooanus  Per. 

Wings  broader,  not  acute;  hind  pair  without  apical  streak;  several  isolated 

pale  spots vceltzkowi  Weele 

5.  Vertex  dark  or  blackish,  legs  wholly  black 6. 

Vertex  pale,  with  a  median  dark  stripe,  or  at  least  outlined  by  pale  spots.  .26. 

6.  A  large  spot  at  or  near  the  cubital  fork  in  the  hind  wings 16. 

No  spot  near  cubital  fork  in  hind  wings,  the  base  being  all  pale 7. 

7.  In  hind  wings  the  dark  extends  along  the  costa  to  base 8. 

In  hind  wings  the  dark  does  not  extend  to  base,  at  most  some  isolated  dark 

marks 10. 

8.  Fore  wings  with  large  pale  space  in  the  middle,  wings  rather  slender 

ovampoanus  Per. 
Fore  wings  without  a  large  pale  space  in  middle 9. 

9.  Both    wings    with    pale    post-stigmal    bands spectrum  Rbv. 

These   bands    broken   into    spots rothschildi  Weele 

10.  Fore-wings  dark,   with    black    bands;    hind    wings    with   nearly   two-thirds 

black  with  small  white  spots;  expanse  over  100  millimeters 

obscuripennis  Sch. 
Fore- wings  yellowish  or  hyaline  in  pale  areas 11. 

11.  The  subcosta  of  fore  wings  thickened  near  the  stigma,  wings  yellow  with 

dark  bands,  hind  wings  very  broad luteus  Thunb. 

The  subcosta  of  fore  wings  not  thickened 12. 

12.  Median  band  of  hind  wings  does  not  reach  up  to  the  radius,  but  from  middle 

of  wing  behind  in  form  of  three  spots contaminatus  Hag. 

Median  band  of  hind  wings  reaches  across  the  wing  from  radius  to  hind 
margin '13. 

13.  Apex  of  fore-wings  dark  with  a  distinct  pale  band  before  it 14. 

Apex  without  such  marks 15. 

14.  Dark  baijds  of  hind  wings  not  connected flavofasciatus  McLach. 

Dark   bands   of   hind   wings    connected .compositus  Navas. 

15.  Fore  and  hind  wings  with  apical  marks  in  the  form  of  longitudinal  streaks.  . 

elegantulus  Per. 
These  marks  not  in  the  form  of  streaks,  but  band  or  spots festivus  Gerst. 

16.  Small  very  broad-winged  species;  greatest  breadth  of  the  hind  wings  much 

beyond  the  middle;  basal  band  of  the  fore  wings  reaches  to  the  hind  margin. 

translatus  Walk. 

Larger;  wings  more  slender;  greatest  breadth  of  hind  wings  at  middle  of 

length  or  before .17. 

17.  Hind  wings  with  the  stigmal  band  broad  and  in  front  in  two  parts;  wings 

not  yellowish;  basal  band  of  hind  wings  nearly  across,  or  in  two  nearly 

connected   spots cataracts  Per. 

Hind  wings  with  the  stigmal  band  entire  on  the  front  margin 18. 

18.  Abdomen  pale  yellowish  red;  wings  yellowish  brown;  small  species;  bands 

of  hind  wings  narrow,  apical  mark  in  form  of  two  stresLk?,. .bifasciatus  Oliv. 
Abdomen  pale  on  base,  darker  toward  tip ".  .  19. 

19.  Pronotum  with  yellow  each  side;  fore  wings  often  more  or  less  yellowish,  and 

the  median  and  stigmal  bands  often  only  spots  with  dark  borders;  thorax 

very  hairy,  not  showing  the  pale  spots,  male  appendages  very  short  . .  .21. 

Pronotum  with  two  yellowish  spots  on  front  margin   (maybe  connected); 

pale  median   spots   on   thorax  visible 20. 

20.  Few  spots  between  stigmal  and  median  bands  in  fore  wings;  apical  mark  in 

form   of   streaks damarensis   McL. 

Many  spots  between  bands;  apical  mark  not  in  form  of  streaks. .formosus  Bks. 

21.  Bands  of  hind  wings  connected  together;  apical  mark  of  hind  wings  encloses 

but   one   pale   spot stuhlmanni  Kolb. 

Bands  of  hind  wings  separate 22. 

22.  In  fore  wings  the  small  basal  spots  are  arranged  so  as  to  leave  two  clear 

longitudinal  streakg;  stigmal  and  median  bands  of  hind  wings  reach  across 
with  two  or  three  fingers  each;  sides  of  pronotum  more  narrowly  yellow. 

digitatus  Gerst. 

Basal  spots  of  fore  wings  not  arranged  to  leave  clear  spaces;  sides  of  pronotum 

broadly  yellow 23. 


1913]  Neuropterous  Genus  Palpares.  175 

23.  Hind  wings  tessellate  with  spots  along  the  hind  border 24. 

Hind  wings  not  tessellate  with  spots  along  the  hind  border.  .  .dubiosus  Per. 

24.  Bands  of  hind  wings  reach  across;  wings  rather  more  narrow,  .speciosus  L. 
Bands  of  hind  wings  do  not  reach  across 25. 

25.  Spots    greatly    reduced    in    size varius    Nav. 

Spots   of  moderate   size caffer  Burm. 

26.  A  large  spot  on  the  forking  of  the  cubitus  in  the  hind  wing 51. 

Only  a  small  dot  on  this  forking,  but  sometimes  there  are  marks  near  by, 

above  or  around  the  forking 27. 

27.  Hind  margin  of  both  wings  narrowly,  evenly  fumose  all  along;  stigmal  spot 

of  fore  wings  hardly  reaches  the  radius;  bands  of  hind  wings  not  reaching 

across  the  wing 28. 

Hind  margin  of  the  wings  with  at  most  separated  dark  spots;  not  evenly 
fumose  all  along,  always  some  pale  spaces ".  .  .30. 

28.  Fore  wings  with  apparently  two  radial  sectors  arising  close  together;  the 

lower  of  the  apical  spots  is  triangular;  no  band  below  antaxynsi.. tigris  Dalm. 
Fore  wings  with  but  one  radial  sector;  a  black  band  below  antennae 29. 

29.  Stigmal  band  of  hind  wings  concave  within;  lower  apical  mark  of  fore  wings 

hardly  in  form  of  two  streaks ornatus  Nav. 

Stigmal  band  of  hind  wings  not  concave  within,  often  broken;  lower  apical 
mark  of  fore  wings  in  form  of  two  parallel,  slightly  curved  streaks.  ..... 

cBgrotus  Gerst. 

30.  Fore  wings  with  many  small  dark  spots,  and  no  large  spots  or  bands.  .  .  .31. 
Fore  wings  with  large  spots  (perhaps  netted)  or  bands 35. 

31.  Hind  wings  with  all  small  spots 32. 

Hind  wings  with  some  moderately  large  spots 33. 

32.  Longitudinal  space  behind  the  first  branch  of  radial  sector  in  fore  wings  pale, 

unmarked sparsus    McLach. 

This  space  with  spots  as  elsewhere sobriniis  Per. 

33.  Vertex  greatly  swollen;  thorax  with  fulvous  hair;  spots  in  hind  wings  mostly 

rounded furfuraceus  Rbr. 

Vertex  not  so  swollen;  some  spots  in  hind  wings  in  the  form  of  streaks.  .  .  .34. 

34.  Longitudinal  space  behind  the  first  branch  of  radial  sector  in  fore  wings 

mostly  unspotted abyssinicus  K. 

This  space  with  spots  as  elsewhere;  hind  wings  with  median  spots,  a  spot  or 

streak  beyond  and  apical  streaks nyicaniis  Kolbe. 

.35.  Apical  marks  of  hind  wings  in  the  form  of  longitudinal  spots  or  streaks.  .  .36. 
Apical    marks   not    so;    transverse 42. 

36.  A  submarginal  line  in  fore  wings 39. 

No  such  line;  bands  of  hind  wings  not  across 37. 

37.  Bands  of  fore  wings  usually  small  and  faint;  hind  margin  of  hind  wings  with 

long  curved  streaks  reaching  towards  the  bands;  femora  not  spotted.  . . 

obsoletics  Gerst. 

Bands   of  fore   wings   distinct;   hind   margin   of   hind  wings  not   so  plainly 

streaked,  mostly  short  spots;  femora  spotted 38. 

38.  Larger,  spots  not  broken  up  much;  face  mostly  black;  abdomen  not  striped. 

tristis  Hag. 

Smaller,  spots  more  broken  up;  the  male  appendages  shorter;  narrow  band 

below  antennas;  abdomen  striped interioris  Kolbe. 

39.  Stigmal  mark  in  the  hind  wings  divided,  not  reaching  across;  fore  wings  with 

an  apical  cloud klugi  Kolbe. 

Stigmal  mark  in  hind  wing  entire;  fore  wings  with  apical  streaks'. 40. 

40.  Stigmal  mark  of  fore  wings  in  form  of  a  streak;  stigmal  band  of  hind  wings 

not   across immensus   McL. 

Stigmal  spot  of  fore  wing  band-like 41. 

41.  Stigmal  and  median  bands  of  hind  wings  not  across similis  Stitz 

These   bands   reach  across reticidatus   Stitz. 

42.  Median  band  of  hind  wings  with  a  projection  toward  the  cubital  fork,  or  else 

a  separated  spot  near  by;  stigmal  band  with  upper  inner  projection  and 

also  one  behind .' . .  43. 

No  such  projection  to  median  band,  nor  a  separated  spot  near  by 44. 


176  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

43.  Median  band  of  hind  wings  has  a  projection  toward  the  cubital  fork;  large 

species     latipennis    Rbr. 

Median  band  not  with  a  projection,  but  a  large  spot  near  the  cubital  fork. . 

inclemens  Walk. 

44.  Fore  wings  with  four  distinct  bands;  hind  wings  with  straight  bands;  no  dots 

along  hind  border  of  either  wing normalis  Nav. 

Fore  wings  with  but  three  bands;  bands  of  hind  wings  not  straight 45. 

45.  Median  and  stigmal  bands  of  hind  wings  connected amitinus  Kolbe. 

Median   and   stigmal   bands   separated 46. 

46.  Median  band  of  hind  wings  reaches  across;  bands  not  netted 47. 

Median  band  does  not  reach  across  the  hind  wing 49. 

47.  Stigmal  band  of  two  more  or  less  connected  bands;  apical  mark  of  fore  wing 

entire;  a  large  costal  sub-basal  spot  dark;  outer  margin  of  wings  plainly 

sinuate mcestus  H. 

Stigmal  band  of  but  one  band,  perhaps  with  projections;  no  large  sub-basal 
costal  spot  in  fore  wings 48. 

48.  Apical  mark  of  fore  wings  entire;  inner  projection  of  stigmal  band  of  hind 

wings  directed  backward insularis  McL. 

Apical  mark  of  fore  wings  divided;  inner  projection  of  stigmal  band  of  the 
hind  wings  directed  upward lentus  Nav. 

49.  Bands  netted;  median  band  of  hind  wings  with  emargination  on  the  inner 

side ' nigrita  Nav. 

Bands  not  netted;  hind  wings  rather  broader  in  the  middle 50. 

50.  Fore  wings  with  many  moderate-sized  spots;  the  stigmal  band  very  small; 

no  other  bands;  from  Madagascar pardaloides  Weele. 

Fore  wings  with  only  small  dots  and  bands;  median  band  of  hind  wings  with 
an  emargination  on  inner  side;  large  spot  on  middle  of  hind  margin.  .  .  . 

geniculatus  Nav. 

51.  Abdomen  yellow,  each  segment  with  a  broad  black  transverse  basal  band; 

no  longitudinal  stripe;  wings  broad,   fore  wings  much  spotted;   in  hind 

wings  the  bands  not  across,  or  only  by  connected  spots hispanus  L. 

Abdomen  with  the  segments  not  banded,  sometimes  lineate  or  spotted.  .  .52. 

52.  Apical  marks  of  hind  wings  in  the  form  of  two  streaks 53. 

Apical  mark  of  hind  wings  transverse  or  in  spots 57. 

53.  Stigmal  band  of  hind  wings  not  reaching  across 54. 

Stigmal  band  of  hind-wings   reaching  across cataractce  Per. 

54.  All  marks  in  the  form  of  streaks  in  both  wings radiatiis  Rbr. 

Some  spots  or  bands 55. 

55.  Spots  netted;  basal  band  of  hind  wings  not  reaching  toward  base;  abdomen 

yellow  with  dark  spots tessellatiis  Rbr. 

Spots  not  netted;  basal  spot  usually  reaching  toward  base 56. 

56.  Four  stigmal  spots  in  hind  wings incommodiis  Walk. 

Two  stigmal  spots  in  hind  wings;  a  submarginal  line  in  both  wings 

immensiis   McL. 

57.  Two  stigmal  bands  in  hind  wings  (or  broken  into  spots);  a  submarginal  row 

of  spots cephalotes  Klug. 

But  one  stigmal  band  in  hind  wings 58. 

58.  Median  band  of  hind  wings  reach  across;  small  spots  along  hind  border; 

•    abdomen  dark,  not  spotted 60. 

Median  band  not  across;  hind  wings  with  many  small  spots;  abdomen  yellow, 

lineate  with   dark 59. 

59.  Abdomen  with  small  spots  and  dots;  bands  of  wings  netted.  .  .percheroni  Guer. 
Abdomen  lineate,  or  mostly  dark;  spots  in  hind  wings  not  netted 

libelluloides  L. 

60.  Stigmal  and  median  bands  of  hind  wings  connected;  apical  mark  of  hind 

wings    entire walkeri   var. 

These  bands  separated 61 . 

61.  The  stigmal  band  of  hind  wings  is  connected  or  nearly  so  to  the  apical  which 

extends  along  the  hind  border 62. 

The  stigmal  not  connected  to  apical,  and  latter  not  extending  along  the  hind 
border;  hind  wings  very  broad  in  the  middle walkeri  McL. 

62.  Hind  wings  quite  narrow;  from  North  Africa angustus  McL. 

Hind  wings  quite  broad  in  middle;  from  Madagascar martini  Weele. 


1913]  Neuropterous  Genus  Palpares.  177 


Palpares  gigas  Dalman. 

Figure— Plate  XIX,  Figure  17,  and  Drury,  PI.  41. 

The  fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  with  three  or  four  branches  and  three 
cross-veins;  the  third  anal  in  h.  w.  has  a  strong  oblique  vein  up  to  sec- 
ond anal.  Male  appendages  nearly  twice  as  long  as  the  last  two 
segments  together. 

Palpares  moestus  Hag. 

Figure — Plate  XIX,  Figure  15;  Hagen,  Mozambique  paper. 

The  fourth  anal  in  f.  w.  with  four  or  five  branches  and  five  or  more 
cross-veins;  the  third  anal  of  h.  w.  practically  runs  into  the  second, 
and  with  two  or  three  cross-veins  before  it.  The  antennee  are  longer 
than  in  P.  gigas;  the  thorax  with  long  white  hair.  Anal  appendages 
of  male.  Fig.  55. 

Palpares  obscuripennis  Schmidt. 
In  general  this  resembles  a  very  large  P.  spectrum  but  the  fore 
wings  are  plainly  tinged  with  pink;  the  pale  basal  part  of  hind  wings  is 
milky  and  the  black  has  no  complete  pale  bands,  but  median  and 
stigmal  pale  bands  reaching  one-half  way  across  wing,  two  spots  near 
apex,  and  two  to  four  near  the  hind  border. 


% 

^ 

^ 

i 

^ 

4 

l^^i 

ii 

./% 

^0 

■^ 

w 

%*^ 

i 

I 

Fig.  1.    Palpares  obscuripennis  Schmidt. 

I  have  seen  it  only  in  the  Stettin  (type)  and  Berlin  Museums. 
It  may  be  the  P.  fulvus  McLach;  but  I  was  not  able  to  find 
McLachlan's  type  in  his  collection  nor  elsewhere. 

Palpares  martini  Weele. 

Figure — Van  der  Weele,  Madagascar,  Figure  3. 

This  species  resembles  P.  walkeri,  and  in  that  species  the 
apical  mark  sometimes  almost  connects  to  the  stigmal  band. 


178  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol,  VI, 

Palpares  cataractae  Pering. 

Figure — Peringuey;  and  Stitz  (as  ohsciiratiis). 

Third  anal  in  h.  w.  runs  into  the  second,  and  is  connected  once  or 
twice  to  the  fourth  anal. 

This  has  been  redescribed  by  Stitz  as  P.  inclemens  W.  var. 
obscuratus. 

Palpares  voeltzkowi  Kolbe. 

Figure — Van  der  Weele,  Madagascar,  Figure  4. 

A  remarkable  species,  not  only  on  account  of  the  almost 
wholly  black  hind  wings,  but  also  in  the  very  slender  abdomen. 
Van  der  Weele  figures  (p.  255)  the  male  appendages. 

Palpares  insularis  McLach. 

Figure — Van  der  Weele,  Madagascar,  Figure  6,  also  the  male  appendages  on 
page  259. 

Fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  with  three  branches  and  one  or  two  cross-veins 
to  the  third  anal.  Third  anal  of  h.  w.  simple,  two  or  three  cross-veins 
to  second,  none  to  fourth  anal.     Black  band  below  antenuce  present. 

P.  hildebrandti  is  the  same  species. 

Palpares  amitinus  Kolbe. 

Figure — Van  der  Weele,  Madagascar,  Figure  7. 

Fourth  anal  of  fore  wings  long,  with  four  branches  and  four  or  five 
connections  to  the  third  anal ;  third  anal  of  hind  wings  simple,  with  two 
cross-veins  to  the  second,  none  to  the  fourth.  The  legs  are  black; 
there  is  a  large  interantennal  mark  reaching  much  below  the  antennse 
as  well  as  above  from  eye  to  eye;  the  outer  apical  margin  of  the  fore 
wings  is  slightly  sinuated,  as  in  several  other  species. 

Van  der  Weele  also  figures  (p.  262)  the  male  appendages 
which  are  short  like  those  of  P.  speciosus. 

Palpares  furfuraceus  Rambr. 

Figure — Navas  (as  equestris),  Broteria,  X,  p.  56. 

Readily  known  by  the  greatly  swollen  vertex  and  fulvous 
hair  on  thorax,  which  was  noted  by  both  describers.  It  occurs 
in  West  Africa. 

Palpares  sobrinus  Pering. 

Figure — Peringuey,  1911,  p.  33,  Figure  3. 

I  can  find  no  differences  between  this  species  and  P.  nuda- 
tus  Navas;  but  I  have  not  seen  the  type  of  either  species;  but 
judge  from  the  figures  and  descriptions. 

Palpares  nyicanus  Kolbe. 
Figure — Kolbe,  original;  and  Peringuey,  1911,  p.  32,  Figure  1  (as  CEmuliis). 
The  third  anal  of  h.  w.  runs  apparently  into  the  second,  and  with 
four  or  five  cross-veins  to  the  fourth  anal. 


1913]  Neuropterous  Genus  Palpares.  179 

P.  cemulus  Pering  is,  I  think,  the  same  species,  and  it  is  also 
figured  by  Calvert,  Proc,  Acad.,  Nat.,  Sci.,  Phil.  1899,  plate 
X,  fig.  2. 

Palpares  abyssinicus  Kolbe. 

The  third  anal  of  h.  w.  is  simple,  and  no  cross  vein  to  fourth. 

This  species  is  very  close,  if  not  identical,  with  P.  nyicanus, 
the  spots  are  arranged  in  oblique  streaks. 

Palpares  sparsus  McLach. 

Figure — Peringuey,  1911,  p.  32,  Figure  2. 

The  third  anal  of  h.  w.  is  simple,  and  no  connection  to  fourth  anal, 
but  one  to  second.  The  fourth  anal  in  f.  w.  is  once  or  twice  forked, 
and  with  two  cross- veins.     No  band  below  antennge. 

Palpares  radiatus  Rambr. 

Figure — Rambur,  original. 

The  fourth  anal  in  f.  w.  with  three  or  four  branches,  and  two  or 
three  cross-veins;  the  third  anal  in  h.  w.  runs  into  the  second  anal. 
The  male  appendages  (Fig.  40)  are  curved  and  as  long  as  the  last  seg- 
ment, and  enlarged  a  little  at  tip.     There  is  no  band  under  the  antennae. 

There  are  but  few  specimens  of  this  in  European  collections. 

Palpares  incommodus  Walk. 

Figure — Plate  XVIII,  Figure  2,  and  by  Stitz  (nibescens)  and  by  Navas  (as 
rieli) . 

The  third  anal  of  h.  w.  appears  to  run  into  the  second,  two  cross- 
veins  behind  to  the  fourth  anal.  In  fore  wings  there  is  no  line  near 
the  outer  margin  parallel  thereto,  but  oblique  streaks  outward. 

P.  costatiis  Navas  is  also  this  same  species  as  well  as  P.  rieli 
and  P.  rubescens  wStitz. 

Palpares  latipennis  Rambur. 

Figure— Plate  XVIII,  Figure  1. 

The  fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  has  three  or  four  branches  and  four  or  five 
cross-veins  to  the  third  anal.  The  third  anal  of  h.  w.  is  simple,  with 
several  cross-veins  to  the  second  and  one  or  two  to  the  foiuth  anal. 

The  P.  furfuraceus  of  Walker  (not  of  Rambur)  is  this  species, 
Walker's  identification  of  P.  cephalotes  is  also  this  species.  P. 
prcBtor  Gerst.  is  this  species. 

Palpares  inclemens  Walk. 

Figure— Plate  XVIII,  Figure  5. 

The  third  anal  of  h.  w.  runs  into  the  second  anal  and  with  one  or 
two  cross-veins  to  fourth.  The  fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  has  three  or  four 
branches  and  four  cross-veins  to  the  third. 

Sometimes  the  basal  spot  of  hind  wings  is  narrowly  connected  to 
the  median.  The  wings  especially  the  front  pair  are  slightly  sinuated 
on  the  outer  margin. 


180  Amials  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


Palpares  immensus  McLach. 

Figure— Plate  XIX,  Figure  22,  and  Plate  XXI,  Figure  42. 

Third  anal  of  h.  w.  with  a  strong  oblique  cross-vein  up  to  second, 
and  a  cross-vein  behind  to  the  fourth  anal;  fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  with 
three  or  four  branches  and  as  many  cross-veins;  the  third  anal  has 
but  one  fork. 

P.  kalahariensis  Stitz  is  this  species. 

Palpares  cephalotes  Klug. 

Figure — Klug;  original  description,  and  Plate  XX,  Figure  30  {sollicitus)  and 
Figure  29  (siibducens). 

Third  anal  in  h.  w.  simple,  with  two  or  three  crOss-veins  to  the 
second,  and  one  to  the  fourth  anal.     No  band  under  antennas. 

Walker's  two  species,  sollicitus  and  subducens  are  cephalotes 
(as  McLachlan  has  stated) ;  the  slight  differences  are  only- 
such  as  one  finds  in  a  series  of  many  species  of  Palpares,  P. 
burmeisteri  Hagen  (that  is  P.  cephalotes  Rambr)  is  probably 
the   same   species. 

Palpares  karrooanus  Peringuey. 
Figure— Peringuey,  1910,  Plate  VIII,  Fig.  1. 

Third  anal  in  h.  w.  with  one  or  two  cross-veins  to  fourth  anal; 
abdomen  entirely  reddish. 

Although  it  has  the  hind  wings  almost  wholly  black  as  in 
P.  voeltzkowi  it  is  not  related  to  that  species,  as  all  the  marks 
are  different;  it  is  more  nearly  related  to  P.  radiatus. 

Palpares  oneili  Pering.  (Golafrus). 

Figure — Peringuey,  1911,  p.  35,  Figure  4. 

Navas  has  made  a  new  genus  for  it  on  account  of  the  ex- 
cised basal  margin  of  the  fore  wings,  but  this  is  probably 
found  only  in  the  male,  otherwise  the  species  is  related  to  P. 
radiatus.  It  was  described  as  a  female,  but  the  tip  of  abdomen 
appears  broken  and  the  very  narrow  wings  are  similar  to  those 
of  male  immensus. 

Palpares  similis  Stitz. 
Figure— Calvert,  (1889),  Plate  X,  Figure  1. 

This  species  is  related  to  immensus  by  the  submarginal 
line  in  fore  wing,  but  the  median  and  stigmal  bands  of  hind 
wings  are  broader  behind  than  in  front;  there  is  a  spot  above 
the  cubital  fork;  in  both  wings  the  apical  marks  are  in  the  form 
of  streaks. 


1913]  Neuropterous  Genus  Palpares.  181 

Palpares  reticulatus  Stitz. 

Figure — Navas,  with  original  description  (as  extensus). 

The  third  anal  in  h.  w.  has  one  cross- vein  to  the  fourth 
anal.     The  description  of  Stitz  seems  to  have  the  priority. 

Palpares  obsoletus  Gerst. 

Figure — Plate  XX,  Figure  43,  and  Navas  (as  nebulo). 

The  fourth  anal  of  f .  w.  has  three  or  four  branches  and  two  connec- 
tions to  the  third;  in  h.  w.  the  third  anal  is  simple,  with  one  or  two 
cross-veins  to  the  second  and  none  to  the  fourth.  There  is  a  black 
band    below    the    antennae. 

Palpares  normalis  Navas. 

Figure — Navas,  with  original  description. 

I  have  not  seen  this  species,  but  it  appears  to  be  good,  so 
long  as  species  are  based  on  markings. 

Palpares  geniculatus  Navas. 

Figure — Navas  (with  description.) 

I  have  not  seen  it,  but  apparently  distinct. 

Palpares  klugi  Kolbe. 

Figure — Klug,  Plate,  Figure  3  (unnamed). 

Fourth  anal  in  f.  w.  with  two  branches  and  connected  three  times 
to  third;  the  third  in  h.  w.  runs  into  second  and  then  away,  with  a 
cross-vein  before. 

Palpares  tristis  Hag. 

Figure — Hagen,  Mozambique  and  Kolbe.     Plate  XXI,  Figure  51,  appendages. 

The  fourth  anal  in  f.  w.  has  two  or  three  branches,  and  two  or  three 
cross-veins;  the  third  anal  in  h.  w.  simple,  with  a  soinewhat  oblique 
cross-vein  to  the  second  anal.  Nearh^  always  there  is  a  spot  beyond 
the  cubital  fork  in  the  h.  w. 

The  varieties  niansanus  Kolbe,  and  brevifasciatus  and  ugan- 
danus  of  Stitz  are  structurally  very  similar  to  the  type  form, 
but   brevifasciatus  is  perhaps   closer  to  interioris. 

Palpares  interioris  Kolbe. 

Figure— Plate  XXI,  Figure  49. 

The  fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  has  two  or  three  branches,  and  two,  or 
three  cross-veins;  the  third  anal  of  h.  w.  is  simple,  with  two  connections 
to  the  second.  The  marks  are  very  similar  to  those  of  obsoletus,  but 
that  species  is  larger  than  interioris,  and  the  body  markings  somewhat 
different. 

Palpares  lentus  Navas. 

Figure — Plate  XXI,  Fig.  47,  Navas,  original  description. 

Third  anal  of  h.  w.  simple,  one  cross-vein  to  the  second,  none  to 
fourth  anal.  A  black  band  below  antenncc.  Male  appendages  short, 
Fig.  36. 


182  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


Palpares  pardaloides  Weele. 

Figured  by  Van  der  Weele,  Madagascar,  Figure  5;  also  the  male  appendages 
on  page  257. 

Fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  with  four  branches  and  two  cross-veins;  third 
anal  of  h.  w.  simple,  no  cross-vein  to  second.     Legs  deep  black. 

In  the  Brussels  Museum  is  a  long  series  from  Madagascar 
that  tends  to  connect  this  species  to  P.  insularis. 

Palpares  nigrita  Navas. 

Figure — Plate  XIX,  Figure  27,  and  Navas,  original. 

Fourth  anal  in  f.  w.  with  two  branches  and  two  cross-veins;  third 
anal  of  h.  w.  simple,  and  one  straight  cross-vein  to  the  second  anal.  No 
band  under  antennse. 

P.  languidus  Navas  appears  also  to  go  here,  but  the  figure 
of  the  hind  wing  is  broader  than  usual. 

This  is  a  species  that  stands  in  the  Rambur  collection 
with  the  label  P.  manicatus  R.,  P.  tigris  Walk.  var.  de  tigris 
Dalm,  and  also  a  label  "Seneg"  Rambur's  manicatus  according 
to  him  had  two  radial  sectors  like  tigris,  and  with  no  locality 
label,  so  I  cannot  believe  that  this  specimen  is  Rambur's  t3"pe 
of  P.  manicatus.  I  figure  the  hind  wing  of  this  specimen, 
(figure  27). 

Palpares  walkeri  McLach. 

Figure— Plate  XIX,  Figure  21;  Navas,  Broteria  X,  p.  35. 

Fourth  anal  of  f .  w.  with  two  or  three  branches,  and  two  cross-veins; 
third  anal  of  h.  w.  simple,  three  or  more  cross-veins  to  second,  and  one 
to  fourth.     No  band  under  antenna. 

P.  dispar  Navas  seems  to  be  the  same  species. 
Palpares  angustus  McLach. 

Figure— Plate  XVIII,  Figure  7. 

Fourth  anal  in  f .  w.  with  three  branches,  and  four  cross-veins ;  third 
anal  of  h.  w.  has  an  oblique  cross-vein  to  second  and  two  cross-veins 
before  it.  Legs  all  deep  black;  the  stigmal  band  of  the  hind  wings 
sometimes  has  an  upper  inner  projection.  There  is  no  band  under 
antennae. 

The  variety  oranensis  grades  into  the  type. 

Palpares  hispanus  Linn. 
Figure — Navas,  Inseeta,  1911,  p.  265.  n 

The  fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  has  one  or  two  short  branches  and  two 
cross-veins;  the  third  anal  of  h.  w.  is  simple,  with  an  oblique  cross-vein 
to  second,  but  none  to  fourth.  The  marks  on  the  abdomen  (Fig.  33) 
are  very  characteristic;  as  in  other  species  there  is  much  variation  in 
the  extent  of  the  marks  on  wings,  and  in  the  width  of  the  hind  \vings. 


1913]  Neuropterous  Genus  Palpares.  183 

Palpares  libelluloides  Linn. 

Figure — Many  figures  in  European  literature. 

The  fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  is  very  short  and  curved,  with  one  or  two 
branches  and  one  or  two  cross-veins.  The  third  anal  of  h.  w.  is  simple, 
with  slightly  oblique  cross-vein  to  the  second  and  none  to  the  fourth 
anal. 

P.  chrysopterus  Navas  is  the  same  or  a  slight  variety. 

Palpares  tessellatus  Rbr. 

Figure — Plate  XX,  Figure  32  (marks  of  abdomen),  and  Stitz  (as  annulatiis). 

The  fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  has  two  branches,  and  one  or  two  connec- 
tions; the  third  anal  of  h.  w.  is  simple  with  one  or  two  straight  cross- 
veins.     No  dark  band  under  the  antennae. 

P.  annulatus  Stitz  is  a  synonym  of  this  species. 
Palpares  percheroni  Guerin. 

Figure— Guerin,  Iconog.  Regn.  Anim.,  Plate  62;  Gray,  Anim.  Kingd.,  Plate 
127,  Figure  1. 

The  fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  has  two  branches  and  one  or  no  connection 
to  third;  the  third  anal  in  h.  w.  simple,  with  a  somewhat  oblique  cross- 
vein  to  second  anal.  The  male  appendages  are  long  and  curved. 
The  abdominal  marks  are  figured  on  Plate  XX,  Figure  31. 

Palpares  tigris  Dalm.  (Nosa). 

Figure — Navas  {calceata,  leonina,  lupina,  pardina,  and  hamatiis). 

The  fourth  anal  of  f .  w.  has  two  or  three  branches  and  two  or  three 
connections  to  the  third;  the  third  anal  of  h.  w.  is  simple,  connected 
twice  to  the  second  and  sometimes  once  to  the  fourth. 

P.  manicatus  Rbr.  is  this  species  according  to  his  description. 
P.  hamata  is  a  male.  P.  tigris,  calceata,  hamata,  sylphis  have 
quite  large  spots;  P.  leonina,  lupina  and  pardina  have  smaller 
spots.     Tip  of  fore  wing,  see  figure  45. 

Palpares  aegrotus  Gerst. 

Figure — Navas  (as  longicornis),  Kolbe  (as  submaculatus),  and  Stitz  (as 
paucimaciilatus) . 

The  fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  with  one  or  two  branches  and  two  connec- 
tions to  the  third;  third  anal  of  h.  w.  simple,  with  one  cross-vein  to 
second,  none  to  the  fourth. 

Variety  taborensis  Stitz  is  apparently  the  same.  Tip  of  the 
fore  wing,  see  figure  46.  P.  dilatatus  Navas  has  stigmal  spots 
united  into  a  band. 

Palpares  omatus  Navas. 

Figure — Navas  (with  description). 

Very  close  to  cegrotus  and  perhaps  a  form  of  it,  but  the 
apical  marks  are  different,  and  these  in  cegrotus  seem  very  con- 
stant. 


184  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


Palpares  speciosus  Linn. 

Figure— Romer,  Genera,  Plate  XXV,  Figure  3;  De  Geer,  Mem.  Ill,  Plate 
XXVII,  Figure  9,  (as  maculatus);  also  Sulzer,  Plate  XXV,  Figure  3. 

The  fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  with  two  branches,  and  two  cross-veins; 
the  third  anal  of  h.  w.  simple,  with  two  cross-veins  to  second,  but  none 
to  the  fourth. 

A  peculiar  variation  in  marking  is  seen  on  Plate  XX,  Fig. 
37,  hind  wing;  and  male  appendages  Figs.  52,  53. 

Palpares  dubiosus  Pering. 

I  have  not  seen  this  species  nor  is  there  any  figure,  but  it  is 
described  as  close  to  P.  speciosus,  so  it  is  probably  but  one 
form  of  what  will  prove  to  be  one  common  variable  species. 

Palpares  caffer  Burm. 

Figure— Plate  XXI,  Figure  50. 

The  fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  with  two  branches  and  two  cross-veins  to 
third;  the  third  in  h.  w.  simple,  with  one  cross-vein  to  the  second,  but 
none  to  the  fourth. 

The  difference  between  this  and  P.  speciosus  is  hardly 
sufficient  for  a  species,  and  not  constant;  the  wings  are  usually 
shorter  than  in  P.  speciosus,  and  the  fore  pair  less  heavily 
marked. 

Palpares  varius  Navas. 

Figure — Navas,  original  description. 

In  fore  wing  the  fourth  anal  has  two  branches  and  two  connections ; 
in  hind  wings  the  third  anal  is  simple  with  two  connections  to  second, 
but  none  to  fourth. 

Palpares  digitatus  Gerst. 

Figure — Calvert,  Figure  3  (unnamed);  Navas  (as  torridum  and  pobeguini); 
and  Plate  XIX,  Figure  24. 

In  fore  wing  the  fourth  anal  has  one  branch  and  one  cross-vein. 
Third  anal  in  h.  w.  simple,  not  connected  to  fourth  anal,  with  two 
veinlets  to  the  second  anal. 

The  figure  I  give  and  that  of  Navas  represent  heavily 
marked  specimens;  that  of  Calvert  is  more  normal.  I  think 
P.  umbrosus  Kolbe  is  the  same ;  but  the  bands  are  narrower  and 
one  or  more  "fingers"  are  usually  separate  from  the  bands,  and 
the  wings  may  be  a  little  more  slender,  in  fact  it  is  more  like 
P.  speciosus,  and  appears  to  connect  speciosus  with  digitatus. 
The  hind   wings  of   typical  umbrosus  are  shown  in   figure  44. 


1913]  Neuropterous  Genus  Palpares.  185 

Palpares  stuhlmanni  Kolbe. 

Figure — Kolbe,  Figure  1. 

Closely  related  to  P.  speciosus,  at  least  in  the  male  append- 
ages; the  marks  are  similar  to  those  of  P.  timbrosus;  the  venation 
is  as  in  P.  speciosus 

Palpares  damarensis  McLach. 

Figure — Plate  XVIII,  Figure  11,  and  Stitz  (as  bifasciatus). 

Fourth  anal' in  f.  w.  with  two  or  three  branches  and  two  cross- 
veins;  third  anal  of  h.  w.  simple,  no  connection  to  the  fourth.  Black 
hair  on  clypeus;  legs  all  black;  head  all  dark,  except  pale  clypeus. 

Palpares  formosus  Banks.' 

Figure — Plate  XIX,  Figure  23;  also  Navas  in  Broteria  X,  p.  85,  Figure  16. 

Fourth  anal  in  f.  w.  with  one  short  branch,  and  one  cross-vein; 
third  anal  of  h.  w.  simple  with  one  cross-vein  to  second  and  none  to  the 
fourth. 

Palpares  festivus  Gerst. 

Figure — Peringuey  (as  mosamhicus) ,  and  Navas  (as  latro). 
The  third  anal  of  h.  w.  simple,  and  no  cross-vein  to  the  fourth. 
Legs  black. 

Palpares  elegantulus  Pering. 

Figure — Peringuey  1910,  Plate  VII,  Figure  4. 

This  small  slender-winged  species  is  apparently  very  dis- 
tinct; I  have  not  seen  it,  but  it  appears  related  to  the  fiavofascia- 
tus  group. 

Palpares  flavofasciatus  McLach. 

Figures — Peringuey  (as  genialis);  Stitz  (as  gtittatus);  and  Navas  (as  nyassensis) 
The  third  anal  in  h.  w.  is  simple  and  no  connection  to  the  fourth 
anal.     Legs  black. 

In  P.  nyassensis  the  bands  are  a  little  wider  than  in  the  other 
types,  but  a  series  of  specimens  show^s  much  variation  in  this 
point. 

Palpares  compositus  Navas. 

Figure — Navas  (and  also  as  mistus). 

Closely  related  to  flavofasciatus,  but  with  the  bands  of  hind 
wings  much  broader  and  connected.  P.  mistus  Navas  appears 
to  be  the  same  form.  It  is  in  the  Berlin  Museum  under  a 
manuscript  name  that  I  cannot  find  has  ever  been  published. 

Palpares  bifasciatus  Oliv. 

Figure— Plate  XVIII,  Figure  6. 

Fourth  anal  in  f.  w.  with  two  branches,  and  two  cross-veins;  the 
third  anal  of  h.  w.  simple,  connected  about  four  times  to  the  second  and 
twice  to  the  fourth.  A  broad  black  band  under  antennse;  abdomen 
pale  yellowish  red;  thorax  with  two  rows  of  yellow  spots. 


186  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

This  was  considered  by  Walker  as  P.  pardalinus  Burtn. 
McLachlan  doubted  it,  and  so  named  Walker's  insect  P. 
brachypterus;  but  Hagen  (who  saw  both)  asserts  that  Walker's 
insect  is  pardalinus  B.  It  agrees  with  the  Mymeleon  bifasciatum 
Olivier. 

Palpares  spectrum  Rambr. 

Figure — Navas,  Rev.  Zool.  Afric,  II,  p.  37. 

The  fourth  anal  of  f .  w.  has  two  branches  and  two  connections ;  the 
third  anal  of  h.  w.  is  simple,  with  one  cross-vein  to  second,  but  none  to 
fourth  anal. 

Palpares  rothschildi  Weele. 

Figure — Stitz,  Figure  10. 

The  fourth  anal  in  f.  w.  has  two  branches  and  two  connections;  the 
third  anal  in  h.  w.  is  simple,  and  one  cross-vein  to  second  anal. 

Very  closely  related  to  P.  spectrum  and  probably  but  a 
local  variet}^  occuring  northward  of  the  range  of  P.  spectrum. 

^  Palpares  ovampoanus  Pering. 

Figure — Peringuey,  1910,  Plate  VII,  Figure  1. 

This  is  closely  related  to  P.  spectrum  and  will  fall  in  the 
subgenus  Palparellus.  I  have  not  seen  specimens  in  European 
collections. 

Palpares  translatus  Walk. 

Figure— Plate  XVIII,  Figure  13. 

The  third  anal  in  h.  w.  is  simple,  and  not  connected  to  the  fourth 
anal.  Antennse  close  together  at  base;  subcosta  not  thickened,  but  in 
general  structure  is  closely  related  to  Pamexis  luteus. 

Palpares  luteus  Thunberg.  (Pamexis) 

Figure— Plate  XVI II,  Figure  9. 

The  third  anal  in  h.  w.  is  simple,  and  connected  once  to  the  fourth 
anal. 

P.  venosiis  Burm.  is  the  same;  and  Hagen  asserts  (and  he  has 
examined  both  types)  that  P.  conspucatus  Burm.  is  also  the 
same  species.  The  subcosta  is  thicl^ened  in  both  sexes,  other- 
wise the  species  is  related  to  P.  translatus.  There  are  specimens 
in  the  Berlin,  Brussels  and  British  museums. 

Palpares  contaminatus  Hagen. 

Figure— Plate  XVIII,  Figure  4. 

This  name  was  given  by  Hagen  (Can.  Entom.  1887,  p.  112) 
for  P.  pardalinus  Rambur,  not  of  Burmeister.  I  figure  the 
hind  wing  of  the  type.  The  subcosta  of  fore  wing  is  not 
thickened. 


1913]  Neuropterous  Genus  Palpares.  187 

INDIAN  SPECIES. 

1.  A  large  spot  over  the  fork  of  the  cubitus  in  the  hind  wing 6. 

No   such    spot 2. 

2.  An  elongate  spot  along  middle  of  hind  margin  of  hind  wing;  median  band  does 

not    reach    across tigroides 

No  such  spot;  median  reaches  across 3. 

3.  Fore  wings  mostly  dark,  leaving  only  large  and  small  pale  spots,  rather  small 

species    astutus 

Fore  wings,  mostly  pale,  with  dark  bands  or  spots 4. 

4.  Margin  of  fore  wings  plainly  sinuate;  some  bands  of  both  wings  reach  across; 

large  species 5. 

Margin  of  fore  wings  not  sinuate,  bands  of  fore  wings  not  across;  hardly  across 
in  the  hind  wings papilionoides 

5.  Tips  of  hind  wings  plainly  falcate;  stigmal  band  without  projection  toward 

median  band falcatus 

Tips  not  falcate;  stigmal  spot  with  projection  toward  the  tip  of  the  median 
band contrarius 

6.  Two  parallel  stigmal  bands,  or  spots 7. 

But  one  stigmal  band,  or  broken  into  one  series  of  spots 9. 

7.  Both  median  and  stigmal  bands  in  hind  wings  reach  across 8. 

Neither  median  nor  stigmal  reach  across;  margins  of  both  wings  narrowly 

dark astarte 

8.  Median  connected  to  basal  spot;  latter  reaching  across  hind  wing ...  pattens 
Median  not  connected  to  the  basal,  which  does  not  reach  across.  .  .  .infirmus 

9.  Apical  mark  of  hind  wings  solid;  stigma  very  broad  and  reaches  across.. solidus 
Apical  mark  with  spots,  or  broken;  stigmal  band  not  very  broad  nor  reaching 

across 10. 

10.  A  spot  behind  radius  above  the  basal  spot  on  the  cubital  fork  of  the  hind 

wings;  stigmal  mark  running  obliquely  inward zebratus 

No  spot  behind  radius;  stigmal  band  extending  outward,  or  curved  inward. . 

pardus 

Palpares  astarte  n.  sp. 

Figure— Plate  XIX,  Figure  18. 

Head  yellowish;  a  row  of  pale  hairs  across  clypeus,  and  on  margin 
of  labrum;  a  black  spot  narrowing  behind  on  vertex,  continued  over 
thorax  as  a  median  stripe,  widest  on  the  mesothorax,  dark  stripe  on 
sides  of  pronotum,  and  stripe  on  meso  and  metathorax  over  base  of 
the  wings;  abdomen  yellowish  brown,  a  black  spot  on  apex  of  the  first 
segment;  legs  and  sternum  all  black.  Wings  rather  yellowish,  and  with 
yellowish  venation;  costa  black,  and  with  black  points  out  on  costals, 
but  costals  are  pale ;  outer  posterior  margin  of  both  pairs  of  wings  dark 
brown;  fore  wings  with  five  series  of  spots;  a  long  streak  on  cubitus 
broader  at  tip  and  bending  down;  a  spot  above  it  behind  the  radius;  an 
oblique  band  beyond  the  streak  reaching  from  radius  to  more  than  one- 
half  way  across;  beyond  this  are  two  spots  in  an  oblique  row;  then  three 
spots  in  a  transverse  row,  one  stigmal,  the  other  two  in  form  of  streaks; 
the  two  subapical  marks  are  not  quite  streaks.  In  hind  wings  is  a  spot 
on  cubital  fork,  a  band  beyond  reaching  to  beyond  middle  where  it 
is  enlarged;  a  curved  band  beyond  this,  not  reaching  either  radius  or 
hind  margin,  larger  behind;  then  two  large  spots,  one  stigmal,  the  other 
close  behind  it;  then  a  sinuous  band  before  apex.  Wings  of  moderate 
breadth;  in  fore  wing  the  third  anal  is  connected  to  the  fourth  four  or 
five  times,  in  hind  wings  the  third  anal  has  an  oblique  vein  running  into 
the  second  anal,  and  one  cross-vein  beyond  it.     Expanse  125  mm. 

From  Chapra,  Bengal,  India  (Mackenzie). 


188  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

Palpares  pardus  Rambr. 
Figure — Plate  XVIII,  Figure  3,  and  anal  appendages,  Plate  XXI,  Figure  54. 
The  fourth  anal  of  f .  w.  has  three  or  four  branches  and  three  cross- 
veins;  the  third  anal  in  h.  w.  is  simple,  with  two  cross-veins  to  second. 

P.  expertus  Walk  is  the  same  species;  it  is  very  common  in 
India. 

Palpares  zebratus  Rambr. 

Figure,  Plate  XX,  Figure  28. 

The  third  anal  of  h.  w.  simple,  with  two  to  four  cross-veins  to  second 
and  one  to  three  to  fourth  anal.  Abdomen  with  a  median  dark  stripe 
above.  The  fore  wings  are  without  distinct  bands,  but  with  median 
and  stigmal  spots. 

Palpares  contrarius  Walk. 

Figure— Plate  XVIII,  Figure  8. 

The  third  anal  of  h.  w.  simple,  with  two  cross-veins  to  the  second, 
one  of  which  is  slightly  oblique,  in  the  f.  w.  the  fourth  anal  has  two 
branches  ^.nd  two  or  three  connections. 

This  is  a  beautiful  species  not  uncommon  in  Ceylon.  In 
Walker's  description  a  line  is  omitted  regarding  the  second 
band  in  the  hind  wings,  for  it  is  this  band  that  has  a  projection 
toward  the  first  band. 

Palpares  falcatus  McLach. 
Allied    to    contrarius   in    markings,    but   hind    wings    more 
falcate;  I  have  seen  only  the  type. 

Palpares  patiens  Walk. 

Figure — Plate  XVIII,  Figure  10,  and  Navas  in  Broteria  X,  p.  86,  Figure  17. 
The  third  anal  of  h.  w.  runs  into  the  second,  and  a  cross-vein 
behind  to  fourth  anal;  abdomen  dark,  unmarked. 

Palpares  infirmus  Walk. 

Figure— Plate  XVIII,  Figure  12. 

The  third  anal  of  h.  w.  with  an  oblique  vein  to  the  second,  one 
cross-vein  before  it  to  second,  and  one  behind  to  fourth  anal.  No 
band  under  antennse. 

This  is  probably  the  same  species  as  P.  patiens.  Fore 
wings  with  many  spots,  and  streaks  and  spots  along  the  outer 
hind  margin,  stigmal  and  median  bands  small. 

Palpares  papilionoides  Klug. 
Figure — Klug,  Plate,  Figure  2. 

The  third  anal  in  h.  w.  is  simple,  no  cross-vein  before  the  oblique 
one  running  into  second. 

It  is  not  common  and  is  represented  in  but  few  European 
collections. 


1913]  Neuropterous  Genus  Palpares.     ■  180 

Palpares  solidus  Gerst. 

Figure — Plate  XIX,  Figure  20;  and  Navas  (as  klapaleki). 

The  fourth  anal  in  f.  w.  is  two  or  three  branched,  and  with  two  of 
three  connections;  the  third  anal  in  h.  w.  is  simple,  with  one  cross-vein 
to  second. 

Palpares  tigroides  Walk. 

Figure— Plate  XX,  Figure  34. 

Third  anal  of  h.  w.  simple,  one  cross-vein  to  the  second  and  none  to 
fourth  anal.  Legs  black;  fore  wings  with  hardly  any  marks,  rather 
yellowish. 

Palpares  astutus  Walk. 

Figure— Plate  XIX,  Figure  19. 

The  fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  with  two  branches,  and  two  cross-veins; 
the  third  anal  of  h.  w.  simple,  with  one  cross-vein  to  second.  It  belongs 
to  the  subgenus  Palparellus. 

STENARES. 
(including  Crambomorphus .) 

1.  Outer  margin  of  wings  strongly  sinuate {Cramhomorphus)  2. 

Outer  margin  of  wings  not  plainly  sinuate {Stenares)  3. 

2.  Hind  wings  pale  with  two  large  bands  well  separated,  and  apex  marked.  .  .  . 

grandidieri  Weele. 

Hind  wings  with  the  bands  so  large  they  are  connected  and  cover  most  of 

surface,   leaving  only  pale  spots sinuatum  Oliv. 

3.  Hind  wings  with  all  the  bands  broad  and  connected,  leaving  only  pale  spots. . 

madagascariensis . 
Hind  wings  not  so  heavily  marked 4. 

4.  No  stigmal  spot  in  hind- wings,  a  streak  along  outer  edge,  and  sometimes  a  few 

dots  before  it;  wings  very  narrow;  in  hind  wings  costals  at  bas^  are  crossed. 

hycBna. 
A  stigmal  spot  reaching  nearly  one-half  way  across ,5. 

5.  A  spot  on  hind  wings  just  beyond  the  cubital  fork,  also  large  median  band; 

wings  broad;  in  hind  wings  the  costals  are  mostly  simple irroratus. 

No  spot  on  hind  wings  near  the  cubital  fork,  but  median  spots  (or  band)  are 
sometimes  present;  in  the  hind  wings  the  costals  are  mostly  crossed.  .  .  .6. 

6.  Larger;  apical  mark  of  the  hind  wings  in  the  form  of  two  streaks.  .  .  .improbus. 
Smaller;  apical  mark  of  the  hind  wings  entire,  or  partly  broken,  not  in  form 

of    streaks harpyia. 

In  S.  hyaena,  irroratus,  improbus  and  harpyia  the  third 
anal  of  h,  w.  runs  into  the  second,  with  one  or  three  cross- 
veins  before;  all  have  a  pale  pronotum  with  a  median  black 
stripe,  and  all  have  black  legs, 

Stenares  (Crambomorphus)  grandidieri  Weele. 
Figure — Weele,  Madagascar,  Fig.  2. 

Differs  much  in  markings  from  S.  sinuatiis;  fully  half  of  the 
hind  wing  is  hyaline;  the  wings  are  also  much  broader  than  in 
that  species,  but  the  hind  wing  shows  the  same  costal  swelling 
at  apex.  The  anal  venation  is  similar  to  that  of  S.  sinuatus, 
but  in  the  h.  w.  the  third  anal  has  but  one  cross-vein  to  the 
fourth  anal. 


190  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


Stenares  (Crambomorphus)  sinuatus  Oliv. 
•       Figure— Plate  XIX,  Fig.  14. 

Hind  wings  black;  two  pale  spots  in  middle  and  stigma  pale,  and 
pale  spots  on  hind  border. 

Fourth  anal  in  f.  w.  has  four  branches  and  four  connections;  in 
h.  w.  the  third  anal  is  long,  with  an  oblique  cross-vein  to  the  second 
and  others  nearly  erect,  and  four  cross-veins  to  the  fourth  anal. 

Palpares  hcematogaster  Gerst.  is  the  same  species. 

Stenares  irroratus  Navas. 
Figure — Navas,  original. 

'I  have  seen  only  the  type  in  the  British  Museum. 

Stenares  improbus  Walk. 

Figure — Plate  XIX,  Figure  16,  and  male  appendages.  Figure  25. 

In  h.  w.  the  third  anal  runs  into  the  second,  and  has  two  cross- veins 
to  fourth;  in  f.  w.  the  fourth  anal  has  five  branches  and  five  cross-veins 
to  the  third. 

Stenares  harpyia  Gerst. 
Figure— (Anal  appendages)  Plate  XIX,  Fig.  26. 

The  fourth  anal  of  f.  w.  has  inany  branches  and  many  connections 
to  the  third  anal;  in  h.  w.  the  third  anal  runs  into  the  second,  and  has 
two  branches. 

Stenares  madagascariensis  Weele. 
Figure — Van  der  Weele,  Madagascar,  Fig.  1. 

The  third  anal  of  hind  wing  is  simple,  with  an  oblique  cross-vein  to 
second  and  two  or  three  before  it,  and  four  or  five  cross-veins  to  the 
fourth. 

Stenares  hyaena  Dalman. 
Hagen   considers   the   figure    12,    plate   86,    of   the   Fourth 
volume  of  Seba's  Thesaurus  as  representing  the  species. 


1913] 


Neuropterous  Genus  Palpares. 


191 


EXPLANATION  OF  PLATES  XVIII  TO  XXI. 

g.    L  Palpares  latipennis,  hind  wing. 

g.    2.  Palpares  incommodus,  hind  wing. 

g.    3.  Palpares  pardus,  hind  wing. 

g.    4.  Palpares  contaminatus,  hind  wing. 

g.    5.  Palpares  inclemens,  hind  wing. 

g.    6.  Palpares  bifasciatus,  hind  wing. 

g.    7.  Palpares  angustus,  hind  wing. 

g.    8.  Palpares  contrarius,  hind  wing. 

g.    9.  Pamexis  luteus,  hind  wing.  » 

g.  10.  Palpares  patiens,  hind  wing. 

g.  11.  Palpares  damarensis,  hind  wing. 

g.  12.  Palpares  infirmus,  hind  wing. 

g.  13.  Palpares  translatus,  hind  wing. 

g.  14.  Stenares  sinuatus,  hind  wing. 

g.  15.  Palpares  moestus,  apex  of  hind  wing. 

g.  16.  Stenares  improbus,  hind  wing. 

g.  17.  Palpares  gigas,  apex  of  hind  wing. 

g.  18.  Palpares  astarte,  fore  and  hind  wings. 

g.  19.  Palpares  astutus,  fore  and  hind  wings. 

g.  20.  Palpares  solidus,  hind  wing. 

g.  21.  Palpares  walkeri,  hind  wing. 

g.  22.  Palpares  immensus,  hind  wing. 

g.  23.  Palpares  formosus,  hind  wing. 

g.  24.  Palpares  digitatus,  hind  wing. 

g.  25.  Stenares  improbus,  male  appendage. 

g.  26.  Stenares  harpyia,  male  appendage. 

g.  27.  Palpares  nigrita,  hind  wing. 

g.  28.  Palpares  zebratus,  hind  wing. 

g.  29.  Palpares  subducens  hind  wing. 

g.  30.  Palpares  sollicitus,  hind  wing. 

g.  31.  Palpares  percheroni,  abdomen. 

g.  32.  Palpares  tessellatus,  abdomen. 

g.  33.  Palpares  hisparius,  abdomen. 

g.  34.  Palpares  tigroides,  hind  wing. 

g.  35.  Palpares  latipennis,  and  amitinus,  anal  area  of  fore  wings. 

g.  36.  Palpares  lentus,  male  appendages. 

g.  37.  Palpares  speciosus,  variation  of  hind  wing. 

g.  38.  Palpares  insularis,  anal  area,  fore  wing. 

g.  39.  Palpares  inclemens,  anal  area,  hind  wing. 

g.  40.  Palpares  radiatus,  male  appendages. 

g.  41.  Palpares  umbrosus,  male  appendages. 

g.  42.  Palpares  immensus,  male  appendages. 

g.  43.  Palpares  obsoletus,  hind  wing. 

g.  44.  Palpares  umbrosus,  hind  wings, of  two  males. 

g.  45.  Palpares  tigris,  apex  of  fore  wing. 

g.  46.  Palpares  aegrotus,  tip  of  fore  wing. 

g.  47.  Palpares  lentus,  hind  wing. 

g.  48.  Palpares  extensus,  hind  wing. 

g.  49.  Palpares  interioris  hind  wing. 

g.  50.  Palpares  caflFer,  hind  wing. 

g.  51.  Palpares  tristis,  male  appendage. 

g.  52.  Palpares  speciosus,  male  appendage,  side. 

g.  53.  Palpares  speciosus,  male  appendage,  above. 

g.  54.  Palpares  pardus,  male  appendage. 

g.  55.  Palpares  moestus,  male  appendage. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XVIII. 


N.  Banks. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI.  Plate  XIX, 


N.  Banks. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XX. 


N.  Banks. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXI. 


N,  Banks. 


STOMOXYS    CALCITRANS    LINN,    PART    II.* 

By  Chas.  K.  Brain. 

The  Circulatory  System. 

The  circulatory  system  in  Stomoxys  calcitrans  consists,  as  in 
other  Diptera,  of  the  dorsal  vessel  or  heart,  and  its  anterior 
continuation,  the  thoracic  aorta.  The  dorsal  vessel  extends 
as  a  delicate  tube  from  the  posterior  part  of  the  abdomen  to 
its  anterior  sixth,  that  is  above  the  anterior  part  of  the  sucking 
stomach,  where  it  becomes  narrowed  into  the  thoracic  aorta. 
This  narrowed  portion  continues  of  uniform  thickness  until 
the  proventriculus  is  reached,  where  it  becomes  somewhat 
flattened  and  wider.  Beyond  this  it  becomes  narrower,  and 
terminates  above  the  esophagus,  between  the  proventriculus 
and   the  neck. 

It  may  be  noticed  that,  as  found  by  Professor  Minchin  in 
his  study  of  Glossina  sp.,  the  dorsal  vessel  ends  blindly  behind, 
is  composed  of  similar  giant  cells,  and  has  similar  ostia  and 
alary  muscles.  The  number  of  chambers  in  the  heart  was  not 
determined  with  certainty,  but  I  think  Tulloch  was  correct 
in  supposing  that  there  were  four.  The  dorsal  vessel  lies  free 
in  the  pericardial  cavity,  but  is  supported  by  the  muscular 
pericardial  septum. 

Nervous    System. 

There  are  two  chief  ganglia,  viz :  the  brain  and  the  thoracic 
ganglion,  and  from  these  the  main  nerve-trunks  arise.  Time 
was  not  taken  to  work  out  the  more  minute  nerves,  but  the 
following  may  be  mentioned.  The  chief  nerves  of  the  head 
beyond  those  of  the  compound  eyes,  are  those  which  enervate 
(a)  the  antennae,  (b)  the  ocelli,  and  (c)  the  esophagus,  pharynx, 
and  the  pharyngeal  muscles. 

The  brain  is  connected  with  the  thoracic  ganglion  by  com- 
missures, between  which  the  esophagus  passes.  The  thoracic 
ganglion  is  roughly  pear-shaped,  and  is  supported  by  the 
internal  chitinous  skeleton  of  the  thorax.  The  main  nerves 
given  off  from  the  thoracic  ganglion  are  (a)   six  pairs  which 

*The  first  part  of  this  paper,  which  dealt  with  the  external  mouthparts  and 
the  digestive  system,  appeared  in  Vol.  V,  No.  4,  pp.  421-430  of  these  Annals, 
December,  1912. 

197 


198  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

supply  the  thoracic  muscles,  and  (b)  the  abdominal  nerve 
trunk,  which  arises  as  a  stout  continuation  of  the  posterior 
part  of  the  ganglion.  This  nerve  trunk  gives  off  fine  branches 
to  the  abdominal  muscles  and  on  reaching  the  third  abdominal 
segment,  splits  into  three. 

These  three  branches  supply  the  reproductive  organs,  the 
ovaries  or  testes,  and  the  ovipositor  or  the  penis. 

Reproductive '  System. 

The  male  generative  organs,  (Plate  XXII,  Fig.  7.)  are  com- 
paratively simple  in  structure.  They  are  however  not  readily 
seen  in  gross  dissection  until  some  of  the  surrounding  and 
over-lying  Malpighian  tubules  are  moved.  They  consist 
of  a  penis,  ejaculatory  duct,  vesicula  seminalis,  and  testes 
with    their   ducts. 

The  testes  are  smooth,  spherical  bodies,  enclosed  in  sacs 
which  have  deeply  pigmented  walls,  giving  them  a  deep  orange 
color.  From  the  lower  end  of  each  testis  a  delicate  tube  arises, 
short  and  straight,  which  runs  down  to  join  the  duct  from  the 
opposite  side,  as  the  upper  limbs  of  a  Y. 

From  this  junction  an  exceedingly  short  length  of  common 
duct  enters  the  bulbous  upper  end  of  the  tubular  organ,  which 
would  seem  to  serve  as  a  vesicula  seminalis.  This  is  a  flexible 
tube,  often  seen  lying  with  one  or  two  U-shaped  bends  in  its 
course.  At  its  upper  end  this  vesicula  seminalis  is  bulbous, 
gradually  narrowing  below  to  form  the  ejaculatory  duct,  (Fig. 
7,  e.  d.),  which  crosses  the  rectum  dorsalh^  from  left  to  right, 
to  enter  the  penis  in  front  of  it. 

The  female  reproductive  organs,  (PI.  XXII,  Fig.  8)  are  .of  the 
house  fly  type.  There  are  two  ovaries,  each  consisting  of 
some  60  ovarioles.  The  ovaries  vary  in  size  according  to  the 
degree  of  maturity  of  the  lowest  ova,  of  which  there  are  never 
more  than  four  in  a  single  ovariole.  In  some  cases  the  ovaries 
occupy  more  than  half  of  the  whole  abdominal  space.  The 
ovarioles  from  one  side  open  into  a  wide  tubular  duct  which 
joins  the  similar  duct  from  the  other  side  like  the  arms  of  a  Y. 

As  a  result  of  this  junction  a  common  oviduct  (o.  v.)  results, 
which  runs  down  forming  a  long  third  limb  to  the  Y.  Below 
the  attachment  of  the  uterine  appendages  the  oviduct  con- 
tinues as  the  uterus.  The  appendages  consist  of  the  uterine 
glands  and  the  receptacula  seminis. 


1913]  Stomoxys  calcitrans  Linn.  199 

The  uterine  glands,  (u.  g.),  are  two  rather  stout  tubular 
organs  with  slightly  bulbous  extremities.  The  bulbous  end 
is  firmly  joined  to  the  lateral  oviduct  by  a  very  short  double 
strain   of   connective   tissue. 

The  receptacula  seminis  are  two  small,  black,  spherical 
bodies,  each  with  a  cellular  socket  resembling  the  fitting  of  an 
acorn  cup.  From  this  runs  a  very  fine  duct  which  enters  the 
division  between  the  oviduct  and  the  uterus  in  the  mid-dorsal 
line.  The  receptacula  are  attached  to  each  other  but  can  be 
separated  by  dissection.  The  uterus  is  a  tube  of  the  same 
diameter  as  the  common  oviduct  above,  and  runs  down  the 
middle  line  into  the  ovipositor. 

The  ovipositor  consists  of  three  cylindrical  segments  of 
thin  chitin  which  usually  lie  telescoped  inside  the  abdomen. 

Habitat. 
Farmyards  and  stables  are  evidently  the  favorite  haunts  of 
this  fly.  It  occurs  also  in  fields  and  open  woods,  especially 
where  cattle  or  horses  are  grazing.  It  is  evidently  by  no 
means  uncommon  even  in  large  cities,  and  numbers  have 
been  seen  in  quite  busy  streets.  It  is  fond  of  resting  on  sur- 
faces fully  exposed  to  the  sun,  such  as  doors,  gates,  and  rails, 
and  to  a  less  extent  also  on  stone  walls.  Painted  surfaces 
seem  to  be  specially  attractive  to  it.  Its  flight  is  quite  in- 
audible at  a  short  distance.  When  disturbed  it  frequently 
returns  to  the  same  spot,  as  though  it  were  a  favorite  resting 
place.  It  is  quite  active  during  the  warmer  part  of  the  day, 
and  at  night  returns  to  some  sheltered  spot  such  as  the  beams 
in  a  shed.  In  Columbus  the  numbers  of  this  species  dwindled 
towards  the  end  of  October  in  1912,  but  a  few  could  be  caught 
up  to  the  end  of  November,  and  four  specimens  were  taken  on 
December  3rd.  In  captivity  these  flies  live  but  a  short  time, 
generally  less  than  a  week.  They  frequently  clean  their  wings, 
performing  their  cleaning  with  great  precision,  the  hind  pair 
of  legs  being  used  for  this  purpose.  The  lower  surface  is 
combed,  then  the  upper,  the  legs  are  then  rubbed  together  and 
the   process   repeated. 

Emergence  from  the  egg. 

The  larva  makes  its  escape  from  the  egg  by  splitting  the 
broad  end  of  the  groove,  leaving  it  slightly  raised,  and  apparently 
intact  on  the  opposite  side,  Plate  XXII,  Figure  1. 


200  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

The   Larva.     Plate    XXII,    Figs.  2    and   3. 

Color  creamy  white  to  yellowish,  shiny,  greasy  in  appear- 
ance. The  coiled  alimentary  tract,  when  filled  with  food, 
gives  the  posterior  portion  a  dark  appearance.  The  longitudinal 
tracheae  may  be  recognized  as  two  submedian  white  lines 
which  show  delicate  lateral  branches.  The  posterior  stigmata 
are  black,  while  the  thoracic  ones  are  yellowish  in  color. 

In  form  the  larva  is  elongate,  tapering  towards  the  head 
but  broadly  rounded  behind.  The  segmentation  is  not  very 
conspicuous,  and  the  epidermis  is  bare,  not  having  hairs  nor 
bristles.  On  the  head  may  be  seen  two  large  divergent  mam- 
miform processes,  at  the  end  of  which  are  the  minute  retractile 
antennae,  which  are  apparently  each  composed  of  four  sub- 
equal  segments.  The  mouth  parts  are  strongly  chitinised  in 
the  full  grown  larva  and  are  composed  of  a  number  of  sclerites 
as  shown  in  Figs.  2  and  3. 

The  last  seven  segments  are  furnished,  on  their  ventral 
surface,  with  raised  bands  of  tactile  tubercles.  The  posterior 
stigmata  are  two  in  number,  circular,  and  somewhat  distant 
from  each  other.  The  thoracic  stigmata  occupy  a  sub-lateral 
position  on  the  third  segment,  and  each  consists  of  five  cir- 
cular orifices,  (t.  s.).  These  are  connected  with  a  large  bilateral 
,air  sac  which  extends  along  the  fourth  segment. 
Method  of  pupation. 

The  time  taken  for  pupation  is  usually  about  two  hours. 
The  larva  at  first  becomes  quiet,  and  shortens  rapidly,  chiefly 
by  the  contraction  of  the  anterior  segments.  In  this  way  it 
assumes  a  form  which  resembles  a  barrel  in  shape.  At  this 
stage  it  is  still  yellowish  white  and  the  mouthparts  of  the  larva 
are  plainly  visible  through  the  soft  integument.  The  color 
then  changes  to  a  bright  yellow,  and  in  about  an  hour  longer 
it  assumes  the  normal  chestnut  color  of  the  puparium. 

The  puparium  is  from  5  to  6  mm.  in  length,  only  eleven 
segments  are  visible,  the  anterior  one  bearing  the  minute, 
bilateral,  thoracic  stigmata,  while  the  broadly  rounded  posterior 
segment  shows  the  disc-like  posterior  stigmata.  Under  opti- 
mum conditions  this  stage  lasts  from  9  to  13  days. 
Development  of  the  adult. 

About  three  days  before  the  emergence  of  the  adult  fly, 
the  cuticle  of  the  puparium  darkens,  and  eventually  splits 
along    the   lateral    and    median    lines,    anteriorly,    and    trans- 


1913]  Stomoxys  calcitrans  Linn.  201 

versely  across  the  fourth  segment.  This  section  falls  away 
and  the  fly  escapes.  Prior  to  this  the  nymph  undergoes  its 
final  ecdysis,  pushing  its  effete  skin  off  backwards  into  the 
posterior  end  of  the  puparium.  On  its  emergence  it  appears 
as  a  small  dark  fly,  gray  in  color,  with  thick  rudimentary 
wings  of  a  dull  leaden  color.  Its  head  is,  at  this  stage,  much 
wider  than  the  thorax,  and  the  abdomen  is  attenuated.  At 
first  it  is  very  active,  the  period  of  activity  evidently  serving  to 
allow  the  fly  to  force  its  way  to  the  surface  before  the  wings 
are  fully  grown  and  stiffened.  The  frontal  sac  is  constantly 
inflated  during  this  time,  and  no  doubt  serves  in  moving  frag- 
ments of  earth,  etc.  out  of  the  way.  When  liberated  the 
insect  spends  considerable  amount  of  time  in  combing  out  the 
hairs  on  the  arista  of  the  antennae. 

During  this  time  the  fly  constantly  changes  its  position, 
and  the  frontal  sac  is -contracted.  There  are  marked  changes, 
too,  in  the  abdomen  and  wings.  The  abdomen  first  becomes 
longer,  and  is  constantly  expanded  and  contracted,  and  grad- 
ually assumes  its  normal  coloring,  with  the  clove  spots.  The 
wings  then  begin  to  expand,  a  process  which  is  completed  in 
less  than  five  minutes. 

The  fiy  is  about  its  normal  size,  shape,  and  color  at  this  time, 
but  some  time  is  taken  in  the  final  hardening  of  the  integument, 
and  in  the  final  combing  operations,  which  seem  to  be  indispen- 
sible  before  flight.  It  is  during  this  last  process  that  the 
proboscis  is  at  last  raised  into  its  horizontal  position. 


REFERENCES. 
See  Bibliography  given  in  Part  I,  and  also: 
Newstead,  R.     1907.     Stomoxys  calcitrans  Linn.  Ann.  Trop.  Med.  and  Parasit. 
Vol.  I.  1907.  Liverpool. 

DESCRIPTION  OF  PLATE  XXII. 

Fig.  1.  Egg,  greatly  enlarged,  showing  groove,  and  point  of  emergence  of  the 
larva,  e. 

Fig.  2.  Lateral  view  of  anterior  segments  of  larva,  showing  ant,  antenna;  m,  man- 
dible; h.  s.,  hypostomal  sclerite. 

Fig.  3.  Dorsal  view  of  anterior  segments  of  larva  of  Stomoxys  calcitrans.  m, 
mandible;  t.  s.,  thoracic  spiracle. 

Fig.  4.     Openings  of  thoracic  spiracle. 

Figs.  1,  2,  3  and  4.     After  Newstead. 

Fig.  5.     Semi-diagramatic  view  of  adult  fly.    See  Part  I. 

Fig.  6.     Salivary  glands  and  left  Malpighian  tube  of  adult,  see  Part  I. 

Fig.  7.  Male  reproductive  organs:  t,  testis;  v.  s.,  vesicula  seminalis;  e.  d.,  ejac- 
ulatory  duct;  r,  rectum. 

Fig.  8.  Female  reproductive  organs:  o,  ovary;  ov,  oviduct;  u.  g.,  uterine  gland; 
11,  uterus;  r.  s.,  receptacula  seminis. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXII. 


py-ov. 


...t 


-e.d. 


®^- 


C.  K.  Brain. 


THE    BIOLOGY    OF    PERLA    IMMARGINATA    SAY.* 

By  Lucy  Wright  Smith. 

Introduction.  Perhaps  less  is  known  concerning  the  Hfe- 
histories  and  habits  of  the  Plecoptera  than  of  any  other  group 
of  aquatic  insects.  Hence  a  more  extensive  knowledge  of  stone- 
flies  along  biological  lines  is  desirable.  At  the  suggestion  of 
Professor  James  G.  Needham  such  a  study  was  commenced 
at  Ithaca  in  the  fall  of  1910. 

This  locality  with  its  many  creeks  and  spring  brooks  is 
an  excellent  collecting  ground  for  Plecoptera,  and  the  equip- 
ment of  the  limnological  laboratory  of  Cornell  University 
makes  an  intensive  study  of  aquatic  forms  possible.  The 
essential  factor  in  rearing  stone-flies,  as  in  many  other  stream- 
inhabiting  insects,  is  running  water.  This  is  provided  by  a 
series  of  taps  in  a  roof  garden  aquarium  and  also  in  a  small 
artificial  pond  out  of  doors. 

Methods.  With  the  hope  of  obtaining  truer  results  by 
keeping  conditions  as  natural  as  possible,  most  of  this  study 
is  being  carried  on  out-doors.  Some  care  must  be  taken  in 
transporting  stone-fly  nymphs  from  the  stream  to  permanent 
quarters.  Full  grown  nymphs  can  breathe  air  directly,  and 
have  been  carried  most  successfully  wrapped  in  a  wet  cloth  or 
packed  in  damp  moss.  Smaller  nymphs  can  be  taken  safely 
for  short  distances  in  collecting  jars  full  of  clean,  cold  water. 

In  the  artificial  pond  the  nymphs  are  kept,  eight  to  ten 
together,  in  cylindrical  cages  made  of  galvanized  wire  screen 
with  cheese  cloth  covers.  For  small  nymphs  it  is  necessary  to 
have  the  lower  part  of  the  cage  lined  with  cloth.  The  cages 
are  partially  submerged  in  the  current  near  the  taps.  With 
flat  stones  and  bits  of  water  weed  in  the  bottom,  and  a  steady 
flow  of  water,  the  nymphs  can  live  a  natural  life. 

The  shyness  of  adult  stone-flies  makes  field  observations  at 
close  range  impossible.  Consequently  they  are  kept  in  screen 
cages  of  about  two  by  three  feet.  Here  again  an  imitation  of 
natural  environment  is  attempted.  This  is  done  by  keeping 
green  twigs,  clumps  of  sod,  stones  and  pans  of  water  in  the 
cages. 

*Contribution  from  the  Limnological  Laboratory  of  Cornell  University. 

203 


204  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

Although  these  pans  of  water  are  but  a  poor  imitation  of 
streams  they  suffice  for  most  purposes.  Better  aerated  water 
is  necessary,  however,  for  development  of  eggs.  For  this 
reason  they  are  kept  in  running  water  in  test-tubes  closed  at 
either  end  with  fine  silk  bolting-cloth. 

Nymph. 

Habitat.  This  introductory  paper  includes  only  the  obser- 
vations made  in  June,  July  and  August  of  the  past  summer, 
upon  a  single  species,  Perla  immarginata.  The  nymphs  occur 
in  moderate  numbers  in  all  the  larger  streams  about  Ithaca, 
and  very  abundantly  in  the  spring  brook  at  Coy  Glen.  This 
abundance  may  be  accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  there  is 
less  competition  for  a  livelihood  in  this  stream,  Perla  immar- 
ginata reigns  supreme  at  the  height  of  its  season,  the  middle 
of  July,  not  only  as  the  largest  of  the  stone-flies,  but  of  all  the 
aquatic  insects.  In  the  other  streams  are  several  competitors 
of  equal  size  and  strength  and  many  more  enemies. 

Early  in  the  spring,  torrents  of  water  rush  through  the  glen, 
but  in  July  and  August  the  brook  is  reduced  to  a  shallow 
stream.  The  high  walls  and  the  narrow,  winding  course  of 
the  gorge  shut  out  so  much  sun-light  that  in  spite  of  its  shallow- 
ness, the  water  is  always  cold.  Much  of  the  stream  bed  is 
shale,  free  from  sand  and  gravel,  but  well  covered  with  a 
diatomaceous  ooze.  Here  the  water  flows  in  a  thin  sheet.  In 
other  places  are  deeper  pools  strewn  with  clean,  coarse  gravel. 
Stones  of  all  shapes  and  sizes  are  scattered  along  the  stream. 
At  this  season,  most  of  the  stones,  even  the  fiat  ones  on  the 
rocky  bed,  are  partly  out  of  water.  Generally  these  are  the 
haunts  of  stone-fly  nymphs  just  before  emergence. 

Neighbors  and  enemies.  These  same  stones  shelter  other 
creatures,  fragile  may-fly  nymphs,  chironomid  larvae  partially 
concealed  in  their  slime  tubes,  and  caddis  worms  standing 
guard  behind  their  seines.  Nearby  on  the  rough  floor  of  the 
stream  hang  the  last  stragglers  of  the  mats  of  black  fly  larvae. 
In  crevices  on  all  sides  lurk  cray-fish,  less  welcome  neighbors. 

Occurence.  Late  in  June  an  occasional  sprawling,  nymphal 
skin  clinging  to  the  upper  surface  of  a  stone  fortells  the  approach 
of  the  season  for  Perla  immarginata.  About  three  weeks  later 
the  casts  are  very  numerous,  and  the  overturning  of  a  single 
stone  sends  a  whole  colony  of  the  tiger-striped  nymphs 
scampering  in  all  directions  in  search  of  hiding  places. 


1913]  Biology  of  Perla  immarginata  Say.  205 

Length  of  Nymphal  Life.  Jt  is  evident  at  a  glance  that 
these  nymphs  are  not  all  of  the  same  size  or  stage  of  develop- 
ment. They  fall  into  three  groups.  One  contains  very  few 
individuals,  these  are  small  immature  nymphs  not  more  than 
half  an  inch  in  length.  The  second  group,  also  a  small  one, 
is  made  up  of  nymphs  about  three  quarters  of  an  inch  long. 
These  are  immature  too,  but  older  than  first,  larger  and  with 
small  wing  pads.  The  mature  nymphs  with  their  black  wing 
pads  form  the  largest  group. 

As  far  as  is  known,  the  complete  life-history  of  no  stone-fly 
has  been  worked  out.  Therefore  we  can  only  speculate  con- 
cerning the  length  of  it,  knowing  of  course  that  whatever  it 
may  be,  by  far  the  greater  part  is  spent  in  the  nymphal  stage. 
From  the  brief  period  of  incubation  of  the  eggs  of  some  of  the 
smaller  individuals  of  the  group,  Capnia  for  example,  and  from 
the  appearance  of  mature  nymphs  only  at  the  emerging  season, 
it  seems  probable  that  the  life-history  of  these  is  completed  in  a 
year.  On  the  other  hand,  the  three  groups  of  nymphs  of 
different  size  in  Perla  immarginata  and  allied  species,  seem  to 
indicate,  as  in  some  of  the  larger  may-flies,  a  longer  period, 
probably  three  years.  Just  where  the  nymphs  live  when  it  is 
not  the  transformation  season,  is  not  known. 

Adaptations.  A  closer  examination  of  the  mature  nymph 
shows  that  there  are  no  external  sexual  characters.  Never- 
theless, the  females  can  be  easily  separated  from  the  males 
because  the  dark  brown  eggs  show  through  the  sides  of  the 
abdomen.  In  addition,  as  one  would  expect,  the  males  are 
smaller;  they  vary  from  three  quarters  of  an  inch  to  an  inch  in 
length.  The  females  have  the  same  degree  of  variation,  the 
largest  being  about  an  inch  and  a  quarter  in  length  and  the 
smallest  a  little  less  than  an  inch.  The  color  pattern  of  the 
nymph,  black  banded  with  white  or  pale  yellow,  and  snowy 
white  tufts  of  the  tracheal  gills  on  the  thorax  behind  and  above 
each  leg,  would  make  them  rather  conspicuous  if  they  lived  in 
the  open.      (Figs.  3  and  4). 

The  form  of  the  nymph — flat-bodied,  with  flat,  sprawling 
legs,  and  tarsi  armed  with  two  strong  claws — is  strikingly  adapted 
for  clinging.  The  legs  are  fringed  with  long  hairs,  which  make 
them  useful  in  swimming  as  well  as  running,  and  one  need  only 
disturb  the  nymphs  to  see  how  swiftly  they  can  escape  by 
either  method.     The  shyness  of  stone-fly  nymphs,  their  splendid 


206  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

adaptations  for  clinging,  running  and  swimming  niake  their  ex- 
istence fairly  easy,  especially  in  this  stream  where  the  crayfish 
is  the  only  enemy  of  any  account. 

Food  Habits.  The  long  standing  supposition  that  stone-fly 
nymphs  devour  their  weaker  neighbors,  has  been  confirmed  for 
this  species  in  a  study  of  their  food  habits.  This  has  been  done 
by  examining  the  stomach  content  of  nymphs  taken  from  the 
stream,  and  also  by  feeding  those  in  captivity.  Dissections  of 
mature  nymphs  show  the  alimentary  canals  empty  and  in  many 
cases  even  so  collapsed  that  they  are  difficult  to  find  at  all. 
Likewise  the  nymphs  kept  for  rearing  refused  all  food  for  eight 
or  ten  days  before  transformation. 

With  growing  nymphs  it  is  different;  here  it  is  a  task  to  supply 
them  with  enough  food  to  prevent  their  eating  one  another. 
In  a  single  day  three  or  four  of  these  nymphs  will  dispose  of  a 
score  or  more  black-fly  larvae  and  half  as  many  small  may-fly 
nymphs.  Their  greed  is  brought  out  even  more  strikingly  by 
examining  the  food  mounts  of  nymphs  taken  from  the'  stream ; 
whole  specimens  of  midge  larvae  are  found  not  uncommonly 
and  sometimes  a  may-fly  nymph  with  even  the  gills  intact. 
The  mass  of  food,  however,  consists  of  innumerable  shapeless 
scraps  of  chitin  with  scattered  fragments  of  abdomens,  setae, 
antennae,  legs;  or  claws,  whole  heads,  mandibles,  maxillae,  and 
labia,  making  possible  the  recognition  of  may-fly  and  stone-fly 
nymphs,  midge  and  simulium  larvae  and  pupae. 

The  only  evidence  of  any  herbivorous  tendency  in  this 
species  is  the  presence  of  an  immense  number  of  diatoms  in 
food  amounts.  Of  course  this  is  a  question  of  direct  or  indirect 
eating.  One  would  expect  to  find  diatoms  in  a  food  mount 
made  up  of  pieces  of  may-fly  nymphs  and  chironomid  larvae, 
and  the  natural  supposition  might  be  that  the  stone-fly  got 
them  second  hand.  Yet  such  a  statement  cannot  be  made 
without  some  hesitation,  because  the  number  of  diatoms  in  the 
mounts  seems  to  increase  with  a  general  decrease  in  the  amount 
of  food;  and  also  because  diatoms  have  been  found  to  be  the 
chief  food  of  some  of  the  smaller  species  of  stone-flies. 

Transformation.  Just  before  the  time  of  transformation 
when  the  nymphs  cease  eating  they  become  sluggish.  And  as 
the  time  approaches  they  crawl  further  and  further  toward 
the  surface  of  the  water,  and  flnally  entirely  out  of  it  where 
they   often  remain  for  hours  before  emergence.     The   actual 


i 


1913]  Biology  of  Perl  a  immarginata  Say.  207 

casting  of  the  skin  has  not  been  seen  in  this  species.  Although 
adults  are  rarely  absolutely  perfect  specimens,  the  percent  of 
individuals  lost  by  inability  to  complete  transformation  is 
exceedingly  small.  Judging  from  the  fact  that  no  newly 
emerged  insects  have  been  found,  it  is  thought  that  they  must 
transform  during  the  night,  or  more  probably,  in  the  early 
hours  of  the  morning. 

Adtdts. 

Characteristics.  The  adult  Perla  immarginata,  (Fig  5),  is 
uniformly  dull  brown  and  much  less  conspicuous  than  the 
nymph.  As  soon  as  the  insect  loses  its  tracheal  gills  and 
gains  four  well  developed  wings,  it  is  ready  for  aerial  life. 
Unlike  many  adults  with  this  equipment,  some  of  the  nymphal 
tendencies  are  carried  over  into  this  stage.  Chief  among  these 
is  the  love  for  hiding.  So  great  is  their  shyness  that,  even  at 
the  height  of  the  emerging  season,  the  adults  are  rarely  found 
in  the  field.  Repeated  attempts  at  sweeping  the  foliage  along 
the  stream  have  met  with  little  success.  Careful  searching  of 
the  rocky  walls  of  the  gorge  has  occasionally  revealed  an  adult 
hidden  away  in  a  crack  or  crevice.  Similar  habits  have  been 
noticed  in  the  adults  kept  in  cages.  They  never  rest  on  the 
twigs  but  crawl  into  hiding  under  the  edge  of  the  stones,  or 
pans,  or  wherever  they  can  wedge  themselves  into  a  tight  place. 

Although  they  avoid  day-light,  artificial  lights  attract 
them  at  night.  They  have  been  found  crawling  along  poles 
and  fences,  or  in  the  road  under  electric  lights  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  streams. 

When  disturbed  the  adults  rarely  seek  escape  by  flight,  but 
usually  by  running.  Here  again  we  see  a  nymphal  trait,  and 
a  characteristic  of  the  group.  They  are  poor  flyers  and  de- 
pendent upon  their  legs.  Some  stone-flies  do  not  fly  at  all, 
although  provided  with  fully  developed  wings. 

Food  Habits.  A  striking  difference  between  the  nymph 
and  adult  is  found  in  the  structure  of  the  mouth  and  in  the 
food  habits.  A  character  long  assigned  to  stone-flies  is  rudi- 
mentary mouth  parts  of  a  biting  type.  This  is  true  for  Perla 
immarginata,  but  not  for  the  entire  order.  In  this  species 
we  have  the  reduction  of  the  strong  chitinous  mandibles  to 
mere  fleshy  lobes,  (Fig.  1).  The  very  appearance  of  such  an 
apparatus   indicates  its   uselessness,   and   examination  of    the 


208 


Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


alimentary  canal  of  adults  taken  in  the  field,  has  confirmed 
this.  Water  seems  much  more  essential  than  food  for  these 
adults.  If  ever  found  out  of  hiding  in  their  cages,  they  were 
almost  sure  to  be  on  the  stones  in  the  pans  with  their  mouths 
buried  in  water.  Entirely  deprived  of  water,  '  the  average 
length  of  life  is  shortened  by  several  days. 


Fig.  1. 


Fig.  2. 


Fig.  1. 

a.  Left  mandible  of  the  nymph,  inner  surface. 

b.  Left  mandible  of  the  adult,  same  view  and  magnification. 

Fig.  2. 

a.  Abdomen  of  the  female,  ventral  view  showing  the  modification  of  the  eighth 
sternite. 

b.  Abdomen  of  the  male,  dorsal  view  showing  the  genital  armature  with  the 
penis  extruded. 

Both  figures  drawn -to  the  same  scale. 


The  voraciousness  of  the  nymphs  is  necessary,  since  the 
adults  abstain  from  food  and  since  enough  energy  must  be 
stored  up  to  last  through  aerial  life  and  the  completion  of  the 
final  function,   reproduction. 

Mating.  Ordinarily  mating  begins  soon  after  emergence. 
The  readiness  with  which  it  takes  place  in  captivity  has  been  a 
great  surprise  on  account  of  the  natural  timidity  of  stone-flies. 
Frequently  pairs  have  been  found  in  copula  in  the  breeding 
cages  and  have  been  removed  to  adult  quarters  without  arousing 
enough  alarm  to  cause  their  separation.  By  careful  manipu- 
lation copulating  pairs  can  even  be  held  in  the  palm  of  the 
hand.     This  has  made  a  detailed  study  of  mating  possible. 


1913]  Biology  of  Perla  immarginata  Say.  209 

Difference  in  size  and  external  sexual  characters  make  dis- 
tinguishing the  sexes  easy.  The  smallest  males  measure  not 
more  than  an  inch  to  the  tip  of  the  wings,  and  the  greatest 
measurement  for  a  female  is  one  and  three-fourths  inches.  In 
the  female  the,  posterior  border  of  the  eighth  sternite  is  thickened 
and  slightly  emarginate  in  the  middle,  (Fig.  2,  A).  The  exter- 
nal sexual  appendages  of  the  male,  although  hidden  b}^  the 
wings,  are  much  more  prominent.  The  fifth  tergite  is  pro- 
longed in  the  form  of  a  fork  extending  over  the  sixth  and  most 
of  the  seventh  tergites.  The  tip  of  this  meets  a  groove  running 
through  the  mid  dorsal  hne  on  the  eighth,  and  surrounded  on 
either  side  by  papillose  prominences.  The  ninth  segment  is 
shortened,  and  the  tenth  is  slightly  elongate  ending  in  two 
strong  recurved  hooks,   (Fig.  2,  B). 

Just  how  such  an  apparatus  operated  was  not  obvious  at 
first  or  even  second  glance,  in  fact  not  until  copulation  was 
actually  seen.  The  male  rests  upon  the  female  grasping  her 
wings  and  abdomen  with  the  legs  of  one  side,  and  supporting 
himself  with  the  legs  of  the  other  side.  Then  bending  the  end 
of  the  abdomen  around  that  of  the  female,  and  arching  it  for- 
ward, the  male  presses  close  against  the  female  and  pulls  down 
the  lamina,  forcing  the  recurved  hooks  up  into  the  vagina. 
After  a  few  seconds,  the  male  starts  a  slightly  rythmic  motion 
by  alternately  pulling  to  and  fro.  As  the  motion  becomes 
greater,  the  hooks  are  gradually  withdrawn,  and  there  is  ex- 
posed between  them  a  white,  fleshy  penis  resting  in-'the  groove 
and  supported  toward  the  tip,  by  the  fork  on  the  fifth  tergite. 
This  rythmic  motion  seems  to  be  pump-like  in  action.  With 
a  quick  jerk  the  recurved  hooks  are  brought  up  against  the 
fork,  an  act  which  causes  the  contraction  of  the  penis  and 
forces  the  seminal  fluid  up  into  the  vagina.  The  expansion 
is  slower,  allowing  the  penis  to  become  refilled.  Undisturbed, 
copulation  usually  lasts  about  forty-five  or  fifty  minutes. 
Except  for  microscopic  horny  papillae  on  the  tip,  the  penis  is 
entirely  fleshy  and  composed  of  two  telescopic  segments.  After 
copulation,  it  is  gradually  retracted  into  the  body  just  below 
the  anal  opening,  and  entirely  hidden  inside. 

Egg-laying.  As  is  commonly  known,  stone-flies  do  not  deposit 
their  eggs  directly,  but  carry  them  around  for  a  time  in  a 
mass  at  the  end  of  the  abdomen.  It  is  hard  to  see  the  reason 
for  this.     Apparently  it  is  not  to  be  found  in  the  condition  of 


210  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

the  egg  itself,  for  there  seems  to  be  no  difference  between  eggs 
just  extruded  and  those  carried  for  a  couple  of  hours,  half  a 
day,  or  longer.  There  is  a  constant  regularity  in  the  length  of 
time  that  elapses  between  copulation  and  extrusion  of  eggs,  but 
not  in  the  length  of  time  eggs  are  carried.  Individuals  in  the 
same  cage  eventually  deposit  their  eggs  in  the  same  place,  but 
one  may  carry  them  two  hours,  and  another  nearly  a  day 
under  exactly  the  same  conditions. 

I  am  in  doubt  as  to  the  normal  method  of  depositing  eggs. 
In  the  field,  smaller  species,  carrying  eggs,  are  often  seen  on 
the  stones  in  streams  as  if  they  were  about  to  crawl  down  to  the 
water.  And  again  they  appear  flying  low  along  the  stream  and 
dipping  to  the  surface  as  if  ovipositing.  No  such  observations 
have  been  made  upon  the  larger  species.  The  few  adults  of 
Perla  immarginata  which  have  been  seen  dropping  their  eggs 
in  the  pans  seemed  to  do  it  more  from  accident  than  from 
intention.  They  were  crawling  around  the  stones  and  had 
floundered  into  the  water.  The  instant  they  came  in  contact 
with  the  water  the  eggs  dropped  to  the  bottom  of  the  pan. 
But  many  masses  of  eggs  have  been  found  in  the  pans  too  far 
from  the  edge,  or  from  the  stones,  for  them  to  have  been  dropped 
except  from  above,  or  by  the  individuals  having  actually  crawled 
into,  or  on  the  water. 

Concerning  the  place  where  the  eggs  are  deposited  there 
is  no  doubt.  When  the  globular  mass  touches  the  water  the 
eggs  begin  to  separate.  In  the  pans  they  finally  settle  down  into 
a  patch  one  layer  deep,  (Fig.  6).  Of  course  this  is  not  the  case 
in  the  streams  where  the  current  scatters  them  broadcast. 
They  are  not  tossed  about  long,  however,  for  as  soon  as  they 
come  in  contact  with  any  object  they  become  attached  by  the 
glutinous  cap  which  surrounds  the  micropylar  apparatus. 
These  eggs  are  about  half  a  millimeter  long,  dark  brown  in 
color  and  oval-shaped.  Except  for  a  single  circular  ridge  the 
chorion  is  without  ornamentation,   (Fig.   7). 

In  following  the  movement  of  the  different  adults  from  day 
to  day  it  was  necessary  to  have  some  means  of  identifying 
them  as  individuals.  As  has  been  previously  stated,  an  abso- 
lutely perfect  adult  is  rare.  Consequently  it  was  a  very  simple 
matter  to  recognize  individuals  on  such  characters  as  a  broken 
antenna 'or  seta,  a  tarsus  minus  a  segment  or  two,  an  imperfect 
wing,  and  so  on.     In  this  way  during  the  season  thirty-two 


1913]  Biology  of  Perl  a  immarginata  Say.  211 

females  and  twelve  males  were  kept  under  close  observation. 
It  was  soon  found  that  all  the  eggs  were  not  deposited  at  one 
time.  A  few  hours  after  the  first  mass  was  laid,  mating  oc- 
curred again,  and  within  twenty-four  hours  a  second  lot  had 
been  deposited.  Often  there  was  a  third  mass,  and  in  a  few 
instances  a  fourth.     These  followed  less  rapidly. 

As  one  would  expect  each  successive  mass  was  smaller 
than  the  one  preceding.  A  thousand  eggs  is  ample  average 
for  a  first  mass  and  four  masses  together  would  not  total  over 
sixteen  hundred.  It  seems  likely  that  a  large  number  of  eggs 
must  reach  the  hatching  stage.  The  chances  of  fertilization 
are  good  since  copulation  occurs  more  than  once,  also  if  one 
mass  has  fallen  in  an  unfavorable  place  there  is  a  possibility 
that  the  others  have  met  with  better  luck.  Yet  the  number  of 
individuals  which  reach  maturity  is  comparatively  small.  A 
great  loss  probably  occurs  during  the  early  nymphal  stage 
when  the  small  white  nymphs  would  be  dainty  morsels  for 
many  a  larger  creature. 

Mating  has  the  usual  effect  upon  the  length  of  life  of  the 
adults.  When  males  and  females  are  caged  together  the 
average  female  dies  after  six  or  seven  days  and  the  male  after 
nine  or  ten.  On  the  other  hand  if  the  sexes  are  kept  apart 
they  live  twelve  or  thirteen- days. 

Only  a  small  proportion  of  the  eggs  laid  in  captivity  were 
kept  for  development.  These  were  easily  loosened  from  the 
pan  with  a  pipette,  removed  to  the  glass  tubes  and  put  into 
running  water.     They  have  not  yet  hatched. 

Ordinarily  the  one  great  difficulty  which  has  stood  out 
above  all  others,  in  attempting  to  get  a  com.plete  life  history 
of  a  stone-fly  has  been  in  the  handling  of  the  very  young  nymphs. 
Although  a  variety  of  methods  have  been  tried,  nymphs  have 
not  been  kept  alive  for  longer  than  ten  days.  Whether  this 
is  due  to  lack  of  proper  environment,  the  right  kind  of  food,  or 
both,  can  not  be  said.  The  only  possibility  of  tracing  the  life- 
cycle  of  a  stone-fly,  from  egg  to  adult,  seems  to  hinge  upon  a 
more  complete  knowledge  of  the  early  nymphal  life. 

PLATE  XXIII. 
Fig.  3.     Dorsal   view   of   the   nymph,    natural   size. 
Fig.  4.     Ventral  view  of  the  nymph,   natural   size. 
Fig.  5.     Adult  female,  natural  size. 
Fig.  6.     Mass  of  eggs,   about  4  times  natural  size. 
Fig.  7.     A  single  egg,  greatly  enlarged. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXIII. 


Lucy  M.  Smith. 


THE    LIFE-HISTORY    OF    A    BEE-FLY    (SPOGOSTYLUM 

ANALE  SAY)  PARASITE  OF  THE  LARVA  OF  A  TIGER 

BEETLE    (CICINDELA   SCUTELLARIS   SAY  VAR. 

LECONTEI  HALD.). 

By  Victor  E.  Shelford. 

PAGE 

I.     Introduction 213 

II.     Life  History  of  the  Parasite  {Spogostylum') 215 

1.  Adult  Habit 215 

2.  Egg  Laying 215 

3.  Egg 216 

4.  Larva 217 

5.  Pupa  and  Adult 219 

III.     Other  Species , 222 

IV.     Ecological  and  Geographic  Distribution  of  Parasite  and  Host 222 

V.     Summary 225 

VI .     Acloiowledgments  and  Bibliography 225 

I.     Introduction. 

The  life  histories  of  the  American  BombyHidae  are  imper- 
fectly known  and  this  lack  of  knowledge  is  due  largely  to  the 
difficulty  of  studying  parasitic  forms.  The  species  in  question 
is  never  abundant  and  consequently  much  time  has  been  con- 
sumed in  getting  together  the  data  for  the  account  here  pre- 
sented. Near  Chicago  it  occurs  on  dry  sandy  places  where 
there  is  much  vegetation  and  where  the  sand  is  slightly  blackened 
with  humus.  The  data  presented  were  collected  mainly  in 
connection  with  work  upon  the  host  which  involved  collecting 
and  rearing  to  maturity  about  a  thousand  host  larvse. 

The  larva  of  the  parasite  was  first  discovered  in  1904  but 
none  was  successfully  reared  until  1906;  the  method  of  egg 
laying  was  not  successfully  observed  until  1908  and  1909  while 
attempts  to  study  the  adult  habits  in  1910  and  1911  were  only 
partially  successful. 

Life  History  of  the  Host. 

Cicindela  sciitellaris  Say  var.  Lecontei  Hald.  is  found  in  areas 
of  dry  sand  to  which  considerable  humus  has  been  added  by 
decaA^ng  vegetation  (Wickham  '02,  Shelford  '07,  '11).  Adults 
are  present  near  Chicago  from  April  to  June  and  again  in  Sep- 
tember. The  fall  individuals  are  those  emerging  from  the 
pupal  stage  and  are  not  sexually  mature.  These  individuals 
pass  the  winter  in  the  ground,  become  sexually  mature  after 
the  warm  days  in  April  and  deposit  eggs  in  May  and  early  June. 

213 


214 


Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


The  young  larvae  appear  in  late  May  and  early  June.  The 
larvae  live  in  vertical  burrows  which  end  at  the  surface  in  a 
smooth  circular  opening  (Fig.  2;  also  bh  of  Fig.  16,  p.  221),  They 
pass  through  three  instars,  the  first  two  of  which  are  about 
one  month  each  in  duration.  The  third  and  last  stage  is 
reached  in  the  last  part  of  July,  in  August  and  early  Septem- 
ber. These  stages  pass  the  winter  in  the  burrows,  appearing 
at  the  surface  in  May,  and  feeding  until  from  June  20  to  July 
20.  Each  larva  then  digs  a  pupal  (pch  of  Fig.  16,  p.  221) 
burrow  filling  the  main  burrow  at  the  same  time.  The  larva 
remains  quiet  in  this  cavity  for  about  three  weeks  when  it 
pupates  if  it  has  not  been  parasitized,  and  emerges  in  August, 
making  its   way   to  the   surface  about  three  weeks  later. 


Fig.    1.     The  adult  fly  about  twice  natural  size. 

Fig.  2.  A  burrow  of  a  larva  of  the  second  instar  of  C.  scutellaris  Lecontei,  about 
natural  size. 

Fig.  3.  General  habitat  of  C.  scutellaris  Lecontei  at  a  point  where  the  fly  was 
observed  ovipositing,  and  the  kind  of  situation  in  which  the  parasite 
is  most  abundant.  The  burrows  of  two  larvae  of  the  host  are  in  the 
last  instar,  and  are  visible  above  the  small  arrows. 


1913]  Life-History  of  a  Bee-Fly.  215 

II.     Life  History  of  the  Parasite  {Spogostylum). 

1.     Adult  Habits. 

The  adult  is  a  bright  shiny  velvet  black  fly  with  the  basal 
two  thirds  of  the  wings  black  and  the  distal  third  transparent. 
(Fig.  1).  It  occurs  in  July  and  August,  in  open  spots  on  sandy 
soil,  especially  in  the  kinds  of  situation  shown  in  Fig.  3,  where 
herbaceous  vegetation  and  flowers  are  numerous.  It  is  com- 
monly associated  with  other  bee  flies  such  as  Anthrax  impiger 
Coq.,  Anthrax  fulvohirta  Weid.,  and  Anthrax  molitor  Loew. 
which  are  much  more  abundant  and  often  visit  flowers  in 
numbers,  also  Exoprosopa,  which  probably  lays  in  the  burrows 
of  the  Bembecid  wasps.  The  habits  of  the  male  Spogostylum 
have  not  been  observed.  The  female  usually  alights  near  the 
ground  on  the  lowest  plants  or  on  sticks  and  leaves.  In  sunny 
weather  she  starts  with  remarkable  swiftness  when  a  shadow  is 
passed  over  her  but  appears  not  to  be  stimulated  by  the  pres- 
ence of  the  observer  under  other  conditions.  In  cloudy  weather 
the  writer  has  shaken  an  insect  net  within  a  few  inches  of  one  of 
the  flies  without  causing  her  to  move.  The  food  habits  have 
not  been  observed  but  a  single  individual  lapped  sugar  and 
water  from  a  piece  of  paper,  while  in  captivity. 

2.      Egg  Laying. 

The  female  flies  about  two  inches  above  the  clear  open 
sand  in  an  irregular  somewhat  zig-zag  fashion  until  apparently 
b\'  chance  its  eyes  pass  above  a  hole  in  the  sand,  (Figs.  2  and  3). 
When  this  happens,  the  fly  suddenly  halts  and  moves  backward 
and  downward  in  a  curved  course.  At  the  same  time  the 
abdomen  is  thrust  forward  so  that  it  touches  the  surface  of  the 
sand  at  a  point  5  to  10  mm.  from  the  edge  of  the  hole.  The  impact 
of  the  abdomen  upon  the  sand  is  sufficient  to  perceptibly  move 
small  particles,  some  of  which  appear  to  fall  in  the  burrow. 
The  thrusts  are  usually  repeated  a  number  of  times.  After 
each  movement,  the  fly  returns  to  approximately,  the  posi- 
tion at  which  the  thrust  began.  The  sight  of  the  hole 
below  the  eyes  acts  as  a  trigger  which  sets  off  the  thrusting 
reflex.  The  host  larvae  frequently  rest  in  the  burrow  some 
distance  below  the  surface.  On  two  occasions  the  fly  stopped 
thrusting  when  the  larva  appeared  near  the  surface.  The  size 
and  shape  of  the  hole  appear  not  to  be  of  prime  importance. 


216 


Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


Burrows  of  the  second  instar  of  Cicindela  are  most  frequently 
visited.  This  is  probably  due  to  the  fact  that  these  holes  are 
most  abundant.  The  burrows  of  young  spiders  {Geolycosa) 
which  have  a  web  around  the  opening,  are  not  rejected  while 
holes  of  the  first  and  third  instars  of  Cicindela  as  well  as  par- 
tially covered  holes  produce  the  reaction  at  least  once.  General 
results  of  one  observation  are  shown  in  table  I. 

TABLE  I. 

A  Se\'t:n  Minute   Observation  of  the   Egg   Laying  Reaction   of  a   Female 

Spogostylum,  July  16,  10:30  a.  m. 


Hole  Producing 
Reflex 

Stage 

No.  of 
Thrusts 

Remarks 

Burrow  of — 
C.  Lecontei 

2d. 

7 

Larva  appeared. 

Geolycosa 

young 

3-5 

Web  surrounding  opening. 

Large  nondescript  hole     . 

Rejected  after  halt  without  thrust 

Burrow  of — 
C.  Lecontei 

2  d. 

6 

Stick  half  covering  hole. 

C.  Lecontei 
C.  Lecontei 

2  d. 
1st 

2 
2 

Burrow   less   than   one   cm.    deep 
due     to     closing    near    surface; 
probably  during  moult. 

C.  Lecontei 

2  d. 

5 

Stick  across  hole. 

C.  Lecontei 

3  d. 

3-5 

Partially  covered. 

A  summary  of  the  observation  of  egg  laying  is  as  follows: 
Egg  laying  thrusts  were  executed,  by  two  individuals  observed, 
before  holes  as  follows:  One  first  larval  stage  of  the  host, 
eighteen  second  larval  stages  including  one  partially  covered 
with  a  stick,  and  a  shallow  one  (filled  below  the  surface) ;  one 
third  stage  of  Cicindela,  one  small  spider  hole.  One  large 
nondescript  hole  arrested  the  flight  but  did  not  produce  the 
egg  laying  thrust. 

S.     Egg,  {Fig.  4). 

A  female  taken  while  laying  was  found  to  contain  a  very 
large  number  of  eggs,  which  could  be  squeezed  out  by  a  gentle 
pressure  upon  the  abdomen.  The  eggs  are  light  brown  ellip- 
soids .28  mm.  by  .12  mm.     They  are  not  adhesive. 


19131 


Life-History  of  a  Bee- Fly. 


217 


4.  Larva  (Fig.  5). 
Young  larvae  are  most  commonly  found  singly  on  the 
ventral  side  of  the  thorax  of  host  larvae  of  the  third  instar, 
where  they  cling  between  the  legs.  No  second  instars  have 
been  found  with  parasites.  While  in  the  position  between  the 
legs  they  cannot  be  reached  by  the  host  and  do  not  come 
readily  into  contact  with  the  sides  of  its  burrow.  There  are 
however  frequent  exceptions  to  this,  for  host  larvae  not  infre- 
quently have  more  than  one  larva  between  the  legs  or  single  larvae 
on  other  parts  of  the  body.  One  host  larva  had  in  addition  to 
the  parasite  on  the  ventral  side  of  the  throax,  two  others  on  the 
posterior  third  of  the  abdomen.  Attempts  to  secure  eggs  or 
young  larvae  from  sand  gathered  from  the  edges  of  burrows 
about  which  eggs  had  been  laid  or  to  rear  larva  from  eggs 
squeezed  from  a  laying  female,  have  failed.     Neither  have  we 


Figures  4-10.    Early  larval  stages  of  Spogostylum  anale  Say. 
Fig.    4.     The  egg;  enlarged  about  five  diameters. 
Fig.    5.     A  young  larva  of  the  second  stage;  about  five  times  natural  size,  in  a 

somehwat  curved  position. 
Fig.    6.     The  same  in  position  enlarged  about  nine  times. 
Fig.    7.     At  the  time  of  moving  to  the  abdomen;  enlarged  about  five  times.     The 

larva  has  withdrawn  its  anterior  half  from  the  old  integument. 
Fig.    8.     The   larva  in  position  in  the  thorax,   showing   the   ring  of  thickened 

chitin(r)  in  the  integument  of  the  host  and  the  long  slender  mandibles 

in  position. 
Fig.    9.     The  larva  after  one  day  on  the  abdomen  of  the  host:  about  five  times 

natural  size. 
Fig.  10.     The  larva  at  the  end  of  the  second  day  upon  the  abdomen. 


218  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol,  VI, 

discovered  how  the  larva  reaches  the  body  of  the  host.  The 
host  larva  with  the  three  parasites  was  placed  in  a  tube  of  sand 
one  inch  in  diameter  together  with  two  other  host  larvas,  one 
bearing  tWo  parasites  and  the  other  uninfested.  The  double 
and  triple  infested  hosts  died  leaving  five  parasitic  larvas  in 
the  tube  with  the  one  live  host  larva.  None  of  the  parasites 
reached  the  host  larva.  Host  larvae  dug  from  the  point  where  a 
female  fly  was  seen,  to  deposit  eggs  on  July  16  had  parasites 
of  the  first  and  second  instars  on  the  ventral  thorax  -  when 
removed  from  their  burrows  Sept.  23d.  About  7  percent  of  the 
host  larvae  are  parasitized.  While  some  catches  of  fifty  host 
larvae  were  as  high  as  16  percent  infested  others  were  quite  free 
from  parasites.  This  is  particularly  true  in  the  pine  area  (see 
p.  222),  where  only  one  out  of  several  hundred  host  larvae  were 
parasitized. 

The  structure  of  the  larva  was  but  little  studied  on  account 
of  lack  of  material.  The  head  segment  bears  the  usual  mandi- 
bles, which  are  long  and  curved.  They  pierce  the  integument 
of  the  host  obliquely;  a  ring  of  thickened  chitin  develgps  about 
them  and  the  mouth  is  brought  into  contact  with  the  center 
of  the  ring  and  thus  with  the  tissues  and  fluids  of  the  body 
(Fig.  8).  The  number  of  larval  moults  has  not  been  fully 
determined  and  the  following  account  is  not  necessarily  ac- 
curate. The  smallest  larvae  found  are  from  0.5  to  0.6  mm. 
in  length  and  are  evidently  in  the  first  instar.  These  were  taken 
in  late  summer  and  autumn  and  occasionally  in  spring.  Most 
of  these  larvas  moult  in  the  fall;  all  pass  the  winter  attached 
to  the  body  of  the  host,  those  of  the  first  stage  moulting  in  early 
May.  When  the  larva  moults,  the  integument  splits  in  the 
region  of  the  thorax.  The  anterior  end  of  the  body  is  withdrawn 
from  the  old  skeletal  parts,  leaving  the  old  mandibular  skeleton 
imbedded  in  the  host.  The  posterior  part  of  the  larva  apparently 
remains  in  the  old  integument  until  the  new  integument  of  the 
head  region  is  hardened  when  a  new  attachment  to  the  host 
is  affected.  When  again  attached,  the  larva  withdraws  the 
abdomen  from  the  exuvium  (Figs.  5,  6  and  7). 

The  larvas  of  the  second  instar,  (length  1.2  to  1.6  mm.), 
probably  moult  again  after  the  host  has  fed  about  a  month 
(early  June) ,  but  this  is  not  certain  because  exact  measurements 
could  not  be  made  of  the  small  living  larv®  while  attached  to 
the  host  and  they  could  not  be  removed  without  killing  them. 


1913]  Life-History  of  a  Bee-Fly.  219 

A  third  moult  takes  place  about  the  time  the  host  stops  feeding 
(late  June),  but  in  the  cases  observed,  before  the  pupal  cell  is 
constructed.  This  moult  clearly  takes  place  but  the  larva 
again   could  not  be  accurately  measured. 

In  late  June  the  host  constructs  the  pupal  cell  {pcli  of  Fig. 
16,  p  221)  and  becomes  relatively  inactive  but  does  not  normally 
pupate  for  a  month.  The  parasite  does  not  grow  rapidly  until 
the  host  has  been  in  the  pupal  cell  for  about  three  weeks.  By 
this  time  the  old  organs  of  the  host  have  for  the  most  part, 
broken  down  and  the  internal  parts  are  in  a  semifluid  condition. 
The  parasitic  larva  now  moults  again  and  this  time  leaves  its 
former  position  completely.  In  the  four  or  five  cases  observed 
it  moved  to  about  the  middle  of  the  ventral  side  of  the  host, 
(Fig.  9).  It  will  be  noted  that  at  the  time  of  the  previous 
moults  of  the  parasite  the  host  was  active  and  if  the  larvae  had 
completely  released  its  hold  at  any  of  these  times  the  result 
would  probably  have  been  its  own  destruction.  At  the  time 
of  this  fourth  moult,  on  the  other  hand,  the  host  is  almost 
unable  to  move.  Immediately  upon  securing  the  new  source 
of  food  through  the  abdomen  of  the  host  the  parasite  begins  to 
grow  more  rapidly  and  more  than  doubles  its  length  in  48 
hours.  The  length  at  the  time  of  the  fourth  moult  is  about 
4.5  mm.;  after  24  hours  the  length  is  6.5  mm.  (Fig.  9),  and 
during  the  next  24  hours  the  larva  reaches .  a  length  of  1  cm. 
(Fig.  10),  which  is  two-thirds  the  length  of  the  abdomen  of  the 
host.  At  the  end  of  144  hours  the  parasitic  larva  is  full  grown 
(Fig.  11).  The  length  is  now  1.8  cm.  and  all  of  the  later  rapid 
growth  has  apparently  taken  place  without  further  moulting. 
The  full  grown  larva  passes  six  or  seven  days  in  the  pupal  cavity 
of  the  host  in  a  quiescent  stage  before  the  pupal  moult  occurs. 

5.     'Pupa    and    Adult. 

The  pupa  is  of  the  type  common  among  the  diptera.  There 
are  four  curved  hooks  upon  the  anterior  side  of  the  head  united 
at  the  base  in  the  form  of  a  fan  (Figs.  12  and  13).  Two  smaller 
hooks  on  the  ventral  side  of  the  head  appear  to  correspond  in 
position  to  the  antennae.  There  is  a  circle  of  long  stiff  bristles 
on  each  segment  of  the  abdomen  together  with  U  shaped 
bristles  on  the  dorsal  side.  The  pupa  upon  emerging  is  un- 
pigmented;  the  hooks  on  the  head  become  dark  in  about  five 
days;  the  head  becomes  light  brown  in  nine  days  and  dark 


220 


Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


brown  in  thirteen  days;  pigment  appears  in  the  wings  at  the 
end  of  thirteen  days  in  the  center  of  the  segments  of  the  abdomen 
in  two  weeks.  Pigmentation  is  apparently  complete  in  about 
sixteen  to  eighteen  days  (July  13  to  Aug.  3). 


Fig. 

11. 

Fig. 

12. 

Fig. 

13. 

Fig. 

14. 

Figures   11-14.     Late   larvee   and  pupal   stages. 
Full  grown  larva  showing  the  leg  buds;  enlarged  five  times. 
Side  view  of  the  pupa;  enlarged  five  times. 
Front  view  of  the  anterior  end  of  a  fly  pupa. 
Front  view  of  the  posterior  end  of  the  same. 

Some  time  soon  after  the  pigment  is  completely  developed, 
the  pupa  begins  to.  use  the  hooks  for  digging.  In  this  process 
the  numerous  long  stiff  bristles  arranged  in  a  ring  about  the 
segments  and  projecting  backward  are  of  much  importance  for 
they  tend  to  make  simple  movements  either  push  the 
body  forward  or  push  loose  sand  backward.  The  large  U- 
shaped  bristles  along  the  dorsal  side  may  or  may  not  function  in 
this  way  also.  The  main  digging  operations  are  carried  on  by 
means  of  the  hooks  on  the  head.  The  two  spines  of  the  poster- 
ior end  serve  as  anchoring  organs.  The  body  is  curved  dorsal- 
ward  in  the  form  of  a  bow  with  the  dorsal  side  pressed  against 
the  upper  side  of  the  burrow.  The  U-shaped  bristles  prom- 
inent upon  the  dorsal  side  may  function  as  anchors  in  this 


1913]  Life-History  of  a  Bee- Fly.  221 

« 

operation.     The  two  posterior  spines  are  thrust  into  the  floor 

of  the  burrow  and  the  curvature  is  increased,  which  cause  the 
head  to  move  back  as  shown  in  Fig.  15.  After  a  number  of 
hoeing  movements,  the  pupa  usually  wriggles  backward  carry- 
ing the  sand  with  it  by  means  of  the  bristles  and  again  wriggles 
forward  until  the  head  is  in  contact  with  the  end  of  the  burrow. 
The  hoeing  movement  is  repeated  or  less  frequently  the  body  is 
rotated,  the  hooks  serving  as  a  boring  organ. 

.  6h 


f^'' 


y-'^'pc/y-^"       1|: 


^■■■'•■■■'  \--.,  '"''^^''\^  -■■■:-:i:- ■.■'■■.■■■:■■'■■■-.    I    £.  . 

r~"=-.-,-  .  ■  ■■'^.■.,„i^^.':^^-  ■  ■.••;:;::.';^-v;:/>/-- J    |-:.v.- 

Figures  15-16.     Emergence  from  the  ground. 
Fig.  15.     Diagram  showing  the  movement  of  the  pupa  in  digging  its  way  out  of 

the  ground.     Natural  size  (a). 
Fig.  16.     Showing  the  burrow  and  pupal  cell  of  the  host  with  the  path  dug  by  the 

pupa  of  Spogostylum. 

The  boring  movement  was  observed  in  the  case  of  one  in- 
dividual, the  host  of  which  had  been  confined  in  a  glass  tube 
eight  inches  long  and  one  and  one-half  inches  in  diameter. 
The  burrow  and  pupal  cell  of  the  host  were  constructed  in 
contact  with  the  glass.  Much  of  the  life  history  of  one  parasite 
was  thus  observed.  The  digging  of  the  parasite  pupa  began  at 
night,  and  was  not  noted  until  the  middle  of  the  next  forenoon 
(July  15),  [began  in  pch  of  Fig.  16,  p.  221].  During  the  last  eight 
hours  the  larva  progressed  at  the  rate  of  1  cm.  per  hour.  It  moved 
in  contact  with  the  glass  and  traveled  more  than  once  around  the 
tube  just  inside  the  glass.  The  total  distance  through  which 
the  parasite  dug  was  about  24  cm.  Apparently  immediately 
upon  reaching  the  surface  the  fly  emerged.  It  left  the  pupal 
integument  sticking  in  the  burrow.  The  emergence  of  the  fly 
was  not  observed  as  the  last  centimeter  of  digging  was  accom- 
plished in  less  than  20  minutes  and  the  fly  emerged  between 
observations.  The  adult  was  found  resting  on  a  small  blade 
of  grass  near  the  hole.     This  adult  lived  only  about  two  days. 


222  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

A  pupa  removed  to  a  watch  glass  with  the  bottom  covered 
with  moist  filter  paper  executed  the  digging  movements  for  a 
day  or  more,  but  failed  to  emerge.  One  reared  in  a  very  small 
amount  of  sand  and  between  two  glass  plates  dug  to  the  surface 
and  then  back  into  the  sand  again.  It  emerged  in  imperfect 
condition  within  the  sand. 

III.  Other  Species. 
Work  on  the  European  species  of  the  family  Bombyliidae  is 
also  far  from  extensive.  Dufour  gave  an  account  of  the  larvae, 
pupae,  and  adult  habit  of  Bombylius  major.  He  found  this 
species  in  March  1857  on  the  sloping  banks  of  sand  hills  with 
southern  exposure.  He  saw  the  fly  light  quickly  at  the  openings 
of  the  burrows  of  IJymenoptera.  In  the  locality,  the  burrowing 
hymenoptera  were  principally  Andrenidse  and  especially  Colletes 
hirta.  Dufour  was  never  able  however  to  find  the  egg  of  the 
fly.  Williston  '08,  p.  213,  summarizes  the  known  hosts  of  the 
Bombylidae.  In  connection  with  the  study  of  Spogostylum 
anale  (July  30),  Artthrox  impiger  was  seen  resting  on  the  ground 
touching  the  abdomen  to  the  surface  of  the  sand.  Anthrax 
impiger  Coq.  (July  16-30),  lights  on  blossoms  of  horse  mint, 
etc.  or  rests  on  other  objects  on  the  ground.  Two,  a  pair,  of 
Exoprosopa  fascipennis  Say  were  taken  while  flitting  before  a 
burrow  of  Microbembex  monodonta. 

IV.     Ecological  and  Geographic  Distribution. 
1 .     Ecological  Distribution  of  Parasite  and  Host. 

Near  Chicago,  the  fly  larvae  appear  to  be  confined  to  C. 
Lecontei.  -  One  or  two  larvae  of  C.  hirticollis  which  do  not 
occur  with  those  of  C.  Lecontei  were  found  to  bear  similar 
parasites.  Adults  of  Spogostylum  have  never  been  seen  near 
the  C.  hirticollis  habitat.  C.  purpurea  limbalis  which  lives 
on  steep  clay  bluffs  is  parasitized  by  a  larvae  somewhat  different 
from  that  of  Spogostylum. 

In  1907  and  1912  I  pointed  out  that  the  development  of 
vegetation  upon  the  sand  areas  at  the  head  of  Lake  Michigan 
takes  places  in  an  orderly  fashion.  Cottonwoods  are  the  pio- 
neers and  are  accompanied  by  Cicindela  lepida.  Only  one 
Spogostylum  anale  Say  has  been  seen  in  these  localities  and  this 
when  a  strong  wind  was  blowing  from  a  more  favorable  habitat. 
The  cottonwoods  are  succeeded  by  pines  and  Spogostylum  is 
rare  among  them.       Cicindela  formosa  generosa  occurs  in  the 


1913]  Life-History  of  a  Bee- Fly.  223 

mixed  pine  and  cottonwood  areas  but  none  of  these  have  been 
found  with  parasites.  The  large  pit  and  goose-neck  burrow- 
probably  prevent  this  species  from  serving  as  a  host  (Shelford, 
'08).  Very  few  parasitized  Cicindela  Leconti  larvae  have  been 
taken  here  though  the  host  is  only  a  little  less  abundant  than 
in  the  oak*  area.  It  is  on  the  margins  of  the  depressions  in  the 
pine  areas  that  the  larvae  of  C.  tranqueharica  Hbst.  are  numerous 
(Shelford  '07)  but  none  of  those  of  this  species  were  found 
parasitized,  though  the  number  of  larvae  dug  was  great. 

Spogostylitm  anale  and  its  host  species  are  most  abundant 
in  the  early  stages  of  the  black  oak  forest  where  cacti  occur 
(Fig.  3).  The  exact  landscape  aspect  is  significant  only  as  an 
index  of  the  physicial  conditions.  The  evaporation  in  these 
open  oak  forests  is  about  one  half  that  of  the  cottonwood 
area  and  less  than  that  of  the  pine  area.  The  available  soil 
moisture  is  less  (Shelford,  '12).  • 

2.     Geographic  Distribution. 

American  dipterologists  have  kindly  supplied  me  with 
data  on  the  distribution  of  Spogostylum  anale  as  follows: 

Prof.  D.  W.  Coquillett:  Sandy  Hook,  N.  J.;  Indiana; 
Carbondale,  111.;  Mississippi;  British  Columbia;  Washington; 
Mesilla,  N.  M.;  St.  Louis,  Mo.;  Shreveport,  La.;  Georgia; 
Enterprise,  Fla. ;  Cambridge,  Mass. 

Dr.  J.  S.  Hine:  Mission,  British  Columbia;  Onaga,  Kansas; 
Akron,  Ohio;  Cincinnati,  Ohio. 

Dr.  C.  T.  Brues:  Douglas  Co.,  Kansas;  Crete,  Nebr. ; 
Austin,  Texas. 

Dr.  C.  F.  Adams:  Jackson  Co.,  Mo.;  Lawrence,  Kan.; 
Clark  Co.,  Kan.;  Fayetteville,  Ark. 

Prof.  E.  P.  Felt:     South  Britian,  Conn.;  Albany,  N.  Y. 

Prof.  J.  H.  Comstock:     Manlius,  N.  Y. 

Dr.  A.  L.  Meander:     Galveston,  Texas;  Golden,  Colo. 

Map  (Fig.  17)  shows  the  distribution  area  of  the  host 
(A)  generously  represented  by  connecting  the  more  remote 
localities  along  nearly  direct  lines  where  suitable  habitats  are 
known  to  occur.  The  distribution  of  the  parasite  is  wider 
than  that  of  the  host  species  including  all  varieties  extending 
into  Mexico  and  along  the  Pacific  coast.  Accordingly  the 
parasite  must  use  another  host.  Several  other  species  of  the 
tiger  beetles  may  no  doubt  serve  this  purpose. 


224 


Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


Some  of  the  flies  reared  in  a  hot  green  house  lacked  the  white 
hairs  along  the  abdomen,  which  characterize  the  species.  Prof. 
Williston  tells  me  that  these  hairs  were  absent  from  specimens 
taken  in  Mexico  and  doubtfully  referred  to  this  species  by 
Osten  Sacken. 


Showing  the  distribution  area  of  the  host  species.  (A  of  the  legend.) 
The  area  blocked  out  is  generous  including  all  the  probable  territory. 
The  crosses  (B  of  the  legend)  represent  state  and  country  records. 
The  round  dots  (C  of  the  legend)  represent  some  of  the  definite 
localities  from  which  the  fiy  has  been  recorded. 


1913]  Life-History  of  a  Bee-Fly.  225 


y.     Summary. 

1.  The  adult  fly  deposits  eggs  at  the  edge  of  circular 
openings  in  sand.  In  the  areas  inhabited  by  the  flies  (near 
Chicago)  these  openings  are  usually  the  larval  burrows  of  C. 
scutellaris  Lecontei   Hald.   p  215. 

2.  The  sight  of  the  burrow  opening,  beneath  the  eyes 
appears  to  call  forth  the  egg  laying  reflex,  p.  215.  , 

3.  The  larv£e  live  as  ectoparasites  upon  the  tiger  beetle 
larvae  for  a  little  less  than  one  year,  growing  slowly  and  moult- 
ing several  times,  p.  217. 

4.  When  the  host  is  ready  to  pupate,  the  larva  moults, 
moves  to  the  abdomen  and  grows  to  adult  size  in  about  six 
days,  p.  219. 

5.  When  the  pupa  is  fully  mature  it  digs  out  by  means  of 
hooks  on  its  head  and  backward  projecting  bristles  on  the 
abdomen.  The  digging  is  sometimes  downward  for  a  time  and 
lasts  for  more  than  24  hours,  p.  221. 

6.  The  parasite  is  more  widely  distributed  than  its  host, 
p.  223. 

VI.     Acknowledgments  and  Bibliography. 

The  writer  is  indebted  to  Dr.  S.  W.  Williston  and  Mr.  C.  A. 
Hart  for  the  identification  of  the  Bombyliidee,  and  to  the 
gentlemen  named  above  for  the  distribution  records. 


Aldrich,  J.  M.     A  Catalogue  of  North  America  Diptera.   Smithsonian  Miscl.  Coll, 

Vol.  XLVI,  (No.  1444).       Cites  work  on  life  histories. 
Dixfour,  Leon.  '58.    Histoire  des  Metamosphoses  du  Bombylius  major.    Ann.  Soc. 

Ent.  Ser.  3.  Tome.  6.  pp.  503-511,  pi.  13-111.  Fig.  1-9. 
Shelford,  V.  E.  '07.    Preliminary  Note  on  the  Distribution  of  the  Tiger  Beetles 

and  its  Relation  to  Plant  Succession.  Biol.  Bull.  Vol.  XIV,  pp.  9-24. 
Shelford,  V.  E.  '08.    Life  histories  and  Larval  Habits  of  the  Tiger  Beetles.  Linn. 

Soc'y's  Journal  Zoology,  Vol.  30,  pp.  157-184. 
Shelford,  V.  E.  '12.      Ecological  Succession  IV.      Vegetation  and  the  Control  of 

Animal  Communities.    Biol.  Bull.  XXIII,  pp.  59-99. 
Townsend,  C.  H.  T.  '93.    The  Pupa  of  Argyramoeba  oedipus  Fabr.  (Spogostylum). 

Am.  Nat.  Vol.  XXVII.  No.  313,  pp.  60-63.  Jan.,  1893. 
Wickham,  H.  T.  '02.    Habits  of  North  American  Cicindelidae.    Proc.  Davenport 

Ac.  of  Nat.  Sci.,  Vol.  7,  pp.  206-228. 
Williston,  S.  W.  '08.  Manual  of  North  American  Diptera.   New  Haven. 


A    NEW   APPLICATION    OF    TAXONOMIC    PRINCIPLES. 

By  Charles  H.  T.  Townsend,  Lima,  Peru. 

Scarcely  more  than  half  a  century  has  passed  since  the 
belief  was  generally  entertained  as  indisputable  that  species 
and  other  taxonomic  categories  were  fixed  and  unchangeable 
entities.  The  basic  elements  of  current  taxonomy  date  a 
century  farther  back. 

Our  taxonomic  system  was  founded  on  the  principle  of 
permanency  in  organic  morphology,  without  any  idea  of 
change  and  evolution.  In  its  original  concept  and  application 
it  was  therefore  inelastic  and  not  in  accord  with  the  facts.  We 
have  been  constantly  endeavoring,  however,  to  apply  this 
inelastic  system  to  the  elastic  morphology  of  living  matter. 
The  result  is  a  demonstration  of  incompatibility  between  the 
two. 

Any  taxonomic  system  must  be  arbitrary  and  fixed  in 
certain  of  its  fundamental  aspects,  but  it  must  also  accord 
with  phylogenetic  facts.  A  radically  new  system  is  not  here 
proposed,  but  merely  a  modification  of  the  current  system  to 
fit  the  phylogenetic  facts  that  we  find  today.  It  is  not  held 
that  living  matter  is  morphologically  changing  with  such 
rapidity  that  it  needs  a  system  which  will  change  within  a 
lifetime  in  order  to  keep  up  with  the  progress  of  evolution. 
But  it  is  held  that  living  forms  exhibit  distinct  phylogenetic 
phases  according  to  the  age  of  the  stocks  of  which  they  form 
a  part,  and  that  this  fact  must  be  taken  into  account  in  their 
taxonomic  treatment. 

No  stock  is  today  changing  rapidly  enough  in  nature  for  us 
to  note  the  specific  steps  of  change.  But  if  we  pass  all  stocks 
in  phylogenetic  review  we  are  struck  most  forcibly  with  the 
successive  but  gradual  change  of  conditions  exhibited  as  we 
proceed  from  the  oldest  to  the  youngest  stocks.  In  such  re- 
view we  get  an  instantaneous  reflection  of  the  bimorphologic 
changes  which  take  place  in  time. 

It  has  fallen  to  the  lot  of  the  writer  to  make  a  critical  study 
of  the  morphology  and  phylogeny  of  the  muscoid  flies,  which 
undoubtedly  comprise  some  of  the  youngest  stocks  of  insects, 
and  to  attempt  to  establish  a  taxonomic  treatment  of  them 
which  shall  accord  with  their  morphology  and  phylogeny  and 

226 


1913]  New  Application  of  Taxonomic  Principles.  227 

thus  prove  satisfactory  from  all  practical  points  of  view.  In 
this  task  difficulties  have  been  encountered  which  can  only 
be  surmounted  by  conforming  to  lines  of  logical  simplicity. 
Phylogenetic  facts  can  not  be  changed.  The  logical  alternative 
is  to  change  our  pseudophylogenetic  plan  of  taxonomy  to  a 
phylogenetic  one. 

The  history  of  muscoid  taxonomy  furnishes  a  vivid  illus- 
tration of  the  necessity  for  such  change.  The  chronologic 
alternation  between  splitting  and  lumping  has  been  constant, 
•  but  always  gradually  tending  toward  greater  radicalism  in  the 
former.  Brauer  and  Bergenstamm  were  the  first  students 
of  the  superfamily  to  recognize  the  difference  in  phylogenetic 
conditions  existing  here  and  to  put  the  idea  into  words.  Their 
system  of  taxonomy  shows  that  they  approached  much  nearer 
to  the  truths  of  phylogeny  than  had  any  former  students  of 
the  group,  but  they  failed  in  many  cases  to  grasp  the  relation- 
ships because  they  had  no  uniformly  true  criterion  thereto 
in  the  external  adult  anatomy.  It  has  been  left  for  students 
since  their  time  to  discover  criteria  in  the  reproductive  system 
and  early .  stages  that  furnish  unmistakable  clues  to  these 
relationships. 

It  was  the  good  fortune  of  the  writer  to  figure  largely  in 
the  last  named  investigations,  and  therefore  to  obtain  facts 
which  constitute  a  definite  basis  for  phylogenetic  deductions. 
Once  such  deductions  are  authoritative — recognized  as  unmis- 
takably founded  on  fact — we  are  able  to  proceed  with  confidence 
in  the  separation  of  forms  of  diverse  origin,  however  similar 
may  be  their  external  morphology.  This  process  brings  us 
face  to  face  with  phylogenetic  facts  that  could  never  before 
be  confidently  accepted,  and  with  many  which  were  never 
before  suspected  to  exist.  It  compels  us  to  draw  lines  where 
such  were  never  before  imagined,  and  it  emphasizes  with 
extreme  force  the  shortcomings  of  current  taxonomy  if  applied 
to  young  stocks. 

The  writer  claims  in  this  connection  nothing  more  than  a 
clear  view  and  conscientious  record  of  what  has  come  within 
his  range  of  vision.  The  privilege  of  applying  a  phylogenetic 
key  to  the  taxonomy  of  some  of  the  youngest  and  most  obscurely 
differentiated  groups  of  insects  has  been  his,  and  it  has  furnished 
him  an  insight  into  the  relationships  of  these  groups  and  into 
the  taxonomic  needs  of  young  stocks  in  general  that  was  only 


228  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

dimly  comprehended  before.  The  one  who  uses  this  key  con- 
scientiously and  with  fair  judgment  must  get  this  insight.  It 
only  remains  to  bring  the  taxonomy  into  accord  with  the 
conditions.  This  is  no  simple  matter,  but  it  is  capable  of 
adjustment. 

A  careful  comparative  study  of  muscoid  conditions  by  the 
writer,  extending  over  the  past  five  or  six  years  and  beginning 
before  the  reproductive  and  early-stage  criteria  became  available 
has  resulted  in  what  may  be  called  the  typic-atypic  application 
of  taxonomic  principles.  The  idea  was  dimly  comprehended 
in  1907  from  a  study  of  the  external  adult  anatomy  alone  and 
published  in  May,  1908  (Tax.  Musd.  FHes),  while  a  clearer 
perception  of  it  was  gained  and  the  foundation  for  its  practical 
application  laid  during  the  next  few  months  and  the  results 
published  in  September,  1908  (Rec.  Res.  from  Rear,  and  Dis. 
Tach.).  From  that  time  to  the  present  the  typic-atypic  idea 
in  taxonomy  has  kept  pace  with  the  progress  of  the  investiga- 
tions into  the  reproductive  and  early-stage  characters  of  the 
muscoid  flies  as  compared  with  their  external  adult  morphology. 
The  working  out  of  the  scheme  of  application  with /the  view  of 
ultimately  bringing  it  to  a  point  of  completeness  has  been 
laborious  in  the  extreme,  and  many  mistakes  and  new  starts 
have  been  made.  Theoretical  phylogeny  and  a  taxonomic 
application  to  match  have  been  constantly  checked  up  by 
practical  and  actual  phylogeny,  thus  showing  errors  that  have 
had  to  be  corrected. 

The  writer  has  been  still  further  fortunate  in  being  able  to 
spend  some  time  during  the  past  three  years,  1910  to  1912,  in 
several  districts  of  the  Andean  montanya  in  Peru  and  Ecuador, 
perhaps  the  most  favored  biotic  region  on  earth  and  thus  the 
best  adapted  to  illustrate  the  working  out  of  phylogenetic 
principles  in  nature.  Here  he  has  been  tremendously  impressed 
with  the  extreme  richness  in  transitional  forms  displayed  by 
certain  of  the  youngest  muscoid  stocks,  which  have  furnished 
additional  proofs  of  the  soundness  of  the  typic-atypic  system  of 
treatment.  A  paper  on  these  forms  is  forthcoming  (New  Gen. 
and  Spp.  Muse.  Flies,  chiefly  Hystriciidae  from  the  And.  Mon- 
tanya) . 

The  typic-atypic  system  calls  into  use  the  new  group-unit 
category,  which  includes  the  typic  genus  and  such  atypic 
genera  as  approach  more  closely  to  it  than  to  any  other  typic 


1913]  New  Application  of  Taxonomic  Principles,  229 

genus.  It  has  gradually  become  evident  that  this  category  is 
a  natural  prime  division  of  the  subtribe,  demanded  in  young 
stocks  where  transitional  forms  are  numerously  present  but 
not  as  a  rule  called  for  in  older  stocks  where  such  transitionals 
are  infrequent. 

It  may  be  pointed  out  by  way  of  illustration  that  we  know 
many  insect  stocks  whose  component  forms  are  well  differ- 
entiated from  each  other;  we  know  other  insect  stocks  whose 
forms  are  less  markedly  differentiated  among  themselves,  and 
we  know  still  further  stocks  which  comprise  masses  of  closely 
similar  forms.  The  first  are  old  stocks,  the  second  are  middle- 
aged  stocks  practically  in  their  prime;  the  last  are  young  stocks, 
still  undergoing  evolution  and  characterized  by  the  presence  of 
many  transitional  forms.  The  same  system  of  taxonomy  is 
not  applicable  to  all  these  classes  of  stocks.  The  three  classes 
mentioned  are  of  course  not  clearly  delimited,  for  certain 
stocks  are  bound  to  be  intermediate  between  them.  But  each 
stock  can  always  be  treated  on  its  own  merits.  For  the  first 
class  in  general,  the  current  system  of  taxonomy  answers  fairly 
well — that  is  to  say,  the  tribes  are  usually  quite  easily  divided 
directly  into  genera.  In  the  second  class,  comprising  in 'general 
the  stocks  of  middle  age,  we  need  the  subtribal  category  between 
the  tribe  and  the  genus.  In  the  youngest  stocks  we  need  to 
employ  still  another  category,  as  an  elementary  grouping  of 
genera,  between  the  subtribe  and  the  genus.  This  is  what  has 
been  termed  the  group-unit,  for  it  is  both  theoretically  and 
practically  the  unit  of  taxonomic  groups. 

So  far  as  it  has  been  possible  to  work  out  the  status  of  the 
group-unit  to  date,  its  value  appears  to  correspond  to  a  fractional 
part  of  the  contracted  subtribal  value  and  the  whole  or  a  part 
of  the  transitional  subtribal  value,  as  these  values  are  exhibited 
in  young  superfamilies  and  stocks  undergoing  evolution.  The 
group-unit  therefore  corresponds  to  the  well  marked  genus  in 
the  old  stocks,  plus  its  intergeneric  space  which  is  conceived  to 
be  a  fixed  quantity  covering  certain  transitionals  that  have 
dropped  out.  The  well  marked  genus  itself  corresponds  to  the 
typic  genus  of  the  group-unit,  while  the  latter  has  associated 
with  it  various  transitional  or  atypic  genera  which  are  not 
represented  in  the  old  stocks  but  must  here  be  fitted  into  the 
taxonomic  system.  These  transitionals  or  atypic  genera  are 
not  subgenera  of  the  typic  genus.     They  are  subordinated  to 


230  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

the  latter  only  in  consensus  of  characters  and  not  in  value. 
They  correspond  to  the  intergeneric  space  that  belongs  with 
the  well  marked  genus  in  the  old  stocks,  but  which  forms  no 
integral  part  of  it.  The  writer  has  considered  well  the  possi- 
bility of  interpreting  the  group-unit,  as  here  constituted,  to  be 
the  natural  genus,  and  thus  of  doing  away  with  the  necessity 
for  the  name  group-unit  by  employing  the  subgeneric  category 
instead  of  the  generic  for  the  group-unit's  prime  divisions. 
This  plan  has  proved  not  to  be  practicable.  Subgeneric 
divisions  may  often  be  recognized  within  the  typic  genus,  and 
sometimes  in  the  atypic  genera,  so  neither  can  be  considered 
subgenera.  In  the  sum  of  their  characters  the  typic  and 
atypic  genera  are  too  distinct  from  each  other  to  be  considered 
as  mere  ill-defined  groups  of  species  under  a  genus  embracing 
all  the  forms  in  the  group-unit.  Genera  are  prominently 
distinguishable  groups  of  species,  and  the  atypic  as  well  as  the 
typic  genera  fit  the  definition.  Furthermore,  in  the  young 
stocks  there  are  inter-subtribal  groups  of  transitionals  which 
come  between  the  subtribes  proper  or  typic  subtribes,  and 
which  may  be  termed  transitional  or  atypic  subtribal  groups. 
The  group-unit  is  capable  of  representing  in  their  true  relation- 
ships and  thus  accomodating  in  the  taxonomic  system  these 
transitional  subtribal  forms,  which  do  not  occur  in  the  old 
stocks  and  can  not  be  fitted  into  the  system  of  taxonomy 
commonly  applied  thereto. 

Attention  must  be  drawn  to  the  fact  that  stocks  become 
fixed,  and  thus  easily  amenable  to  delimitation  on  the  old 
plan,  only  when  their  evolution  is  completed.  The  lives  of 
stocks  and  groups  of  stocks  may  well  be  likened  to  the  lives  of 
individuals.  They  differ  in  extending  over  far  greater  periods 
of  time,  which  is  only  a  relative  difference.  Like  individuals, 
they  spring  from  small  and  embryonic  beginnings,  are  launched 
upon  the  outer  world,  gradually  grow,  unfold,  develop,  pass 
through  various  stages  of  change  and  specialization,  in  time 
reach  their  zenith  and  cease  evolution,  finally  wane,  become 
senile  and  eventually  extinct.  Waning  and  senile  stocks  and 
all  those  that  have  ceased  evolution,  that  is  to  say  fully  matured 
stocks,  are  easily  defined  because  few  or  no  transitionals  are 
present  to  hinder  definition.  But  stocks  that  have  not  yet 
reached  their  zenith,  that  is  to  say  adolescent  stocks,  are  filled 


\ 


1913]  New  Application  of  Taxonomic  Principles.  231 

with  transitionals  and  hence  their  component  categories  are 
difficult  of  deHmitation. 

These  facts  and  the  consequent  necessity  for  a  fractional 
subtribal  category  must  be  apparent  to  anyone  who  studies 
these  flies  assiduously.  In  many  cases  the  natural  tribes  and 
subtribes  can  not  be  defined  on  the  external  characters  of  the 
adult,  nor  can  they  be  defined  in  other  than  a  very  complex 
and  thus  highly  unsatisfactory  manner  on  all  characters,  due 
to  the  presence  of  the  transitionals,  and  we  are  thus  forced  to 
employ  more  restricted  group  categories  in  order  to  make  a 
taxonomic  system  fit  them.  The  conditions  which  we  face 
here  are  those  that  obtain  at  any  given  time  during  the  active 
evolution  of  new  and  young  stocks.  If  we  had  all  the  indi- 
viduals that  have  been  produced  during  the  evolution  of  any 
subtribe  of  insects,  arranged  before  us  in  the  order  of  their 
descent,  we  would  be  totally  unable  to  classify  them  into 
either  group-units,  genera,  subgenera  or  species,  simply  because 
no  lines  of  division  would  be  indicated  for  such  separations. 
They  would  be  found  to  form  a  mass  of  transitionals  in  a 
gradual  and  spreading  transition  from  first  to  last;  through 
their  roots  all  would  be  found  to  connect  by  gradual  transitions 
with  each  other.  But  at  any  given  point  in  their  development 
by  excluding  their  predecessors, the  remnant  would  be  amenable 
to  separation  into  categories  after  the  group  unit  plan.  These 
conditions  actually  obtain  in  certain  young  stocks  today,  and 
it  is  only  due  to  the  fragmentary  nature  of  the  material  which 
we  are  able  to  secure  out  of  their  totals  of  countless  individuals 
produced  that  we  are  able  to  attempt  a  classification  of  the 
residue.  We  do  not  have  to  fit  their  predecessors  into  the 
taxonomic  system,  since  they  are  all  lost  to  us  except  recent 
material  which  agrees  with  the  present.  Therefore  we  are  able 
to  draw  lines  of  separation,  but  the  transitionals  present  demand 
that  the  lines  be  drawn  closely.  Here  lies  the  necessity  for 
the  group-unit  category.  Its  province  is  to  represent  the 
transitional  subtribal  forms  in  their  true  relationships  to  the 
typical  divisions  of  the  subtribe  proper,  in  young  and  new 
stocks   now   undergoing   evolution. 

The  term  group-unit  was  chosen  because  the  value  of  the 
category  to  which  it  is  applied  is  bound  to  be  the  unit  of  group 
values.  Species  and  genera  are  both  taxonomic  units,  since 
both  enter  into  the  concept  and  construction  of  the  binomial. 


232  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

The  elemental  combinations  of  genera  must  thus  constitute 
the  units  of  group  formations  and  values.  It  is  proposed  that 
the  name  of  the  group-unit  be  formed  by  adding  i(B  to  the 
root  of  the  name  of  its  typic  genus.  This  does  not  conflict 
with  any  of  the  group  endings  established  by  the  International 
Code  and  by  general  usage. 

The  group-unit  permits  us  to  arrange  with  phylogenetic 
fidelity  the  components  of  stocks  whose  transition  als  are  largely 
present,  fitting  all  into  a  natural  taxonomic  system.  There 
can  be  not  the  slightest  doubt  that  this  category  is  an  absolute 
necessity  to  the  clear  and  concise  taxonomic  handling  of  the 
forms  that  comprise  the  youngest  stocks.  The  further  details 
of  the  new  application  of  taxonomic  principles  here  outlined 
largely  remain  to  be  worked  out.  This  must  be  done  by 
applying  the  principles  to  the  youfig  stocks  themselves  as  they 
exist  today. 


A  STUDY  IN  ANTENNAL  VARIATION.* 

By  Edith  M.  Patch. 

PLATES   XXIV-XXVII. 

During  the  summer  and  fall  of  1912  annulation  counts  of 
1243  antennae  of  Schizoneura  developing  on  Ulmus  (leaf  and 
bark),  and  Pyrus  and  Crataegus  (bark)  were  made  by  Mr. 
William  C.  Woods  and  the  writer  of  this  paper. 

A  detailed  record  of  the  annular  sensoria  present  on  each 
of  joints  III,  IV,  and  V  of  every  antenna  counted,  giving  a 
tabulation  of  3729  counts  in  all,  is  preserved  on  file  at  the 
Maine  Agricultural  Experiment  Station  and  a  copy  of  this 
record  will  be  lent  upon  request  to  any  one  making  a  par- 
ticular study  of  the  species  concerned.  The  counts  in  tabular 
form  are  too  bulky  to  be  conveniently  printed  as  they  stand; 
and  as  nearly  100  curves  would  be  necessary  to  cover  the 
various  collections  adequately  that  method  of  presentation 
was  also  rejected  for  the  time  though  part  of  the  data  may  be 
reduced  to  this  form  later. 

The  drawings  of  the  90  antennae  selected  show,  however, 
the  most  significant  ranges  of  variation  and  give  in  themselves 
a  summary  sufficient  for  most  purposes.  The  antennae  are 
all  drawn  to  the  same  scale  with  particular  reference  to  the 
number  of  annulations  present  on  each  of  the  joints  III  to  V 
and  where  of  interest  also  of  joint  VI;  and  the  length  of  each 
joint.  No  especial  attention  has  been  paid  to  other  antennal 
details  and  the  drawings  are  not  to  be  considered  a  study  of  the 
terminal  joint  except  in  the  two  respects  indicated.  In  some 
instances  the  drawings  were  made  from  mounts  in  which  the 
antenna  was  curved  on  the  slide  and  an  arbitrary  correction 
of  this  for  the  purpose  of  getting  approximately  straight  draw- 
ings for  plates,  gives  the  peculiar  irregularity  in  contour  ap- 
parent. 

Frequent  examples  of  freak  antenna  in  which  two  joints 
were  apparently  merged  were  met  and  some  of  these  are  rep- 
resented by  Figs.  32-36  and  Fig.  82. 

Appreciative  thanks  are  due  to  several  widely  scattered 
entomologists  for  their  kindness  in  sending  material  from 
different  localities,  who  are,  in  part,  acknowledged  in  the 
collection  data  which  follow. 


"Papers  from  the  Maine  Agricultural  Experiment  Station:  Entomology  No.  62. 

233 


234  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


History  of  Collections  Tabulated. 

39-04.  (Fig.  74).  Elm  rosette.  Orono,  Me.  June  15, 
1904. 

6-05.  (Fig.  90).  Mixed  collection  from  elm  leaf  roll  and 
rosette.     Orono.     June  16,  1905. 

95-06.     (Figs.   19-21).     Elm  bark.     Orono,  Aug.  4,   1906. 

114-06.  (Fig.  29).  Crataegus  bark.  Maine.  Sept.  17, 
1906. 

115-06.  (Figs.  30-31).  Apple  bark.  Maine.  Sept.  17, 
1906. 

7-08.     (Fig.  22).     Elm  bark.     Orono.     June  16,  1908. 

50-09.  (Figs.  14-18).  Elm  leaf  collection.  Brewer,  Me.- 
July  1,  1909. 

63-11.  (Figs.  23-26).  P3'rM5  sp.  bark,  (cultivated  variety 
of  mountain  ash).     Orono.     Aug.  28,  1911. 

64-11.  Pyrus  sitchensis  {R-oem)  Vi^eT,h2ivk.  Orono.  Aug, 
29,  1911. 

6-12.  (Fig.  13).  Elm  leaf  roll.  Alabama.  Received  May 
6,  1912.  Progeny  of  this  collection  lived  for  a  fortnight  on 
apple  seedlings. 

9-12.  (Fig.ll).  Elm  leaf  roh.  Columbia,  Mo.  Received 
May  12,  1912,  from  Dr.  L.  Haseman.  The  winged  progenitors 
of  9-12.  Sub.  1.  (Fig.  27)  which  were  reared  in  the  laboratory 
on  apple  seedlings.  A  fuller  account  of  this  collection  is  given 
in  Bulletin  203  of  the  Maine  Agricultural  Experiment  Station. 

9-12.  Sub.  1.  (Fig.  27).  Apple  seedling.  Laboratory 
bred.  Sept.  20,  1913.  The  progeny  of  9-12  which  see  for 
discussion. 

11-12.  (Fig.  12).  Elm  leaf  roll.  Knoxville,  Tenn.  Re- 
ceived May  20,  from  Dr.  Gordon  Bentley.  Progeny  of  this 
collection  were  reared  on  apple  seedlings  from  May  20  to  June 
26. 

12-12.  (Fig  10).  Elm  leaf  roll.  Marion,  S.  C.  Received 
May  28,  1912,  from  Mr.  W.  A.  Thomas. 

21-12.  (Fig.  89).  Mixed  collection  from  elm  leaf  roll 
and  rosette.  St.  Louis,  Mo.  Received  June  3,  1912,  from  Mr. 
J.  T.  Monell. 

29-12.     Elm  rosette.     Orono.     June   6,    1912. 

30-12.  (Figs.  83-88).  Elm  leaf  roll.  Marion,  S.  C.  Re- 
ceived June  8,  1912,  from  Mr.  W.  A.  Thomas." 


1913] 


Study  in  Antennal  Variation. 


235 


35-12.     (Figs  8   and   9).     Elm   leaf  roll.     St.    Louis,    Mo. 
Received  from  Mr.  J.  T.  Monell,  June  14,  1912. 

43-12.     (Fig.   2).     Elm  leaf  roll.     Orono.     June  20.     For 
discussion  see  113-12. 

(Fig  68).     Elm  rosette.    Calais,  Me.    June  21,  1912. 

(Figs.  76-82).     Elm  rosette.     Standish,  Me.  June 

The  rosette  was  old  and  considerably  dried  and  the 

were    smaller   than    those   from  fresher  and   juicier 


45-12 

49-12 
24,  1912. 
migrants 
rosettes. 

53-12 
26,    1912. 

57-12 
1912. 

58-12 
1912. 

60-12. 


Orono.     June 
June  26, 


(Figs.    3    and    4).     Elm  leaf    roll 

(Fig.  69).     Elm  rosette.  Caribou,  Me 

(Fig.  75).     Elm  rosette.  Berlin,  N.  H.     June  28, 

(Figs. 


roll  and  rosette. 


32-67).  Migrants  developed  in  elm  leaf 
Collected  June  28- July  12,  1912,  from  the 
ventral  surface  of  leaves  of  Pyriis  americana  (Mountain  Ash), 
to  which  they  had  migrated.  A  fuller  account  of  this  collection 
is  given  in  Journal  of  Economic  Entomology,  Vol.  5,  p.  397. 

61-12.     (Figs.  70-73).     Elm  rosette.     Oakland,  Me.     June 
29,  1912. 

Elm  rosette.     Orono.     June  21,  1912. 

(Fig.    1).     Elm    leaf    roll.     Houlton,    Me.     June, 


65-12. 
68-12. 
1912. 

111-12. 
113-12. 


(Fig.  5).     Elm  leaf  roll.     Orono.     July  20,  1912. 

(Figs.  6  and  7).  Elm  leaf  roll.  Orono.  July  23, 
1912.  Purposely  collected  late  for  comparison  with  43-12 
(Fig.  2)  which  developed  June  30  in  the  same  rolls.  The 
difference  in  the  actual  size  of  the  antennae  and  in  the  number 
of  annulations  of  the  big,  thrift^^  early  ones  from  the  juicy  leaf 
and  the  last  individuals  to  develop  in  the  drying  roll  would 
seem  suggestive  of  the  physiological  effect  of  the  habitat  on  the 
size  of  the  individual  and  the  character  of  the  antennae. 
165-12.     Pyriis   sitchensis  Piper,  bark.     Orono.     Sept. 


1912. 

175-12. 

176-12. 
Louis,  Mo. 


Apple  bark.     Orono,  Me.     Sept.  28,  1912. 
(Fig.28).     Crataegus  (monogyna)  Oxyocantha. 
September  27,  1911.     Mr.  J.  T.  Monell. 


24, 


St. 


Note.  By  elm  leaf  "roll"  is  indicated  a  deformation  of  a  single  leaf.  By 
"rosette"  is  indicated  a  terminal  cluster.  (Figs.  442  and  462,  Bulletin  203,  Me. 
Agr.  Expt.  Sta.). 


236  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


List  of  Figures   With   Cross  Reference  to   Collections. 

Fig  1,  68-12;  Fig  2,  43-12;  Figs.  3-4,  53-12;  Fig.  5,  111-12; 
Figs.  6-7,  113-12;  Figs.  8-9,  35-12;  Fig.  10,  12-12;  Fig.  11,  9-12; 
Fig.  12,  11-12;  Fig.  13,  6-12;  Figs.  14-18,  50-09;  Figs.  19-21, 
95-06;  Fig.  22,  7-08;  Figs.  23-26,  63-11;  Fig.  27,  9-12  Sub  1; 
Fig.  28,  176-12;  Fig.  29,  114-06;  Figs.  30-31,  115-06;  Figs.  32- 
67,  60-12;  Fig.  68,  45-12;  Fig.  69,  57-12;  Figs.  70-73,  61-12; 
Fig.  74,  39-04;  Fig.  75,  58-12;  Figs.  76-82,  49-12;  Figs.  83-88, 
30-12;  Fig.  89,  21-12;  Fig.  90,  6-05. 

Figs  17  and  18  are  right  and  left  antennas  of  same  individual. 

Figs.  37  and  38  are  right  and  left  antennas  of  same  individual. 

Figs  64  and  65  are  right  and  left  antenna  of  same  individual. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXIV. 


Edilh  M.  Patch. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXV. 


Edith  M.  Patch. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXVI. 


£>?!  r=> 


Edith  M.  Patch. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXVII. 


Edith  M.  Patch. 


A  STUDY  IN  VARIATION  IN    THE  NORTH  AMERICAN 

GREENBOTTLE  FLIES  OF  THE  GENUS  LUCILIA, 

WITH  SYSTEMATIC  NOTES  ON  THE 

SPECIES  INVOLVED. 

By  John  D.  Tothill, 
-  Division  of  Entomology,  Ottawa,  Canada. 

Some  few  years  ago  the  writer  had  occasion  to  make  a 
stud}^  in  variation  of  the  Canadian  species  of  the  genus  Lucilia. 
Series  of  adults  were  bred,  more  particularly  in  the  case 
of  L.  sericata  Meig.,  and  from  the  material  thus  secured  the 
limits  and  possibilities  of  variation  in  certain  directions  were 
determined.  The  fact  was  brought  out  that  none  of  the  char- 
acters made  use  of  by  Mr.  C.  H.  T.  Townsend  in  his  "Taxon- 
omy of  Muscoidean  Flies"  for  the  erection  of  the  ten  supposedly 
new  species  of  the  genus  contained  in  that  publication  are 
of   specific  value. 

In  1911  an  opportunity  was  afforded  of  examining  the 
types  and  cotypes  of  the  above  ten  species  at  the  U.  S.  National 
Museum,  in  Washington,  D.  C.  The  conclusion  which  had 
been  previously  arrived  at  namely,  that  the  supposed  species 
were  only  variations  of  the  original  four  species  as  recognized 
by  Hough  was  abundantly  justified. 

Exarninations  of  '  the  cf  genitalia  were  made  and  these 
again  showed  that  the  conclusion  was  justified. 

It  is  hoped  shortly  to  publish  the  results  of  the  study  of  the 
<S^  genitalia. 

The  present  paper  consists  of  the  results  of  the  study  in 
variation,  and  of  the  examination  of  the  U.  S.  N.  M.  Lucilia 
material. 

A  STUDY  IN  VARIATION  IN  THE  GENUS  LUCILIA. 

That  variation  in  external  morphological  characters  is  a 
factor  to  be  reckoned  with  in  systematic  entomology  is  today 
disputed  by  no  working  entomologist.  At  the  same  time 
there  are  comparatively  an  infinitely  small  number  of  the  vast 
array  of  insects  described  to  date  which  have  had  their  limits  of 
variation  approximated. 

That  such  approximation  is  possible  or  practical  in  all  cases 
cannot  be  entertained;  that  it  is  desirable  is  beyond  question. 
The  single  historic  example  of  the  tachinid  fly  Exorista  {Phryxe) 

241 


242  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

vulgaris  Fall,  with  its  five  and  one-half  pages  of  synonymy  in 
the  '"Katalog  der  Palaarctischen  Diptera"  is  sufficient  in  itself 
to  establish  the  desirability  of  studies  in  variation. 

The  present  study  is  concerned  with  three  species  of  the 
genus  Lucilia  i.  e.  sericata  Meig.  sylvarum  Hough  and  ccBsar 
Linn.  The  method  adopted  was  to  breed  from  isolated  egg 
masses  series  of  adults,  examine  and  record  certain  selected 
characters  for  each  fly  from  each  egg  mass,  tabulate  these  charac- 
ters, make  synopses  of  these  tables,  and  finally  to  draw  up  from 
these  s^mopses  resumes  or  extended  definitions  for  each  species. 

Owing  to  lack  of  space  only  these  final  resumes  appear  in 
this  paper.  It  was  the  intention  of  the  writer  at  the  outset 
to  keep  exact  records  of  at  least  one  hundred  examples  of  each 
species  encountered.  This  intention  was  however  only  realized 
in  the  case  of  L.  sericata  in  which  case  several  hundred  adults 
were  reared.  The  riumber  of  specimens  of  each  species  reared 
and  examined  is  as  follows: 

L.  sericata,  Meig.,  158  consisting  of  57  9  9  and  101  d' (J". 
L.  sylvarum,  Hough,  27,  consisting  of  25  9  9  and  2  cf'cf. 
L.  CEesar,  Linn.,  3,  consisting  of  1  9  and  2  cf  cf . 

In  addition  to  these  bred  specimens  ten  collected  specimens 
of  L.  sylvarum  and  thirty-one  L.  caesar  were  also  examined, 
the  results  being  included  in  the  following  resumes.  This 
makes  the  total  assemblage  of  flies  for  each  species:  L.  sericata, 
158;  L.  sylvarum,  37;  L.  caesar,  34. 

The  characters  selected  for  examination  were  as  follows : 

Dorsocentral  bristles. 

Postracostichal  bristles. 

Humeral  bristles. 

Sternopleural  bristles. 

Ocellar  bristles. 

Width  of  front. 

Colour  of  palpi. 

Colour  of  first  abdominal  segment. 

Marginal  bristles  of  second  abdominal  segment. 

Colour  of  tegulas. 

Width  of  apex  of  first  posterior  cell  compared  with  the  length  of  the  anterior 

cross-vein. 
Presence  or  absence  of  appendage  at  bend  of  vein  four. 

These  particular  characters  were  chosen  for  two  reasons 
(a)  to  find  if  possible  new  taxonomic  characters  for  the  separ- 
ation of  the  species;  (b)  on  account  of  the  fact  that  they  include 
all  the  new  characters  employed  by  Mr.  C.  H.  T.  Townsend* 
in  the  erection  of  ten  supposedly  distinct  species. 

*  Taxonomy  of  Muscoidean  Flies.     Smithsonian  Misc.  Col.,  Vol.  41,  No.  1803. 


1913]  Variation  in  the  Genus  Lucilia.  243 

RESUME   OF   L.    SERICATA. 

In  all  cases  there  were  three  strong  pairs  of  dorsocentral 
bristles,  no  rudimentary  fourth  pair. 

In  98.1%  of  cases  there  were  three  pairs  of  postacrostichal 
bristles.  One  of  the  variations  was  an  extra  spasmodically 
placed  bristle  of  the  mesonotum  (postsutural).  The  other 
variation  was  that  of  two  postacrostichals  only  on  the  left 
side;  this  may  indicate  a  past  connection  between  the  forms 
with  typically  three  pairs  and  those  with  typically  two  pairs 
(L.  caesar). 

As  regards  humeral  bristles  88.7%  of  the  flies  examined 
were  supplied  with  four  strong  ones  on  each  side.  The  varia- 
tions ranged  between  a  form  with  two  on  one  side  and  three  on 
the  other  and  the  typic  form  with  four  on  each  side.  The 
anterior  bristle  was  always  the  one  to  be  lost. 

The  interior  bristle  seems  to  have  a  taxonomic  affinity 
toward  the  anterior  bristle,  as  in  the  case  of  the  latter  aborting 
it  was  usually  found  that  the  interior  bristle  was  weak  (in  one 
case  it  was  lost  completely  on  one  side). 

There  were  in  96.9%  of  cases  3  sternopleural  bristles  on 
each  side.  This  is  a  generic  character  and  yet  there  was 
variation,  not  in  the  species  as  a  whole,  but  in  individuals. 
These  variations  were  in  an  increase  and  decrease  of  these 
bristles  in  both  number  and  strength.  In  all  cases  the  posterior 
bristles  were  constant  and  the  anterior  alone  became  modified. 

The  ocellar  bristles  varied  according  to  sex. 

82.5%  of  the  female  flies  had  two  well-defined  pairs.  In 
the  great  majority  of  these  cases  the  anterior  pair  was  longer 
and  stronger  than  the  posterior  pair,  but  at  the  same  time  the 
latter  pair  was  sufficiently  strong  to  warrant  the  application  of 
the  term  'bristles'.  As  to  position  the  anterior  pair  had  their 
insertion  within  the  ocellar  triangle  and  the  posterior  pair 
had  theirs  outside  of  the  triangle  and  immediately  posterior  to 
it.  As  to  the  exceptions  to  this  normal  condition  of  two  pairs 
there  were  a  few  cases  in  which  the  post,  pair  were  weak;  one 
case  in  which  the  two  pairs  were  both  exceptionally  strong; 
several  instances  in  which  there  was  an  extra  bristle  developed 
on  one  side  within  the  ocellar  triangle  and  posterior  to  the 
normal  anterior  pair;  and  finally  a  few  instances  in  which 
there  was  an  extra  pair  of  bristles  developed  within  the  ocellar 
triangle  and  post,  to  the  ant.  pair. 


244  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

Of  the  males  90%  had  only  one  pair  of  ocellar  bristles. 
These  were  proclinate  and  had  their  insertion  within  the  tri- 
angle. There  was  a  tendency  toward  the  production  of 
two  pairs;  in  some  cases  this  second  pair  was  hardly  stronger 
than  the  surrounding  hairs;  in  7%  of  cases  they  had  devel- 
oped into  a  weak  posterior  pair;  and  finally  in  a  solitary 
instance  two  distinct  pairs  were  developed. 

The  width  of  front  affords  a  secondary  sexual  character. 
This  character  was  very  constant,  there  being  practically 
no  variation  in  all  the  material  examined. 

In  the  females  the  width  was  one-seventh  to  one-eighth  head 
width.  Hough  in  his  description  of  this  species  gives  one- 
sixth  to  one-eighth  head  width;  this  will  hold  good  if  that 
portion  near  the  ocellar  triangle  is  taken  into  consideration, 
as  at  this  extremity  there  is  an  expansion.  In  the  present 
study,  however,  the  term  width  of  front  is  restricted  to  that 
portion  of  the  front  immediately  above  the  base  of  the  anten- 
nae, i.  e.  the  narrowest  portion. 

In  the  case  of  females  the  width  of  front  was  from  one-tenth 
to  four-tenths  head  width. 

It  may  be  stated  here  that  measurements  of  all  these  flies 
was  not  attempted.  A  small  series  however  of  each  sex  were 
measured  in  this  particular  and  with  these  as  a  guide  the  other 
specimens  were  visually  compared.  This  may  sound  somewhat 
casual,  but  in  reality  the  method  is  reasonably  accurate  as  the 
observer  very  quickly  acquires  a  due  sense  of  proportion. 

The  next  character  lies  in  the  color  of  the  palpi.  This 
character  was  sometimes  very  difficult  to  determine  because 
the  palpi  were  often  retracted  into  the  oral  cavity.  The  wall 
of  this  cavity  varied  from  an  amber  yellow  color  to  almost 
black  and  the  palpi,  being  semi-transparent,  appeared  in  many 
cases  to  be  of  this  dark  color  and  only  by  removing  them  could 
the  fallacy  be  made  patent.  Again  these  palpi  were  covered 
with  fine  white  hairs  and  thus  in  certain  planes  of  vision  they 
appeared  white. 

The  prevailing  color  of  these  palpi  was  amber  yellow. 
This  was  however  by  no  means  constant,  there  being  but  64.4% 
of  the  flies  with  the  palpi  of  this  color.  The  color  varied  from 
pale  yellow  through  dark  amber  yellow  to  almost  black;  again 
in  several  cases  there  was  an  infuscation  or  dark  area  at  the 
distal  region;  and  also  a  black  area  was  occasionally  present 


1913]  Variation  in  the  Genus  Lucilia.  245 

at  the  base.  Thus  for  this  species  at  least  the  color  of  the  palpi 
is  not  constant  and  the  infuscation  at  the  tip  has  no  specific 
value. 

In  the  color  of  the  first  segment  of  the  abdomen  was  found 
an  excellent  secondary  sexual  character.  In  all  cases  it  is  the 
dorsal  area  of  the  segment  that  is  referred  to  and  not  the 
ventral. 

In  all  males  examined  the  first  segment  was,  at  least  super- 
iorly, black.  In  the  females  this  segment  varied  from  the 
color  of  the  remaining  segments  (i.  e.  abdomen  unicolorus)  to 
a  shade  darker;  there  were  few  examples  of  this  latter  condition. 

On  the  second  abdominal  segment  there  was  superiorly 
a  row  in  both  males  and  females,  of  fairly  strong  marginal 
macrochaetae.  These  marochaetae  were  stronger  .centrally, 
then  became  weak  and  finally  became  strong  again  at  the 
sides.  These  bristles  varied  slightly,  but  not  to  any  marked 
degree;  in  a  few  cases  they  were  strong  and  in  a  few  cases  weak; 
in  two  instances  (1  cf  and  1  9  )  the  two  median  bristles  stood 
out  more  prominently  thus  approaching  the  condition  in  L. 
sylvariun. 

The  tegulae  varied  from  white  to  brown.  This  variation 
was  evident  in  all  the  series  of  flies  of  all  species  and  in  one  lot 
of  L.  sylvariim  bred  from  a  single  egg  cluster  all  intermediate 
stages  were  found  between  the  pure  white  and  the  brown 
conditions. 

Before  passing  to  the  next  character  it  may  be  well  to 
observe  that  all  flies  killed  and  pinned  soon  after  the  time  of 
issuance  have  pure,  or  almost  pure,  white  tegulas;  and  that 
only  in  flies  that  have  either  been  collected,  or  bred  through 
and  left  in  a  cage  for  ten  days  or  more,  have  the  brown-tinged 
tegulae  been  observed.  This  seems  to  indicate  that  the  tegulae 
darken  as  the  fly  grows  older. 

It  was  found  that  the  width  of  the  apex  of  the  posterior 
cell  in  comparison  with  the  length  of  the  anterior  cross-vein 
was  slighth^  or  distinctly  shorter;  the  only  exception  to  this 
was  in  the  case  of  two  flies  in  which  the  lengths  were  equal. 
This  character  has  not  previously  been  made  use  of.  It  is 
apparently  very  constant  and  serves  as  a  sepa;-ating  character 
for  this  species  from  L.  sylvarum. 

The  character  is  best  seen  when  the  wing  is  viewed  from 
below.  In  vein  4  there  was  in  no  case  any  appendage — even 
rudimentary — at  the  angle. 


246  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

RESUME   OF  L.    SYL VARUM. 

There  were  in  all  cases  3  strong  pairs  of  dorsocentral  bristles, 
but  in  33%  of  the  flies  resulting  from  one  egg  cluster  there  was 
a  trace  of  a  fourth  anterior  pair;  sometimes  this  trace  exhibited 
itself  as  a  slightly  exaggerated  hair  on  one  side  only  and  some- 
times it  resolved  itself  into  a  distinct  but  weak  pair  of  anterior 
dorsocentral  bristles.  There  were  three  pairs  of  strong 
postacrostichal  bristles  in  all  cases. 

As  regards  humeral  bristles  there  were  in  most  cases  four 
on  each  side.  The  majority  of  variations  ran  to  an  abortion  of 
either  one  bristle  on  one  side  only,  or  of  a  bristle  on  both  sides. 
This  bristle  was  always  the  anterior  bristle  and,  as  in  L.  sericata, 
the  loss  of  it  carried  with  it  a  weakening  of  the  anterior  one. 
There  was  in  one  case  a  variation  in  the  other  direction,  namely, 
the  development  of  an  extra  bristle,  quite  strong,  on  one  side 
only. 

Sternopleural  bristles  were  represented  by  three  typical 
pairs,  but,  as  in  L.  sericata,  there  was  variation,  notwithstanding 
the  fact  that  the  character  has  an  undoubted  generic  value. 
This  variation  appeared  in  4  specimens  and  ran  in  each  case 
to  an  additional  anterior  pair,  represented  either  by  a  bristle 
on  one  side  only  or  by  a  bristle  on  each  side;  these  bristles 
were  sometimes  weak  and  sometimes  strong.  In  all  cases 
as  in  L.  sericata,  only  the  anterior  bristles  were  subject  to 
modification. 

Coming  to  ocellar  bristles  it  was  found  that,  as  in  L.  sericata, 
these  afforded  secondary  sexual  characters.  The  four  males 
had  only  one  strong  pair  of  ocellar  bristles.  These  were  proc- 
linate  and  inserted  within  the  ocellar  triangle. 

The  females  had  one  strong  pair  inserted  within  the  ocellar 
triangle  and  one  very  weak  pair  inserted  outside  the  triangle 
and  immediately  posterior  to  it.  This  weak  pair  was  made 
up  of  somewhat  exaggerated  hairs  but  the  term  bristle  is 
perhaps  applicable  because  they  stood  out  from  the  surrounding 
hairs  (of  which  there  were  several  pairs).  There  were  in  the 
specimens  of  this  species  as  in  the  specimens  of  L.  caesar  a 
few  hairs  within  the  ocellar  triangle.  There  was  variation 
from  the  typical  condition  of  one  strong  pair  and  one  weak  in 
two  directions,  namely,  reduction  of  the  posterior  pair  and  the 
addition  of  another  posterior  pair  of  these  weak  bristles  or 
strong  hairs. 


1913]  Variation  in  the  Genus  Lucilia.  247 

The  width  of  front  affords  a  secondary  sexual  character. 
In  the  males  the  front  was  from  one-tenth  to  one-twelfth 
head  width.  Hough  gives  the  width  as  "very  narrow"  and 
"one-eighth  to  one-tenth  head  width. "  A  better  way  is  perhaps 
to  say  that  the  width  of  front  in  cf  L.  sylvarum  comes  interme- 
diate between  that  of  L.  caesar,  which  is  linear,  and  that  of  L. 
sericata  which  is  from  one-seventh  to  one-eighth  head  width. 
Once  having  examined  specimens  as  to  this  character  in  males 
of  all  three  species  it  becomes  a  comparatively  easy  task  to 
subsequently  reduce  any  male  Lucilia,  on  this  character  alone 
to  its  species. 

The  front  of  the  females  was  found  to  be  somewhat  nar- 
rower than  in  L.  sericata  and  about  the  same  as  in  L.  caesar. 
In  actual  width  it  was  found  to  be  about  3-10  (measurements 
were  made  in  a  number  of  specimens)  of  the  head  width;  this 
is  slightly  less  than  1-3  head  width.  This  character  serves 
very  nicely  for  separating  females  of  this  species  and  of  L. 
caesar  from  females  of  L.  sericata  which  have  a  front  measuring 
4-10  head  width,  or  slightly  greater  than  1-3  head  width. 

The  color  of  the  palpi  appears  to  be  far  more  constant 
in  this  species  than  in  L.  sericata.  This  color  was  dark  brown 
or  almost  black  in  all  but  two  cases  and  in  these  it  was  black. 
The  color  of  the  dorsum  of  the  first  abdominal  segment  was 
not  in  this  case  found  to  afford  a  secondary  sexual  character  as 
in  L.  sericata^  In  the  females  the  first  abdominal  segment 
was  either  blackish  or  black,  and  in  the  males  it  was  black. 

A  comparative  study  of  the  bristles  of  the  second  abdominal 
segment  produced  some  curious  results.  In  the  case  of  L. 
sylvarum  one  bred  male  had  a  strong  pair  of  median  marginal 
bristles  and  no  differentiated  marginal  row.  68%  of  the  females 
in  the  same  lot  had  a  strong  central  pair  of  bristles  and  a  weak 
marginal  row ;  several  flies  had  the  central  pair  no  stronger  than 
the  remaining  bristles  of  the  marginal  row.  Again  in  another 
lot  of  bred  material  of  7  females  two  exhibited  this  latter  con- 
dition of  having  the  central  pair  no  stronger  than  the  others. 

This  variation  is  important  because  the  presence  of  a  pair 
of  strong  median  marginal  macrochaetae  has  always  been 
attributed  by  writers  to  L.  sylvarum  and  here  it  is  shown  that 
the  character  may  vary  to  quite  a  considerable  extent. 

In  most  cases  the  central  pair  were  of  about  the  same 
strength  as  the  remaining  bristles.     As  a  rule,  however,  these 


248  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

two  bristles  stood  out  at  right  angles,  or  at  least  at  a  considerable 
angle,  to  the  longitudinal  plane  of  the  abdomen;  whereas  the 
remaining  bristles  were  barely  elevated  and  extended  over  the 
dorsum  of  the  third  segment.  Thus  these  central  bristles 
stood  out  as  two  distinct  macrochaetae.  It  not  infrequently 
happened  however  that  these  central  bristles  were  not  elevated 
and  hence  they  could  not  be  readily  distinguished  from  the 
others  of  the  marginal  row  and  inference  was  naturally  drawn 
that  they  were  not  present.  Their  presence  could  usually 
be  detected  by  examining  the  sites  of  their  insertions  as  com- 
pared with  those  of  the  remaining  bristles;  the  central  pair 
had  their  insertions  very  slightly  anterior  to  the  row  of  marginal 
macrochaetae. 

The  tegulae  varied,  as  in  L.  sericata,  from  white  to  smoky; 
in  one  lot  of  bred  material  particularly  an  excellent  gradational 
series,  in  respect  to  this  character,  was  obtained. 

The  apex  of  the  first  posterior  cell  of  the  wings  was,  unlike 
the  condition  in  L.  sericata  or  L.  caesar,  longer  than  the  anterior 
cross  vein.  This  character  is  best  seen  from  the  under  surface 
of  the  wing.  It  is  apparently  one  of  the  best  for  separating 
this  species  from  L.  sericata.  There  was  often  a  short  spur 
at  the  angle  of  the  fourth  longitudinal  vein. 

RESUME  OF  L.   CAESAR. 

In  all  cases  there  were  three  strong  ■  pairs  of  dorsocentral 
bristles  and  there  was  no  rudimentary  or  vestigial  fourth  pair. 

In  all  cases  but  one,  two  pairs  of  postacrostichal  bristles 
were  found  to  be  present.  In  this  one  exception  there  was 
an  extra  pair  erratically  placed. 

The  humeral  bristles  varied  considerably.  In  the  bred 
specimens  there  were  two  flies  with  two  pairs  and  one  fly  with 
three  pairs.  The  most  common  condition  was  two  pairs,  but 
there  were  a  number  of  specimens  with  an  extra  anterior  bristle 
on  each  side,  and  again  others  with  a  complete  anterior  fourth 
pair.  At  the  other  extreme  there  was  a  fly  with  two  bristles 
on  one  side  and  three  on  the  other.  There  was  thus  greater 
inconstancy  of  humeral  bristles  in  this  species  than  in  either  of 
the  other  two.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  it  was  always, 
as  in  L.  sericata  and  L.  sylvarum,  the  anterior  bristles  and  of  these 
the  interior  pair  that  were  subject  to  variation. 


1913]  Variation  in  the  Genus  Liicilia.  249 

The  sternopleural  bristles  were  represented  in  all  cases  but 
one  by  the  normal  three  pairs.  In  this  one  exception  the 
anterior  bristle  on  one  side  was  reduced  to  a  long  hair.  It  was 
the  anterior  bristle  that  became  modified. 

The  ocellar  bristles,  as  in  the  other  two  species,  afforded 
secondary  sexual  characters. 

.The  males  had  in  all  cases  the  one  strong  proclinate  pair 
as  in  L.  sericata  and  L.  sylvarum,  having  insertion  within  the 
ocellar  triangle.  The  females  had  the  usual  one  strong  pair 
having  insertion  within  the  ocellar  triangle.  The  posterior 
pair  were  in  most  cases  reduced  to  hairs,  thus  being  less  strong 
even  than  in  L.  sylvarum.  There,  was  one  curious  variation 
in  which  there  were  one  strong  pair  and  two  very  weak  pairs 
of  bristles;  both  these  weak  pairs  were  posterior  to  the  strong 
anterior  pair;  one  of  them  was  inserted  within  and  the  other 
outside  of  the  ocellar  triangle.  There  were  in  addition  to  the 
bristles  a  number  of  hairs  both  within  and  outside  of  the 
triangle. 

The  color  of  the  palpi  was,  in  the  specimens  of  this  species 
examined,  very  constant.  It  was  without  exception  amber 
yellow. 

The  width  of  front  here  again  afforded  a  secondary  sex- 
ual character.  All  the  males  had  the  front  linear;  it  was 
considerably  narrower  than  in  L.  sylvarum,  and  very  con- 
siderably narrower  than  in  L.  sericata.  In  the  females  the 
width  of  front  varied  from  three  tenths  to  one  third  head 
width;  the  more  general  condition  however  was  about  three 
tenths,  or  the  same  as  in  L.  sylvarum. 

The  color  of  the  dorsum  of  the  first  abdominal  segment 
varied  from  that  of  the  remaining  segments  (abdomen  unicolor- 
ous)  to  black.  Between  these  two  extremes  there  were  numer- 
ous gradational  variations;  the  most  common  of  these  was 
that  in  which  the  segment  was  somewhat  darker,  especially 
centrally,  than  the  remaining  segments. 

As  to  the  color  of  the  tegulae  there  were  found  to  exist 
the  same  variations  as  in  L.  sylvarum  and  L.  caesar.  The 
extremes  were  white  and  brown  and  between  these  were  found 
numerous  combinations.  The  more  common  condition  was 
that  of  'tinged  brown.' 

Regarding  the  last  character,  namely,  the  comparison  in 
lengths  of  the  apex  of  the  first  posterior  cell  and  anterior  cross 


250  A.nnals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

vein  it  was  found  that  this  species  comes  in  this  respect  midway 
between  sericata  and  sylvarum.  In  four  cases  the  apical  margin 
of  the  first  posterior  cell  was  slightly  shorter  than  the  length 
of  the  anterior  cross  vein,  which  is  the  typical  condition  in  the 
case  of  L.  sericata.  In  the  remaining  twenty  seven  flies  it 
was  about  equal  to  the  length  of  the  anterior  cross  vein.  Thus 
for  this  species  the  character  will  not  serve  to  differentiate 
from  the  other  two  species. 

Having  completed  the  resumes  for  the  three  species  of 
Lucilia  the  opportunity  may  be  taken  to  make  a  few  general 
remarks  on  characters  which  have  not  been  made  use  of  in  the 
tables. 

First,  as  to  size,  there  was  found  to  be  little  difference  in 
the  three  species.  Possibly  caesar  is  generally  somewhat 
larger  than  the  other  two.  In  each  species  there  is  however 
a  considerable  variation.  To  illustrate  this  it  may  be  said 
that  in  over  200  specimens  of  sericata  the  smallest  fly  was  5 
mm.  long  and  the  largest  9  mm.;  the  average  length  was 
from  7  to  8  mm. 

Then  as  to  general  color  there  was  again  a  great  range  of 
variation.  Hough  makes  remark*  that  Tn  all  the  Calliphor- 
ineae  of  metallic  color  the  shade  varies  through  violet,  green, 
blue  and  copper  color.'  One'  has  only  to  look  at  a  long  series 
of  Lucilia  to  find  that,  in  this  genus  at  least,  the  remark  holds 
true.  Generally,  however,  flies  of  L.  sericata  are  brighter, 
owing  to  a  greater  preponderance  of  the  coppery  color,  then  are 
those    of  L.  caesar  and  L.  sylvarum.. 

Lastly  a  word  may  be  said  regarding  the  positions  of  the 
dorsocentral  and  postacrostichal  bristles  both  in  relation  to 
the  respective  series  separately  and  in  relation  to  one  another 
As  to  the  positions  in  their  respective  series  it  was  found  that 
they  were  placed,  almost  without  exception,  in  the  same  plane 
longitudinally  (cephalad-caudad)  although  there  was  variation. 
Then  as  to  the  relative  positions  of  the  dorsocentrals  and  post- 
acrostichals  there  was  found  to  exist  a  considerable  variation: 
taking  any  four  bristles  transversely  an  imaginary  line  drawn 
through  their  insertions  usually  approached  a  straight  line; 
this  line  was  however  scarcely  ever  absolutely  straight  and  the 
deviations   from   it   did   not   follow   any  .definite   plan.      The 

*Synopsis  of  the  Calliphorineag  of  the  U.  S.,  Zool.  Bull.,  Vol.  II,  No.  6,  Sept., 
1899,  p.  283. 


1913] 


Vafiation  in  the  Genus  Lucilia. 


251 


accompanying  diagram  showing  the  positions  of  these  thoracic 
bristles  in  the  case  of  seven  flies  all  bred  from  a  single  parent 
indicate  this  variation  better  than  can  any  description.  . 

The  point  is  of  interest  on  account  of  the  fact  that  Mr. 
Townsend  (loc.  cit.  p.  121)  in  describing  a  new  species  of 
Lucilia  (L.  girauUi)  makes  use  of  the  relative  positions  of  the 
postacrostichal  and  dorsocentral  bristles. 


\.  < 


X.  <  ^ 


IS  e> 


/ 


V.<® 


a  e 


/"«  ®  (a  ® 


5.  <    <- 


I-   < 


Diagram 

Showing  variation  in  relative  position  of  dorsocentral  and  postacrostichal  bristles 

in  the  case  of  7  specimens  of  L.  sericata,  all  bred  from  the  same  parent  fly. 
Legend: 

Each  dot  within  a  circle  represents  the  insertion  of  a  bristle. 

Each  bracketed  group  (of  the  total  7)  represents  the  dorsocentral  and  posta- 
crostichal bristles  of  one  fly. 

The  two  outside  rows  of  bristles  are  dorsocentrals. 

The  two  inside  rows  of  bristles  are  postacrostichals. 

The  chief  value  of  this  study  in  variation  lies  in  the  fact 
that  each  species  dealt  with  was  found  to  be  subject  to  con- 
siderable variation  in  the  matter  of  chaetotaxy,  color,  size,  etc. 
Also  in  that  all  the  new  characters  used  by  Mr.  Townsend  (loc. 


252  Annals  Entomological  Society  oj  America       [Vol.  VI, 

cit.)  for  the  erection  of  the  ten  supposedly  distinct  species  are 
shown  to  come  within  the  limits  of  variation  of  the  North 
American  species  of   Lucilia  as  recognized  by  Hough. 

NOTES  ON  THE  TYPES  AND  CO-TYPES  OF  LUCILIA  SPECIES  IN  THE 

.    U.   S.   NATIONAL  MUSEUM. 

The  following  notes  were  made  in  1911,  through  the  courtesy  of  the  U.  S.  N. 
Museum  authorities,  on  the  types  and  cotypes  of  Mr.  Townsend's  supposedly  new 
species  of  Lucilia.  In  some  cases  the  Taxonomy  of  Muscoidean  Flies,  Smithsonian 
Misc.  Col.,  Vol.  41,  No.  1803,  notes  refer  l^o  the  original  descriptions.  The  value 
of  certain  characters  employed  in  these  descriptions  is  discussed  in  the  preceding 
portion  of  this  paper. 

Lucilia  morilli.     Town. 
The  type  specimen  together  with  all  the  co-types  are  Pseu- 
dopyrellia  cornicina  Fab.     There   are  no  hypopleural  bristles 
and  the  fourth  vein  is  curved  and  not  angular. 

Lucilia  nigripalpis.     Town. 

The  type  specimen  must  be  referred  to  L.  sylvarum  Meig. 
The  width  of  front  is  slightly  less  than  one-third  head  width; 
the  palpi  are  blackish ;  the  first  segment  of  the  abdomen  is 
blackish;  on  the  second  segment  of  the  abdomen  there  is  a 
well  marked  pair  of  median  marginal  macrochaetae  quite  as 
strong  as  are  found  in  most  specimens  of  L.  sylvarum.  The 
abdomen  is  however  '  dented '  in  consequence  of  which  the 
macrochaetae  are  appressed  against  it  and  this  is  presumably 
the  reason  that  they  were  overlooked  by  the  author  of  the 
species;  there  is  a  weak  pair  of  extra  ocellar  bristles  just  posterior 
to  the  ocellar  triangle  and  quite  typical  of  sylvarum;  in  the 
comparative  lengths  of  the  apex  of  the  first  posterior  cell  and 
the  anterior  cross  vein  the  fly  is  typically  sylvarum. 

The  co-type  is  an  undeveloped  specimen  of  L.  sylvarum 
Meig;  the  head  characters  are  all  typical  except  in  the  color 
of  the  palpi  which  are  distinctly  brownish,  especially  toward 
the  base;  the  lower  side  however  of  the  abdomen  and  also  the 
legs  both  show  this  light  color  which  means  that  the  fly  was 
captured  soon  after  issuing;  toward  the  tip  the  palpi  become 
blackish  and  this  is  carried  down  one  fourth  distance  to  base; 
as  to  marginal  macrochaetae  on  the  abdomen  there  is  a  weak 
pair  on  the  second  segment  which  show  up  better  when  the 
fly  is  examined  from  the  dorsal  side;  when  the  specimen  is 
viewed  laterally  there  is  seen  to  be  one  other  bristle  near  the 
center  of  the  same  segment;  it  is  about  as  long  as  the  shorter 
of  the  central  pair  but  the  base  is  weaker. 


19131  Variation  in  the  Genus  Lucilia.  253 


Lucilia  angustifrons.     Town. 

The  type  specimen  is  a  cf  from  England  and  the  single 
co-type  is  a  9  from  Kaslo,  B.  C,  which  "seems  to  be  this 
form "  (Townsend,  Taxonomy  of  Muscoidean  Flies,  p.  120). 
An  examination  of  the  type  shows  that  a  third  and  anterior 
pair  of  postacrostichal  bristles  is  present;  at  the  same  time 
both  these  bristles  are  weaker  than  those  situated  posterior  to 
them  in  the  same  rows  and  moreover  the  bristle  on  one  side 
is  decidedly  less  strong  than  that  on  the  other  side  (the  one  on 
left  side  is  weaker).  This  is  the  only  character  that  separates 
the  fly  from  typical  L.  caesar  and  as  in  this  very  character 
there  is  an  irregularity  it  seems  highly  probable  that  the  pair 
of  bristles  is  nothing  but  a  sport  in  which  case  the  form  must 
be  referred  to  L.  caesar  Linn. 

As  to  the  single  co-type,  the  9  from  Kaslo,  this  fly  has 
two  postacrostichal  bristles  on  one  side  and  three  on  the  other 
with  the  anterior  one  weak;  the  fly  is  unquestionably  L.  caesar 
Linn. 

Lucilia  giraulti.     Town. 

One  cf  from  Paris,  Texas,  no  cotypes.  In  the  original 
description  of  this  species  (Townsend,  Taxonomy  of  MuvS- 
coidean  Flies,  p.  121)  there  is  only  one  character  mentioned 
that  would  separate  the  form  from  L.  sericata  Meig.  which  is 
that  "a  second  pair  of  ocellar  bristles  is  present."  Even 
were  this  so  the  character  would  be  insufficient  in  itself  as  the 
study  of  variation  for  L.  sericata,  brought  out  the  fact  that 
in  this  species  there  is  occasionally  developed  a  second  pair 
of  ocellar  bristles.  An  examination  of  the  specimen  itself 
however  shows  that  the  bristles  in  question  are  not  developed. 
The  fly  is  therefore  L.  sericata  Meig. 

Another  character  used  in  the  description  of  this  species 
is  the  position  of  the  postacrostichal  bristles  relative  to  the 
dorsocentrals.  The  study  in  variation  brought  out  the  fact 
that  this  character  has  no  determinative  value.  The  above 
specimen  is  badly  mutilated. 

Lucilia  barberi.     Tow^n. 

A  discussion  of  this  supposed  species  is  hardly  necessary. 
All  the  characters  employed  to  separate  the  form  are  met  with 


254  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

in  L.  sericata  Meig.  An  examination  of  the  type  specimen 
and  also  of  four  cotypes  shows  that  the  form  may  be  referred 
to  L.  sericata  Meig. 

Lucilia  unicolor. 

Five  9  specimens  from  New  Mexico,  Mexico  and  British 
Columbia.  They  are  all  L.  caesar  Linn.  The  second  pair 
of  ocellar  bristles  is  fairly  strong  in  the  type  specimen,  but  in  the 
co-types  there  is  variation  and  they  become  less  strong,  in  any 
case  all  come  within  the  limits  of  variation  of  L.  caesar. 

Lucilia  purpurea.     Town. 

There  is  no  character  in  the  description  of  this  form  which 
serves  to  separate  it  from  L.  caesar  Linn.  In  the  description 
it  is  stated  that  "the  whole  body  is  purplish,  strongly  violet 
tinged,  especially  in  the  9."  This  is  certainly  somewhat 
of  an  unusual  hue  for  caesar,  but  a  series  can  be  arranged  from 
the  U.  S.  N.  Museum  material  showing  all  gradations  from 
this  form  to  almost  pure  green.  An  examination  of  the  type 
and  co-type  shows  that  there  are  no  structural  characters 
separating  the  form  from  L.  caesar  and  the  name  purpurea 
Town,  must  therefore  sink. 

Lucilia  australis.     Town. 

Two  9  9  from  the  southern  states  and  one  cf  from  Alaska. 
The  type  and  one  co-type,  both  from  the  southern  states, 
must  be  referred  to  L.  pilatei.  Hough.  The  cf  from  Alaska 
agrees  with  L.  caesar  Linn,  in  everything  except  the  width  of 
front  which  appears  to  be  very  slightly  greater  than  in  L. 
caesar.  This,  however,  is  probably  partly  optical,  as  the  inner 
margins 'cf  the  eyes,  in  the  region  of  the  ocellar  triangle,  are 
blackish,  and  thus  appear  to  be  part  of  the  front. 

Lucilia  infuscata.     Town. 

From  the  description  (Townsend.  Taxonomy  of  Mus- 
coidean  Flies,  p.  123)  it  is  evident  that  the  cf  cf  are  L.  caesar 
Linn,  as  all  the  characters  enumerated  come  within  the  limits 
of  variation  of  that  species. 

The  9  9  of  which  there  are  six,  "can  be  told  from  caesar 
■only  by  the  narrower  front  and  darker  basal  segment."  As  to 
the  latter  of  these  characters  the  study  in  variation  for  L. 
caesar  brought  out  the  fact  that  in  that  species  the  first  segment 


1913]  Variation  in  the  Genus  Liicilia.  255 

of  the  abdomen  is  not  unicolorous  with  the  other  segments, 
but  darker.  As  to  the  former  character,  i.  e.,  the  'narrower 
front,'  the  more  general  condition  met  with  in  caesar  as  to 
width  of  front  is  less  than  one  third  head  width,  or  to  be  more 
specific  three  tenths  head  width;  inf^iscata  is  described  as  having 
the  front  two-sevenths  head  width  and  the  difference  between 
three-tenths  and  two-sevenths  is  one-seventieth,  which 
reduces  ,the  character  as  a  differentiating  one  to  an  absurdity. 

An  examination  of  the  type  and  co-type  bears  out  the 
above  remarks  and  proves  the  form  to  be  L.  caesar  Linn, 
with  the  exception  of  one  co-type  which  is  Phormia  regina 
Meig. 

Lucilia  oculata.     Town. 

Six  cf  cf  and  two  9  9  .  The  former  are  L.  caesar  Linn. 
and  the  latter  are  L.  pilatei  Hough.  The  author  of  oculata 
lays  stress  on  the  color  of  the  face  and  antennae,  which  are 
described  in  this  instance  as  brownish  yellow  instead  of  black. 
After  examining  the  U.  S.  N.  Museum  caesar  material  the 
writer  found  that  taking  three  specimens  from  England,  one 
from  Mexico  and  one  from  Connecticut  an  excellent  gradation al 
series  could  be  made,  showing  transition  from  black  to  light 
reddish  brown.  In  this  connection  it  may  be  stated  that  the 
late  Mr.  D.  W.  Coquillett  collected  a  specimen  of  L.  pilatei 
Hough,  in  Washington,  D.  C,  which  exhibits  some  remarkable 
colorational  features.  The  whole  fly  is  quite  light,  especially 
the  legs  and  venter,  but  it  is  distinctly  'shot'  with  green  and 
blue,  so  that  in  different  lights  it  takes  on  different  colors;  the 
parafacials  are  pale  reddish  yellow.  It  is  the  experience  of  the 
writer  that,  within  certain  limits,  the  earlier  a  specimen  of 
Lucilia  is  captured  after  issuance  the  lighter  will  be  the  color. 

The  synonymy  indicated  in  the  above  notes  on  the  types 
and  co-types  of  Lucilia  species  in  the  U.  S.  N.  Museum  may 
be  listed  as  follows; 


Luc 
Luc 
Luc 
Luc 
Luc 
Luc 


lia  morilli,  Town  =  Pseudopyrillia  comicina,  Fab. 

lia  nigripalpis  Town  =  Lucilia  sylvarum,  Meig. 

lia  angustifrons  Town  =  Lucilia  caesar,  Linn,  (abnormal  fly). 

lia  giraulti  Town  =  Lucilia  sericata  Meig. 

lia  barberi  Town  =  Lucilia  sericata  Meig. 

lia  unicolor  Town — Lucilia  csesar  Linn. 


Lucilia  purpurea  Town  =  Lucilia  cassar  Linn. 

Lucilia  australis  Town  =  Lucilia  caesar  Linn. 

Lucilia  infuscata  Town  =  Lucilia  caesar  Linn. 

Lucilia  infuscata  Town=  (1  cotype)  =  Phormia  regina  Meig. 

Lucilia  oculata  Town,  male  =  Lucilia  caesar  Linn. 

Lucilia  oculata  Town,  female  =  Lucilia  pilatei,  Hough. 


256  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

It  may  be  stated  that  Mr.  W.  R.  Thompson  and  the  late 
Mr.  D.  W.  Coquillett  examined  independently  the  above 
material  and  both  gentlemen  substantially  confirmed  the 
above  synonymy.  Before  leaving  the  subject  of  synonymy 
the  opportunity  may  be  taken  of  making  a  few  remarks  on 
some  species  listed  in  Aldrich's  catalogue  of  North  American 
Diptera.  As  regards  Lucilia  sylphida,  Bigot,  a  copy  of  the 
original  description  (Ann.  Soc.  Ent.  de  France  1877,  p.  45,) 
which  was  furnished  the  writer  through  the  courtesy  of  Prof. 
J.  M.  Aldrich,  is  as  follows: 

"17.  S.  Sylphida  female  (nov.  sp?). 
Viridi  metallico.  (Abdomen?)  Antenn.  segmento  3.0  secundo  quad- 
ruple longiore.  Alis,  vena  4a  usque  ad  apicem  primas  spinosa.  Cicatrice 
subhumerali  nigra.  Facie,  basi  tantum,  duobus  macrochaetis  munita. 
Antennis  palpisque  pallide  testaceis.  Fronte  grisea,  occipite  utrinque, 
obscure  asnescente,  vitta  nigra  apice  fulva,  facie  albida,  genis  palli- 
dissime  testaceis;  calyptris  albis;  alis  hyalinis  basi,  pallidissime  tes- 
taceus;  pedibus,  fusco-nigra,  femoribus,  extrinsecus,  parum  asneis. 
(L'abdomen  manquant,  est  cl  bien  une  espece  nouvelle?) " 

In  this  brief  description  mention  is  made  of  none  but  generic 
characters  and  these  in  a  most  general  way.  The  form  is 
probably  not  a  distinct  species,  but  this  can  only  be  ascertained 
by  an  examination  of  the  type.     As  to  some  of  the  other  species: 

Lucilia    mollis.    Walk. 
Hough  refers  doubtfully  to  Phormia  regina. 

Lucilia  rufipalpis,  Jaen. 
Hough  refers  to  Phormia  regina. 

Lucilia   nobilis,    Meig. 
Mr.  Austen,  of  the  British  Museum ,  writes  that  this  form 
is  now  generally  considered  to  be  synonymous  with  L.  sericata. 

Lucilia   sylphida,    Big. 
Probably  not  a  distinct  form. 

Lucilia  terr^-novae,    Des. 
Hough  refers  to  Phormia. 


OBSERVATIONS  ON  THE  CH^TOTAXY  OF 
CALLIPHORINAE.* 

By  Phineas  W.  Whiting. 
LUCILIA. 

In  his  "Synopsis  of  the  CalHphorinse  (Diptera)  of  the 
United  States"  (Zool.  Bull.  1899,  Vol.  11,  No.  6),  Garry  de 
Neuville  Hough  defines  our  species  of  Lucilia  as  follows: 

"Two  postacrosticals.  Front  of  male  linear,  of  female  one-third  as  wide  as  the 
head;  abdomen  unicolorous.     cazsar  L. 

"Front  of  male  not  linear,  at  narrowest  part  about  one-eighth  as  wide  as  the  head; 
front  of  female  about  one-fourth  as  wide  as  the  head;  abdomen  not  unicolor- 
ous, first  segment  and  hind  margins  of  second  and  third  blackish,  contrasting 
strongly  with  the  remainder  pilatei  nov.  sp.  [Hough] 

"Three  postacrostalis.  Palpi  black;  front  of  male  very  narrow,  that  of  female 
about  one-third  as  wide  as  the  head;  abdomen  with  two  stout  marginal 
macrochsetas  on  the  second  abdominal  segment.  syl varum  Meig. 

"Palpi  yellow;  front  of  male  varies  from  one-eighth  to  one-sixth  as  wide  as  the 
head,  that  of  female  about  one-third  as  wide  as  the  head;  second  abdominal 
segment   without   marginal   macrochastse.  sericata  Meig." 

Moreover,  he  says,  "The  chastotaxy  is  invariable  for  each 
species  except  for  an  occasional  evident  deformity,  and  it 
differs  in  the  different  species  only  in  the  number  of  achrostical 
bristles." 

Observations  w^ere  made  on  this  subfamily  during  the  past 
season  and  especial  attention  was  given  to  the  matter  of  cheeto- 
taxy  in  Lucilia.  Thus  some  estimate  may  be  obtained  of 
the  extent  of  deformity  as  it  occurs  in  nature.  Female  flies 
of  this  genus,  moreover,  were  obtained  alive  and  set  in  cages 
containing  fish,  in  order  that  their  offspring  might  be  obtained 
for  the  purpose  of  studying  the  range  of  variation  in  the  progeny 
of  the  separate  females.  Each  family  probably  represents 
the  offspring  of  several  males  as  copulation  is  frequent.  The 
bristles  studied  comprise  only  the  achrosticals  and  the  dorso- 
centrals  posterior  to  the  transverse  suture  of  the  thorax,  with 
the  exception  that  in  L.  sylvarum  the  marginal  bristles  on  the 
second  abdominal  segment  were  recorded  as  they  showed 
considerable  divergence  from  the  normal  condition  recorded  by 
Hough  and  are  regarded  as  a  specific  character. 

*Contributions  from  the  Entomological  Laboratory  of  the  Bussey  Institution, 
Harvard  University,  No.  67. 

257 


258  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

The  post-sutural  dorso-centrals  and  achrosticals  in  L. 
sericata  form  a  group  of  twelve  in  four  rows  of  three  each  as 
shown  in  the  diagram  (Fig.  1).  This  arrangement  is  recorded 
as  3,  3,  3,  3,  the  separation  into  rows  being  denoted  by 
commas. 


Fig.  1.  Thorax  of  Calliphora  viridescens  to  show 
typical  arrangement  of  post  sutural  bristles. 
1.  Transverse  suture.  2.  Supra-alar  bristles. 
3.  Intra-alar  bristles.  4.  Dorso-central  bristles. 
5.  Post  acrostical  bristles.    6.  Scutellar suture. 

When  one  or  two  of  the  anterior  bristles  of  a  row  are  omitted, 
the  row  is  denoted  by  2  or  1  respectively. 

In  order  to  denote  the  omission  of  the  second  or  third  bristle 
when  those  anterior  to  it  are  not  omitted,  the  -normal  positions 
of  the  bristles  are  recorded  as  a,  b,  and  c,  from  anterior  to 
posterior.  Thus  a  row  lacking  the  second  bristle  would  be 
called  ac. 

Addition  of  a  supernumerary  bristle  into  a  row  is  denoted  by 
!  inserted  in  the  proper  position  between  or  in  front  of  the 
letters  denoting  the  normal  bristles.  Thus  addition  of  a  bristle 
in  front  of  a  row  would  be  expressed  by  calling  the  row  !abc. 
But  in  some  cases  the  number  of  bristles  alone  was  recorded 
for  each  row  and  the  row  was  called  4  or  5,  according  to  whether 
'  one  or  two  bristles  were  added. 

Insertion  of  a  supernumerary  bristle  between  the  normal 
rows  is  denoted  by  parentheses  enclosing  a,  b,  or  c,  according 
to  the  position  of  the  bristle  from  anterior  to  posterior.  Thus 
a  definition  as  3,  (a),  3,  3,  3,  would  denote  the  addition  of  a 
bristle  between  the  first  left  post-dorso- central  and  the  first 
left  post-achrostical. 

Additional  bristles  are  usually  smaller  than  the  normal, 
but  range  all  the  way  from  microchaetse  to  the  size  of  the 
normal  macrochaet£e.     A  small  bristle  is  denoted  by  italics. 

The  records  of  wild  files  are  first  noted,  and  these  are  fol- 
lowed by  an  account  of  the  breeding  experiments. 


1913]  Observations  on  Chcetotaxy  of  Calliphorinae.  259 

On  July  29  the  following  were  taken  at  meat  near  the 
Bussey  Institution,  Forest  Hills,  Mass. 

L.  sericata:        277  individuals— 3,  3,  3,  3.  1  d^     —3,  3,  ab,  3. 

1  9     —5,  3,  3,  4.  1  9     —3,  2,  2,  4. 

4  9  9—3,  2,  2,  3.  2  9  9—3,  3,  2,3  . 

2  9  9—3,  3,  3,  4.  19     —3,  4,  3,  3. 
1  9     —3,  3,  4,  3.  1  cf     —3,  2,  3,  3. 

The  frequent  lack  of  anterior  post-achrosticals  either  on  one 
or  on  both  sides  is  interesting  as  it  denotes  approach  toward 
L.  caesar.  The  general  habitus,  however,  is  typical  sericata. 
A  single  specimen  of  caesar  taken  in  this  lot  was  3,  ahc,  ahc,  3. 
Thus  it  appears  that  chaetotaxy  alone  cannot  be  relied  upon  to 
determine  the  species  with  certainty.  This  will  appear  from 
the  following  observations  and  even  more  clearly  from  the 
breeding  experiments. 

On  Aug.  5,  at  meat  at  Bussey  Institution,  were  taken: 

L.  sericata:        311  indidivuals — 3,  3,  3,  3.  1  cf — 3,  ac,  3,  3. 

1  c^— 3,  3,  2,  3.  1  9—3,  3,  2,  3. 

1  9—3,  3,  ac,  3. 
L.  ccEsar:  1  9—3,  2,  2,  3. 

L.  sylvarum:      1  9 — 3,  3,  3,  3,  with  two  bristles  on  margin  of  second  abdom- 
inal segment  (for  brevity  written  2  ab.  br.) 

On  Aug.  6,  at  meat  at  Bussey  Institution,  were  taken: 

L.  sericata:        68—3,  3,  3,  3.  1  0^-3,  2,  3,  3. 

On  Aug.  8,  at  the  garbage  scow,  Boston,  were  taken  at  meat: 

L.  sericata:        955  individuals — 3,  3,  3,  3.  1  cf     — 3,  3,  ac,  3. 

1  cf     —3,  ac,  3,  3.  1  cf     —3,  3,  2,  3. 

2  o'cf- 3,  ab  !  c,  3,  3.  19  —3,  abc,  3.  3. 
1  9  —3,  1,  2,  3.  19  —3,  ac,  ac,  3. 
1"  9     —4,  3,  3,  4.  19     —3,  3,  4,  4. 

1  9     —3,  4,  3,  3.  19     —3,  2,  1,  3. 

5  9  9—3,  ac,  3,  3.  2  9  9—3,  a6c,  3,  3. 

3  9  9—3,  3,  ac,  3.  3  9  9—3,3,2,3. 

4  9  9—3,  2,  3,  3. 

Flies  having  the  habitus  of  cassar  were  as  follows: 

5  cf  0^-3,  2,  2,  3.  9  9  9—3,2,2,3. 
1  9     —3,  abc,  2,  3. 

On  Aug,  9  at  a  short  distance  from  Bussey  Institution  on  leaves  near  a  pond  the 
following  were  taken: 
L.  sericata:        1  cf     — 3,  3,  3,  3. 
L.  caesar:  1  9     —3,  2,  2,  3. 

L.  sylvarum:      2  cf  cf — 3,  3,  3,  3,  with  2  ab.  br. 

1  cf     —3,  3,  2,  3,  with  2  ab.  br. 

4  9  9—3,  3,  3,  3,  ab.  br.  lacking. 

On  Aug.  10  at  same  place  the  following  were  taken  at  meat: 

L.  sericata:        4  cf  cf— 3,  3,  3,  3.  100  9  9—3,  3,  3,  3. 

2  9  9—3,  2,  2,  3.  2  9  9—3,  a  /  be,  3,  3. 
1  9     —3,  (a),  3,  3,  3. 

L.ccesar:  3  cf  cf— 3,  2,  2,  3.  20  9  9—3,2,2,3. 

L.  sylvarum:      1  cf     — 3,  3,  3,  3,  with  2  ab.  br. 
1  9     —3,  3,  3,  3,  with  2  ab.  br. 
An  indeterminate  cf  Lucilia — 3,  abc,  abc,  3. 


260  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

On  Aug.  12,  at  same  place  on  leaves  were  taken: 
L.  sericata:         1   9     — 3,  3,  3,  3. 
L.  sylvarum:    14  cTcf — 3,  3,  3,  3,  with  2  ab.  br. 

2  c?cf— 3,  3,  3,  3,  with  3  ab.  br. 

1  cf  '  —3,  3,  3,  3,  with  4  ab.  br. 

1  d"     —3,  3,  a  /  be,  3,  with  2  ab.  br. 

1  9     —3,  3,  a  .'  be,  3,  with  2  weak  ab.  br. 

On  Aug.  14,  at  same  place,  on  leaves  were  taken: 
L.  sericata:      '19     — 3,  3,  3,  3. 
L.  ccBsar:  4  9  9—3,  2,  2,  3. 

L.  sylvarum:      5  cfcf — 3,  3,  3,  3,  with  2  ab.  br. 

1  cf     —3,  3,  2,  3,  with  3  ab.  br. 

2  d'cf— 3,  3,  3,  3,  with  4  ab.  br. 

1  &     —3,  a  ./  be,  ab  !  c,  3,  with  2  ab.  br. 

3  9  9—3,  3,  3,  3,  ab.  br.  lacking. 

And  at  meat: 

L.  ccesar:  2  d'o"- 3,  2,  2,  3. 

21  9  9—3,  2,  2,  3. 

L.  sericata:        6  cf  cf — 3,  3,  3,  3. 

225  9  9—3,  3,  3,  3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  3,  .'  abc. 

2  9  9—3,  a./ be,  3,  3. 
1  9  —3,  3,  a  ./  be,  3. 
1  9     —3,  ac,  3,  3. 

L.  sylvarum:      1  9     — 3,  3,  /  abc,  3,  with  2  weak  ab.  br. 

On  Aug.  15,  in  meadow  near  Bussey  Institution  were  taken  at  meat: 
L.  ccBsar:  1  d'     —3,  2,  2,  3. 

L.  sericata:        8  cf  0^-3,  3,  3,  3. 
145  9  9—3,  3,  3,  3. 
1  9     —3,  3,  3,  ./  abc. 
19     —3,  a  .'  be,  3,  3. 
19     —Si!  be,  3,  3,  3. 
1  9     —3,  3,  a  .'  be,  3. 

On  Aug.  29,  at  Hartland,  Vt.,  by  the  bank  of  the  Connecticut  River  at  some 
distance  from  any  house  were  taken  at  meat: 
L.  ccesar:  1  c?     —3,2,2,3.  32  9  9—3,2,2,3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  2,  3. 
L.  sylvarum:      3  9  9 — 3,  3,  3,  3,  with  2  well  developed  ab.  br. 

On  Oct.  17,  at  garbage  scow,  Boston,  were  taken  at  meat: 


sericata: 

28  cfc?— 3,  3,  3,  3. 

351  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

1  o^     —3,  2,  2,  3. 

1  d"     —3,  3,  2,  3. 

1  9     —3,  2,  2,  3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  2,  3. 

1  9     —3,  2,  abc,  3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  ac,  3. 

1  9     —3,  ac,  ac,  3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  3,  ab  /  c, 

1  9     — .'  abc,  3,  3, 

/  abc. 

In  all  cases  habitus  rather  than  chaetotaxy  has  been  taken  as 
the  criterion  of  specific  determination,  and  this  I  believe  to  be 
more  reliable  on  account  of  my  breeding  experiments.  By 
habitus  I  mean  general  coloration  and  slight  differences  of 
form  which  would  be  very  hard  to  define  verbally.  The  width 
of  the  front  is  also  important  here.  The  habits  are  also  some- 
what different,  as  may  be  seen  from  the  observations.  L. 
sylvarum  appears  to  be  the  wildest  form,  being  without  excep- 


1913]  Observations  on  Chcetotaxy  of  Calliphonnae.  261 

tion  taken  at  some  distance  from  buildings.  Sericata  is  more 
commonly  present  either  inside  or  very  near  buildings,  while 
caesar  may  be  taken  in  either  situation,  but  more  frequently 
along  with  sylvarum.  It  would  be  of  considerable  interest  to 
study  the  distribution  of  these  species  over  a  more  extensive 
area. 

In  order  to  get  an  approximate  estimation  of  the  percentage 
of  individuals  abnormal  in  chaetotaxy,  I  have  added  the  seri- 
catas  and  find  them  as  follows: 

Normal — 2,479  individuals.  Abnormal  by  reduction — 47 
individuals  or  2  %.  Abnormal  by  addition — 23  individuals  or 
1%.  Abnormal  by  reduction  and  addition — ■  1  9  — 3,2,  2,  4,  or 
.04%. 

The  variants  by  reduction  are  here  10  cf  d^  and  37  9  9 , 
while  the  variants  by  addition  are  2  cf  cf  and  22  9  9  .  The 
excess  of  females  is  of  course  due  to  the  fact  that  the  flies  were 
taken  at  meat. 

Some  of  the  flies  were  bred  to  show  the  character  of  the 
progeny,  and  these  showed  results  as  follows: 

L.  sylvarum:  9     — 3,  3,  a  .'  be,  3,  with  2  very  small  ab.  br.,  taken  by  pond 

near  Bussey,  Aug.  12,  gave  all  females  in  progeny  as  follows: 
9  9  9—3,  3,  3,  3,  ab.  br.  lacking. 

2  9  9—3,  3,  3,  3,  with  2  small  ab.  br. 
1  9     — 3,  !  abc,  3,  3,  ab.  br.  lacking. 

3  9  9—3,  3,  a  /  be,  3,  ab.  br.  lacking. 

1  9     — 3,  .'  abc,  !  abc,  3,  ab.  br.  lacking. 
This  suggests  that  an  extra  post-sutural  bristle  may  be  inherited. 
L.  ccEsar: 

9—3,  2,  2,  3,  from  Bussey  Pond,  Aug.  14,  gave  18  d'd'—S,  2,  2,  3. 

13  9  9—3,  2,  2,  3.  1  cf— 3,  b,  2,  3. 

9—3,  2,  2,  3,  from  Bussey  Pond,  Aug.  10,  gave  13   9  9—3,  2,  2,  3.  No 
males. 
L.  sericata: 

9 — 3,3,  3,  3,  from  Bussey  Institution,  July,  gave 
51  cfcT- 3,  3,  3,  3. 

35  9  9—3,  3,  3,  3.  1  9—3,  3,  a!  be,  3. 

9 — 3,  3,  3,  3,  from  Bussey  Institution,  Aug.  5,  gave 

71  d^c^— 3,  3,  3,  3.  59  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

3  cTcf- 3,  3,  a./ be,  3.     '  2  cf  cf— 3,  a  .' be,  3,  3. 

1  cf     —3,  a  .'  be,  a  !  be,  3.  19     —3,  a  !  be,  3,  3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  a  .'  be,  3. 
9 — 3,  8,  3,  3,  from  Bussey  Institution,  July,  gave 


32  d'd'—S,  3,  3,  3. 

32  9  9- 

-3,  3,  3,  3. 

3  9  9— .'abc,  3,  3,  .'abc. 

1  9     —!  abc,  .'  abc,  3,  .'  abc. 

1  9     —3,  !  abc,  .'  a  !  be,  3. 

1  9     —.'abc,  3,  3,  (a),  3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  .'  abc,  3. 

1  c^     - 

-3,  3,  ac,  3. 

1  d"     —!  abe,  3,  3,  .'  abc. 

1  d"     - 

-3,  (c),  3,  3,  3. 

1  d"     —3,  3,  2,  3. 

1  o^     - 

-3,  3,  3,  /  abc. 

262  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI^ 

9 — 3,  3,  3,  3,  from  Bussey  Institution,  July,  gave 


78  cfc?— 3,  3,  3,  3. 

110  9  9—3,  3,  3,  3. 

1  c^     —3,  3,  ab,  3. 

1  d'     —3,  2,  ac,  3. 

4  cfd'— 3,  2,  3,  3. 

1  d"     —3,  2,  2,  3. 

1  c^     —3,  (a),  3,  3,  3. 

1  d     —3,  a  /  be,  a  /  be,  3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  ac,  3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  3,  /  abc. 

1  9     — /  abc,  3,  3,  /  abc. 

1  9     — /  abe,  3,  3,  3. 

1  9     —3,  a /be,  3,  3. 
9 — 3,  3,  3,  3,  from  Bussey,  July,  gave:* 

30  cf(^— 3,  3,  3,  3.  34  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

1  d     —3,  ac,  3,  3. 

2  9  9 — 3,  3,  3,  3,  taken  at  Bussey  Institution,  gave: 

191  0^0^-3,  3,  3,  3.  203  9  9—3,  3,  3,  3. 

2  d^  cf  — 3,  ac,  3,  3.  3  rf'c?'— 3,  2,  3,  3. 

2  cf  d'— 3,  3,  2,  3.  \&     — 3,  ab,  3,  3. 

1  cf     —3,  3,  ac,  3.  1  9     —3,  2,  2,  3. 

1  &     —3,  ac,  2,  3. 
1  9 — 3,  3,  3,  3,  from  Bussey  Institution,  Nov.  20,  gave: 

124  cf  0^—3,  3,  3,  3.  118  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  2,  3.  1  o^— 3,  2,  3,  3. 

1  d     —3,  ac,  3,  3. 

1  9     — 3,  3,  3,  3,  from  Bussey  Institution,  Nov.  18,  gave: 

25  c^ d^— 3.  3,  3,  3.  34  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

2  9  9—3,  3,  ac,  3.  1  9—3,  ac,  3,  3. 

19     — 3,  a  /  be,  3,  3.  I  &     —a  .'  be,  3,  3,  3. 

1  9 — 3,  3,  3,  3,  from  scow,  Boston,  Aug.  8,  gave: 

17  c? 0^—3,  3,  3,  3.  19  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  a  /  be,  3. 

Thus  the  progeny  of  normal  9  9  (3,  3,  3,  3.)  show  consider- 
able variation,  and  it  is  readily  observed  that  this  variation 
tends  in  some  cases  to  reduction  of  bristles,  in  other  cases  to- 
addition  of  bristles,  while  both  tendencies  may  be  observed  in 
the  same  family.  Taking  the  totals  of  these  families  we  have 
normal  cf  cf  589,  normal  9  9  410,  variants  by  addition,  12  cf  cT 
and  16  9  9;  and  variants  by  reduction,  21  cf  cf'  and  699. 
This  gives  2.6%  variants  by  addition  and  2.5%  variants  by 
reduction. 

Let  us  now  consider  the  families  of  L.  sericata  produced  by 
mothers  abnormal  by  reduction. 

d  and  9' — 3,  3,  2,  3,  taken  at  scow,  Boston,  Oct.  17,  put  in  same  box,  gave: 
13  d^ c?— 3,  3,  3,  3.  8  9  9—3,3,3.3. 

1  d     —3,  3,  2,  3.  1  d^     —3,  ac,  3,  3: 

1  d     —3,  ac,  ac,  3.  1  d     —3,  3,  2,  3. 

2  9  9—3,  2,  3,  3, 

9—3,  2,  3,  3,  taken  at  scow,  Boston,  Aug.  8,  gave: 

32  d' d'— 3,  3,  3,  3.  22  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

1  d     —3,  ac,  3,  3.  la"     —3,  3,  ac,  3. 

1  d     —3,  3,  ab,  3.  1  d     —3,  2,  3,  3. 

1  d     —3,  ac,  2,  3. 


*By  reason  of  an  imperfection  in  the  technique  at  this  point,  this  culture  may 
have  been  contaminated  from  flies  outside.  The  results  are  therefore,  not 
averaged  in  with  the  total. 


1913]  Observations,  o?i  Chcetotaxy  of  Calliphorinae.  263 

9—3,  3,  ac,  3,  from  scow,  Boston,  Aug.  8,  gave  12  0^0^—3,  3,  3,  3. 

15  9  9—3,  3,  3,  3. 
9 — 3,  ac,  2,  3,  from  Bussey  Institution,  July,  gave: 

18  cfcf— 3,  3,  3,  3.  8  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

9 — 3,' 2,  3,  3,  from  scow,  Boston,  Aug.  8,  gave: 

10  d'cf— 3,  3,  3,  3.  14  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

1  cf     —3,  3,  2,  3.  Id'     —3,  ac,  3,  3. 

1  9     — 3,  ac,  ac,  3. 
9—3,  2,  1,  3,  from  scow,  Boston,  Aug.  8,  gave  10  d'c?'— 3,  3,  3,  3.   12  9  9  — 
3,  3,  3,  3.    This  family  was  continued  into  the  third  generation  and 
will  be  considered  below. 
9 — 3,  ac,  3,  3,  from  scow,  Boston,  Aug.  8,  gave: 

7  cfcf— 3,  3,  3,  3.  7  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

19     — 3,  3,  a  /  be,  3. 

Taking  the  totals  of  these  families  of  females  deficient  in 
bristles  we  find  normal  cf  6^102,  normal  9  9  86,  variants  by 
reduction  10  cf  cf  and  4  9  9,  variants  by  addition,  1  9 .  Thus 
from^these  rather  small  numbers  we  see  the  variants  by  re- 
duction are  7%,  while  the  variants  by  addition  are  0.5%. 

I  Let  us  consider  now  the  progeny  of  females  abnormal  by 
addition  of  bristles. 

9 — /  abc,  3,  3,  !  abc,  from  scow,  Boston,  Oct.  17,  gave: 

30  o^cf— 3,  3,  3,  3.  219  9—3,3,3,3. 

1  d'     —3,  (a),  3,  3,  (a),  3. 
9 — 3,  3,  3,  ab  !  c,  from  scow,  Boston,  Oct.  17,  gave: 

9  cfcf— 3,  3,  3,  3.  20  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

1  &     —3,  3,  3,  (a),  3.      .  1  cf     —3,  ac,  3,  3. 

1  9     — 3,  ac,  ac,  3. 
9 — 3,  3,  a  /  be,  .'  abc,  from  scow,  Boston,  Aug.  8,  gave:  • 

40  cfcf— 3,  3,  3,  3.  32  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

3  &&—Z  a  !  be,  3,  3.  1  cf— 3,  3,  a  !  be,  3. 

1  cf— 3,  (a),  3,  3,  3.  1  d'     —3,  ac,  ac,  3. 

19     — 3,  3,  a  .' b  .' c,  3.  2  9  9—3,  a  !  be,  3,  3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  ac,  3.  1  9     —3,  ab,  3,  3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  2,  3.  19     —3,  ac,  3,  3. 

9 — a  /  be,  a  .'  be,  3,  3,  from  scow,  Boston,  Aug.  8,  gave: 

75  c^c^— 3,  3,  3,  3.  52  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

1  c^     —3,  3,  a  .'  be,  3.  1  cf     — 3  (a),  3,  3,  3. 

1  o"     —3,  a /be,  3,  3.  2  9  9—3,  a  .' be,  3,  3. 

2  9  9— 3,  3,  a.' be,  3.  19     —3,  3,  3,  a  /  be. 

Taking  the  totals  of  these  families  of  females  abnormal  by 
addition  of  bristles  we  find  normal  cf  cf  154,  normal  9  9  125, 
variants  by  reduction,  2  cf'  cf  and  5  9  9;  variants  by  addition, 
10  cf  cf  and  8  9  9.  Thus  the  variants  by  reduction  are  2.3% 
while  the  variants  by  addition  are  6%. 

From  the  averages  of  the  reared  stock  we  see  there  is  a 
tendency  to  vary  both  toward  reduction  and  toward  addition  of 
bristles  and  that  this  tendency  is  evidently  of  a  hereditary 
character,  the  mean  being  shifted  in  the  direction  of  the  parental 
abnormality. 


264  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI^ 

The  female  of  L.  sericata  (3,  2,  1,  3.)  taken  at  the  garbage 
scow,  Boston,  August  8,  gave  as  above  recorded  10  cf  cf-3,  3,  3,  3, 
and  12  9  9-3,  3,  3,  3.  Three  pairs  of  these  were  segregated 
and  gave  offspring  as  follows: 


1st  pair  gave: 

10  d'd'- 

-3,  3,  3,  3. 

7  9  9- 

-3,  3,  3,  3. 

2d  pair  gave: 

42  d'd'- 

-3,  3,  3,  3. 

39  9  9- 

-3,  3,  3,  3. 

1  &     - 

-ac,  3,  3,  ac. 

2  c^d^- 

-3,  !  abc,  3,  3, 

1  &     - 

-3,  2,  3,  3. 

1  9     - 

-3,  ac,  ac,  3. 

1  9     - 

-3,  ac,  3,  3. 

3d  pair  gave: 

55  cfcf- 

-3,  3,  3,  3. 

62  9  9- 

-3,  3,  3,  3. 

7  &&- 

-3,  2,  2,  3. 

1  9     - 

-3,  2,  2,  3. 

2  cfcf- 

-3,  3,  2,  3. 

3  9  9- 

-3,  2,  3,  3. 

1  cf     - 

-3,  3,  3,  ac. 

1  9     - 

-3,  abc,  3.  3. 

1  ^     - 

-3,  a  !  be,  3,  3. 

1  9     - 

-3,  abc,  2,  3. 

i  9    - 

-2,  3,  3,  3. 

1  9     - 

-3,  3,  ac,  3. 

1  9     - 

-3,  ab,  3,  3. 

Of  the  progeny  of  the  first  pair  1  cf-3,  3,  3,  3,  was  mated 
to  2  9  9-3,  3,  3,  3,  and  produced  offspring  as  follows: 
163  0^0^—3,3,3,3.  170  9  9—3,3,3,3. 


2  c?cr^— 3,  ac,  3,  3. 

2  9  9- 

—3,  ae,  3,  3. 

2  o"cf— 3,  3,  ac,  3. 

1  9     - 

-2,  3,  3,  3. 

1  c^     —3,  3,  2,  3. 

1  9     - 

— ac,  3,  3,  2. 

1  cf     — With  very  few  scat- 

1 9     - 

-ac,  3,  2,  0. 

tered  bristles. 

1  9     - 

— ab,  3,  ab,  6c. 

1  d^     — 3,  a  !  be,  3,  3. 

2  9  9- 

-3,  a  !  be,  3,  3. 

1  cf     —3,  3,  a  !  be,  3. 

2  9  9- 

-3,  3,  a  !  be,  3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  a  !  be,  3. 

1  9     - 

— .'  abc,  3,  3,  /  abc, 

19     — a  !  be,  3,  3,  3. 

Of  the  progeny  of  the  second  pair  1  cf-3,  3,  3,  3,  was  mated 
to  1  9-3,  3,  3,  3,    and  produced  the  following: 

92  0^6^—3,3,3,3.  85  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

2  0^0^-3,  a!   be,  a  !  be,  3.  5  0^0^-3,  a  !  be,  3,  3. 

4  0^6^-3,  3,  a  !  be,  3.  3  9  9—3,  a  !  be,  3,  3. 

1  9     —3,  3,  a  .'  be,  3.  1  9     —3,  ac,  3,  3. 

If  we  take  the  totals  of  this  inbred  stock  we  find  them  as 
follows : 

362  cfd'— 3,  3,  3,  3.  363  9  9—3,  3,  3,  3. 

By  reduction,  18  d'cf  and  18  9  9  or  5%. 
By  addition,  16  cT'cT  and  11  9  9  or  3.7%. 

In  the  spring  of  1912  a  few  specimens  of  Calliphora  vomi- 
toria  L.  and  C.  viridescens  Desv.  were  taken  at  Cambridge 
and  C.  erythrocephala  Meig  was  common  all  through  the  sum- 
mer. In  the  fall  vomitoria  and  viridescens  appeared  in  consider- 
able numbers  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Bussey  Institution.     The 


1913]  Observations  on  Chcetotaxy  of  Calliphorinae.  265 

records  of  chaetotaxy  of  the  wild  Calliphorae  that  was  taken 
at  Bussey  are  as  follows.  The  bristles  observed  are  the  post- 
achrosticals  and  post-dorso-centrals  as  in  Lucilia. 

C.  erythrocephala: 

33  cf  c?— 3,  3,  3,  3.  «       134  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

19     — 3,  3,  a  !  be,  3.  1  9     —2,  3,  3,  3. 
C.  vomitoria: 

2  cfcf— 3,  3,  3,  3.  54  9  9—3,3,3,3. 
C.  viridescens: 

219  9—3,3,3,3.  19     — 3,  ab,  3,  3. 

These  records  show  3  abnormals  out  of  247,  but  the  ratio 
is  not  very  significant  as  the  numbers  are  very  small. 

The  records  of  breeding  Calliphorae  show  rather  interesting 
results. 

A  9  erythrocephala — 3,  3,  3,  3,  gave: 

54  c^ d^— 3,  3,  3,  3.  47  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

2  cf  cf— 3,  a  !bc,  3,  3. 

One  of  these  abnormal  males  was  mated  to  his  sister  and  the 
pair  gave  the  following  offspring: 

131  c^cf— 3.  3,  3,  3.  86  9  9—3,3,3,3. 
1  cf     —3,  (c),  3,  3,  3.  19     —3,  a  !  be,  aabc,  3. 

4  cf  d"— 3,  a  !  be,  3,  3.  5  9  9—3,-3,  a  !  be.  3. 

1  d"     —3,  a  !  be,  a  !  be,  3.  1  9     —3,  3,  3,  ab. 

8  cfd'— 3,  3,  a  !  be,  3. 

1  d"    —3,  ab,  3,  3. 

Another  wild  9  erythrocephala — 3,  3,  3,  3,  gave: 

80  d'c^— 3,  3,  3,  3.  74  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

Another  wild  9  erythrocephala — 3,  3,  3,  3,  gave: 

97  c^cf— 3,  3,  3,  3.  97  9  9—3,  3,  3,  3. 

2  9  9—3,  3,  ac,  3. 

A  9  vomitoria — 3,  3,  3,  3,  gave: 

47  cfc?— 3,  3,  3,  3.  64  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

4  cfcf— 3,  ac,  3,  3.  4  9  9—3,  ae,  3,  3. 

2  o'cf— 3,  3,  ac,  3.  4  9  9—3,  3,  ae,  3. 
1  o"     —3,  3,  ab,  3.  19     —3,  2,  3,  3. 

1  cT     —3,  3,  2,  3. 
Another  9  vomitoria — 3,  3,  3,  3,  gave: 

32  c^d^— 3,  3,  3,  3.  64  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

Id'     — ab,  3,  3,  3,  2  d'd'— 3,  a  !  be,  3.  3. 

1  <d    —3,  2,  3,  3.  1  9—3,  ./  abe,  .'  abe,  3. 

1  &     —3,  2,  2,  3. 
A  9  viridesceyis — 3,  3,  3,  3,  gave: 

5  cfd^— 3,  3,  3,  3.  5  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

1  (^     —3,  2,  3,  3.  19     —3,  ac,  3,  3. 

Another  9  viridescens — 3,  ab,  3,  3,  gave: 

4  d'd'— 3,  3,  3,  3.  6  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

1  d^     — 3,  ac,  ae,  3. 
The  totals  of  the  bred  stock  for  the  three  species  are: 

450  c^d'— 3,  3,  3,  3.  443  9  9—3,3,3,3. 

By  reduction  14  d'd'  and  4  9  9  ,  or  2%;  by  addition  18  d'd"  and  12  9  9  or  3%. 


266 


Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


In  the  course  of  collecting  Calliphorse  four  specimens  were 
obtained  which  I  was  unable  to  classify  as  belonging  to  any  one 
of  the  three  species  common  in  Massachusetts.  They  appeared 
like  inter-grades  between  erythrocephala  and  viridescens . 

One  small  sized  male  had  the  beard  black,  the  right  cheek 
dark  red,  and  the  left  cheek  somewhat  lighter  in  color.  The 
right  cheek  was  dark  enough  to  place  the  specimen  as  viridescens 
but  the  left  cheek  resembled  that  of  erythrocephala.  One  small 
and  two  large  sized  females  answer  also  to  the  same  description. 
In  all  four  cases  the  right  cheek  is  considerably  darker  then  the 
left.  The  flies  were  examined  by  Mr.  C.  W.  Johnson  who  was 
unable  to  classify  them. 

The  meaning  of  these  forms  is  uncertain  and  I  should  not 
feel  justified  in  advancing  an  hypothesis  without  first  performing 
breeding  experiments  with  them. 

SUMMARY    AND     CONCLUSIONS. 

A  number  of  meat  flies  of  the  Calliphorine  genera,  Lucilia 
and  Calliphora,  were  collected  during  the  summer  and  fall  of 
1912  and  observations  were  made  on  the  range  of  variation  in 
the  chaetotaxy.  The  bristles  studied  were  the  post-sutural 
achrosticals  and  dorso-centrals  of  the  thorax.  Breeding  ex- 
periments were  also  performed  in  order  to  study  the  range 
of  variation  in  the  individual  families. 

Especial  attention  was  given  to  Lucilia  sericata.  The 
following  table  gives  the  general  results  of  the  work  on  this 
species. 


Normal 

Abnormal  by  reduct'n 

Abnormal  by  addition 

Wild  Flies  Captured 

2,479 

Number 
47 

Percentage 
2 

Number 
23 

Percentage 
1 

cfc? 

9  9 

cfc^ 

9  9 

c^d^ 

9  9 

Progeny  of  normal   9  9 

589 

410 

21 

6 

2.5 

12 

16 

2.6 

Progeny  of   9  9   abnor- 
mal by  reduction 

102 

86 

10 

4 

7 

0 

1 

0.5 

Progeny  of   9  9   abnor- 
l4_  mal  by  addition 

154 

125 

2 

5 

2.3 

10 

8 

6 

1913]  Observations  on  Chcetotaxy  of  Calliphorinae.  267 

As  regards  the  wild  flies  captured  it  will  be  observed 
that  there  are  twice  as  many  abnormal  by  reduction  as  there 
are  abnormal  by  addition.  Too  much  importance  should 
not  be  attached  to  this  fact,  as  it  may  be  due  toian  error.  In 
a  few  cases  there  is  reduction  in  the  size  of  the  bristle  normally 
present,  but  as  a  general  thing  there  is  no  reduction  unless  the 
bristle  is  entirely  absent.  On  the  other  hand  a  very  small 
bristle  is  frequently  added  and  it  is  more  rarely  the  case  that 
a  supernumerary  bristle  is  of  the  full  size.  In  looking  over 
a  large  number  of  flies  rapidly,  one  would  then  have  a  tendency 
to  overlook  the  presence  of  the  small  additional  bristle  and 
to  record  more  reduction  than  addition  in  number.  As  these 
flies  were  examined  for  the  purpose  of  finding  breeding  material, 
careful  attention  was  not  given  to  this  matter  and  I  am  inclined 
to  consider  the  normal  range  of  variation  to  be  somewhat  above 
two  per  cent  both  in  the  direction  of  reduction  and  in  the  di- 
rection of  addition.  This  equality  of  variation  in  both  directions 
is  seen  in  the  progeny  of  normal  females.  In  the  progeny  of 
females  abnormal  by  reduction  and  of  females  abnormal  by 
addition,  the  variation  of  the  offspring  is  seen  to  tend  in  the 
direction  of  the  parental  abnormality. 

A  single  female  lacking  three  bristles,  (3,  2,  1,  3),  gave  ten 
males  and  twelve  females  of  normal  chaetotaxy.  Three  pairs 
of  these  gave  215  normal  flies,  23  abnormal  by  reduction,  aind  3 
abnormal  by  addition.  A  pair  and  a  trio  of  these  normals 
gave  in  the  third  generation  from  the  original  female,  510 
normals,  13  abnormal  by  reduction,  and  24  abnormal  by  ad- 
dition. This  shows  regression  away  from  the  abnormal  and 
suggests  Galton's  Law. 

Observations  made  on  Lucilia  sylvarum  and  caesar,  and 
on  Calliphora  erythrocephala,  viridescens,  and  vomitoria  lead  me 
to  believe  that  these  five  species  are  analogous  to  Lucilia 
sericata  in  the  variation  of  their  chaetotaxy. 

In  conclusion  I  wish  to  express  my  thanks  for  suggestions 
and  criticism  in  the  course  of  the  work  kindly  offered  by  Pro- 
fessor Wheeler,  Professor  Castle  and  Mr.  Brues. 


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CONTENTS  OF  THIS  NUMBER. 


Crosby,  C.  K.- — A  Revision  of  the   North   American 

Species  of  Megastigmus  Dalman 155 

Banks,  Nathan — The  Neuropterous  Genus  Palpares.  171 
Brain,  Chas.  K. — Stomoxys  Calcitrans  Linn.,  Part  II  197 
Smith,  Lucy  Wright — The  Biology  of  Perla  Immar- 

ginata   Say 203 

Shelford,  Victor  E. — The  Life-History  of  a  Bee-Fly 
(Spogostylum  Anale  Say)  Parasite  of  the  Larva  of 
a   Tiger   Beetle   (Cicindela   Scutellaris   Say   Var. 

Lecontei  Hald.) 213 

Townsend,  Charles  H.  T. — A  New  Application  of 

Taxonomic  Principles 226 

Patch,  Edith  M. — A  Study  in  Antennal  Variation. .   233 
ToTHiLL,   John    D. — A   Study   in   Variation    in   the 
North  American  Greenbottle  Flies  of  the  Genus 
Lucilia,    with   Systematic   Notes   on   the   Species 

Involved 241 

Whiting,  Phineas  W. — Observations  on  the  Chseto- 

taxy  of  Calliphorinae 257 


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Volume  VI.  Number  3. 


ANNALS 


The  Entomological  Society  of  America 


SEPTEMBER,    191  3 


EDITORIAL    BOARD 

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REPRINTS    FROM    VOLUME    I. 

Proceedings  of  first  three  meetings;   Constitution,   By-Laws  and  List  of 

Members 25 

Wheeler,  Wm.  M. — Polymorphism  of  Ants 30 

Osborn,  Herbert — The  Habits  of  Insects  as  a  Factor  fn  Classification 20 

Severin,  H.  H.  and  Severin,  H.  C. — Anatomical  and  Histological  Studies 
of  the  Female  Reproductive  Organs  of  the  American-Saw  Fly,  Cimbex 

Americana,  Leach 25 

Felt,  E.  P. — Some  Problems  in  Nomenclature ; 10 

Hammar,  a.  G. — On  the  Nervous  System  of  the  Larva  of  Corydalis  comuta  L     .25 
Bradley,  J.   C. — A  case  of  Gregarious  Sleeping  Habits  among  Aculeate 

Hymenoptera 10 

Davis,  J.  J. — Notes  on  the  Life  History  of  the  Leafy  Dimorph  of  the  Box- 
elder  Aphid,  Chaitophorus  negundinis  Thos 10 

Hambleton,  J.  C. — The  Genus  Corizus,  with  a  Review  of  the  North  and 

Middle  American  Species 25 

Girault,  a.  a. — Biological  Notes  on  Colorado  Potato  Beetle.. 25 

GiRAULT,  A.  A. — A  Monographic  Catalogue  of  the  Mymarid  Genus  Alaptus..     .25 
Severin,  H.  H.  and  Severin,  H.  C. — Internal  Organs  of  Reproduction  of 

Male  Saw-fly 15 

Smith,  C.  P. — A  Preliminary  Study  of  the  Aranas  Theraphosae  of  California..     .75 

Davis,  J.  J. — Studies  on  Aphididee 20 

Riley,  W.  A. — Muscle  Attachment  of  Insects 16 

Needham,  J.  C. — Critical  Notes  on  the  Classification  of  the  Corduliinae 

(Odonata) 15 

Howard,  L.  O. — A  Key  to  the  Species  of  Prospaltella  with  Table  of  Hosts 

and  Descriptions  of  Four  New  Species 15 

Hood,  J.  D.— Two  New  Species  of  Idolothrips 10 

Address 

ANNALS  ENTOMOLOGICAL  SOCIETY  OF  AMERICA, 
Biological  Building,  State  Univ.,  Columbus,  Ohio. 


ANNALS 


OF 


The  Entomological  Society  of  America 


Volume  VI  SEPTEMBER,     1913  Number  3 


A  REVISION  OF  THE  SPECIES  IN  AGROMYZA  FALLEN, 
AND  CERODONTHA  RONDANI.  (DIPTERA). 

By  J.  R.  Malloch. 
Assistant,  Cereal  and  Forage  Insect  Investigations,  Bureau  of  Entomology. 

The  work  on  the  two  genera  presented  in  this  paper  has 
been  undertaken  for  the  purpose  of  deciding  the  identity  and 
distinctions  of  several  species  affecting  field  and  forage  crops, 
upon  which  considerable  work  has  been  done  by  the  field  agents 
of  the  division  dealing  with  the  insects  affecting  these  crops. 
In  some  cases  it  has  been  found  necessary  to  change  the  names 
of  certain  American  species,  as  examination  has  proved 
that  they  are  either  synonymous  with  other  American  species 
or  with  species  belonging  to  the  European  fauna.  In  the  case 
of  some  other  species  it  may  at  some  future  time  become 
necessary  to  sink  the  American  species  as  synonymous  with 
European  forms,  but  owing  to  the  most  unsatisfactory  con- 
dition of  the  knowledge  of  the  species  contained  in  this  family 
(Agromyzidae)  in  Europe,  it  is  not  possible  to  definitely  decide 
upon  the  correct  names  of  their  species  from  the  brief  de- 
scriptions available.  Thus,  while  I  suspect  the  distinctness 
of  certain  species  in  our  fauna  from  others  occurring  in  Europe, 
I  consider  it  the  safer  plan,  and  one  entailing  no  material 
disadvantages,  to  retain  those  species  in  our  list,  rather  than 
rank  them  as  synonyms  of  species  which  may  ultimately 
prove  to  be  absent  from  our  fauna. 

269 


270  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

Generic  Characters  of  Agromyza. 

Hea4  of  normal  size;  frons  broad,  from  one- third  to  a  little 
over  one-half  the  head  width ;  ocelli  on  a  slightly  raised  portion ; 
the  ocellar  triangle,  so  distinct  in  the  Oscinidce,  seldom  trace- 
able; orbits  distinct,  3-5  pairs  of  orbital  bristles  present  anterior 
to  front  ocellus;  one  pair  of  bristles  on  ocellar  region  slightly 
behind  anterior  ocellus,   pointing  forward  and  slightly  diver- 
gent,   vertical   row   consisting   of   two   central   divergent   and 
two  outer  convergent  bristles;  postvertical  bristles  divergent; 
face   nearly   straight   in   vertical   outline,  or   slightly  concave, 
slightly  keeled  in  center,  or  unkeeled;  mouth  margin  not  pro- 
duced;   antennas   of   moderate    size,    or   third   joint    enlarged, 
but  never  elongate  or  produced  at  apex;  second  joint  with  at 
least  one  dorsal  setula;  arista  bare  or  pubescent,  never  plumose; 
cheeks    linear   or   broadened    posteriorly,    sometimes    one-half 
as  high  as  eye,  bristles  confined  to  margin,  vibrissa  generally 
noticeably  differentiated ;  proboscis  membraneous,  not  elongated 
noticeably    nor    geniculate;    palpi    normal.     Mesonotum    with 
2-4  pairs  of  dorso-centrals ;  mesopleurce  with  1-3  long  posterior 
bristles  as  well  as  generally  a  number  of  setulas;  one  or  two 
bristles    above    mid    coxae    and    generally    numerous    setulae; 
propleural    bristle    strong;    squamae    distinct.     Ovipositor    of 
female  generally  with  base  chitinized,  apex  seldom  protruding; 
male    hypopygium    of    moderate    size,    not    incurved.     Legs 
without  preapical  bristle  on  dorsal  surface;    end  spurs  weak. 
Wings  with  subcostal  v^in  weak,   sometimes  incomplete,   but 
generally   complete    and    ending    very   near   to    first    vein,   or 
fused  with  first  at  near  apex;  costa  at  end  of  subcosta  uninter- 
rupted, or  only  slightly  so;  costal  vein  with  very  short  hairs 
which  are,  with    exception  of    two    slightly   more    distinct    at 
end   of   subcosta,    of   almost   equal    length  to  beyond  middle 
of  wing;  cross    veins    near  to    wing  base,   or    the    outer   one 
at,  or  slightly  beyond,  wing  middle;  posterior  basal  cell  always 
complete    though    small;    anal  vein  (sixth)    distinct;   costa   to 
third   vein,    slightly  beyond  it,    or  to  fourth.     This  last  char- 
acter is  difficult  to  distinguish  sometimes,   and  is  not  of  suffi- 
cient importance  to  permit  of  the  relegation  of  those  species 
having  costa  to  only  third  vein,   to    a   different    genus  from 
those  with  costa  to  fourth. 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  271 


Synoptic  Table  of  Species  in  Agromyza. 

1.  Halteres  white,,  or  pale  yellow;  (maculosa  has  a  black  spot  on  outer  side).  ..2 
Halteres  black  or  brown,  never  pale  yellow 40 

2.  Species  with  the  disk  of  scutellum  entirely  or  partly  pale  yellow 3 

Species  with  disk  of  scutellum  colored  as  mesonotum,  and  never  in  part  pale 

yellow 11 

3.  At  least  the  apical  joint  of  antennas  black. 4 

Antennas  entirely  yellow,  or  third  joint  only  slightly  infuscated ^  C 

4.  Frons  black,  only  the  frontal  lunule  yellow 1.  xanthophora  Schiner. 

Frons  yellow,  only  the  ocellar  triangle  black,  and  sometimes  the  posterior 

part  of  orbits  darkened 2.  longispinosa,  new  species. 

-^.  No  short  setulee  on  disk  of  mesonotum  between  the  dorso-central  bristles.  .6 

6.  Mesonotum  with  the  disk  broadly  black,  only  the  lateral  margins  broadly, 

and  the  anterior  and  posterior  margins  yellow 7 

Mesonotum  with  black,  stripe-like  marks,  or  disk  black,  the  center  of  disk 
in  front  of  scutellum  yellow,  owing  to  the  abbreviation  of  central  stripe.  .8 

7.  Third  antennal  joint  and  palpi,  at  apices,  infuscated.  .2a.   variala,  new  species. 
Third  antennal  joint  and  palpi  entirely  yellow 7a 

7a.  Mesonotum  bare  except  for  the  dorso-central  bristles.  .3  JticaZw,  new  species. 

Mesonotum  with  discal  setulae  in  addition  to  dorso-centrals 7b 

7b.  Smaller  species,  1-1.75  mm.,  last  section  of  fifth  vein  23^  to  3  times  as  long  as 

the   penultimate   section 4   pusilla   Meigen. 

Larger  species,  2-2.5  mm.,  last  section  of  fifth  vein  13^  to  2  times  as  long  as 
penultimate   section 5   scutellata   Fallen. 

8.  Only  the  margins  of  the  discal  marks  on  mesonotum  black,  the  center  por- 

tions reddish  brown 8  melampyga  var.  marginalis,  new  variety. 

Markings   on  mesonotum   unicolorous   throughout 9 

9.  Markings  on  mesonotum  dull  gray  black,  not  glossy. ..6  horealis,  new  species. 
Markings  on  mesonotum  glossy  black 10 

10.  Cheeks,  posteriorly,  about  one-half  the  eye  height;  arista  almost  bare. 

7  flavonigra  Coquillett. 

Cheeks,    posteriorly,    much    less    than    one-half    the    eye    height;    arista 

pubescent   8  melampyga  Loew. 

11.  Costa  reaching  to  third  vein  or  slightly  beyond 12 

Costa   reaching   to  fourth   vein 17 

12.  Frons  lemon  yellow;  cross  veins  very  close  together 13 

Frons  reddish  or  black,  never  pale  yellow : 14 

13.  Lateral  margins  of  mesonotum  broadly  pale  yellow;  anterior  two  pairs  of 

dorso-centrals  on  mesonotum  much  weaker  than  the  posterior  two  pairs, 

the  front  pair  not  anterior  to  suture 9.  brevicostalis  new  species. 

Lateral  margins  of  mesonotum  colored  as  disk;  anterior  two  pairs  of  dorso- 
centrals  not  much  reduced  in  size,  the  front  pair  distinctly  anterior  to 
suture 10   davisi    Walton. 

14.  Frons  black;  cross  veins  not  close  together 15 

Frons  reddish;  cross  veins  close  together 16 

15.  Pubescence  on  arista  indistinct;  occiput  not  projecting  much  on  upper  half. 

11  abbreviata  new  species. 
Pubescence  on  arista  distinct;  occiput  distinctly  projecting  on  upper  half. 

12  kincaidi  new  species. 

16.  Slender,  slightly  shining,  black  species;  mesonotum  with  four  pairs  of  dorso- 

central  bristles 13  parvicella  Coquillett. 

Robust,  glossy  black  species;  mesonotum  with  two  pairs  of  dorso-central 
bristles 14  nitida,  new  species. 

17.  Frons  entirely  yellow,  or  at  least  the  center  stripe  mostly  yellow  or  reddish, 

or  the  orbits  yellow  posteriorly 18 

Frons  entirely  black  or  brown,  never  yellow  on  any  part;  frontal  lunule  some- 
times  white   dusted 27 


272  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

18.  Mesonotum  opaque  gray;  center  of  disk  between  the  rows  of  dorso-central 

bristles  with  a  yellowish-brown,  longitudinal  vitta,  which  extends  on  to 
disk  of  scutellum;  three  pairs  of  orbital,  and  fours  pair  of  dorso-central 

bristles  present 15  immaculata  Coquillett. 

Mesonotum  shining,  or,  if  opaque  grayish  there  is  no  indication  of  a  central 
brown  vitta 19 

19.  Antennae  entirely  yellow,  or  third  joint  only  darkened  at  insertion  of  arista.* 

20 
Antennae  with  at  least  the  third  joint  black,  or  dark  brown,  never  yellow.. 23 

20.  Head,   including  antenna,   clear  lemon  yellow,   only  ocellar  region,   orbits 

posteriorly,  and  back  of  head  black,  or  brown;  pleurae  and  legs  lemon 
yellow  with  black  or  brown  marks;  lateral  margins  of  mesonotum  brown. 

16  citreifrons,  new  species. 
Frons  and  face  mostly,  or  entirely,  reddish  yellow;  lateral  margins  of  meso- 
notum pale  yellow,  or  black  and  concolorous  with  disk  of  mesonotum... 21 

21.  Five  equally  strong  orbital  bristles  present;  frons  one-half  as  broad  as  head; 

orbits  not  differentiated  from  center  stripe;  mesonotum  with  four  pairs 

of    dorso-centrals 17    pruinosa    Coquillett. 

Four  orbital  bristles  present;  orbits  differentiated  from  center  stripe 22 

22.  Lateral  margins  of  mesonotum  pale  yellow;  wings  narrow;  outer  cross  vein 

before  wing  middle;  last  section  of  fourth  vein  three  times  as  long  as  the 

two    preceding    sections    together 18    indecisa,    new    species. 

Lateral  margins  of  mesonotum  not  pale  3'ellow;  wings  broad;  outer  cross  vein 
at  near  wing  middle;  last  section  of  fourth  vein  twice  as  long  as  two 
preceding  sections   together 19  varifrons   Coquillett. 

23.  Lateral  margins  of  mesonotum  broadly  pale  yellow 24 

Lateral  margins  of  mesonotum  narrowly,  or  not  at  all,  yellow,  the  pale  color 

conlined  almost  entirely  to  the  suture,  or  to  the  extreme  upper  margin  of 
the  pleurae r 25 

24.  Frons  with  the  center  stripe  clear  yellow;  orbits  posteriorly,  sometimes, 

blackened;  legs  black,  or  brown,  the  knees  never  distinctly  yellow. . . . 

20  platyptera  Thomson. 

Frons  with  the  center  stripe  more  or  less  blackened;  legs  with  the  knees 

distinctly    pale    yellow 21    coquilletti,    new    species 

25.  Palpi    yellow 22   longipennis   Loew. 

Palpi  black 26 

26.  Larger  species — 3-33^  mm. — dull  gray-black  in  color;  apices  of  femora  and 

iDases  of  tibiae  narrowly  yellow 23  coloradensis,  new  species. 

Smaller  species — 1^-2  mm. — shining  black  in  color;  apical  half  of  each  femur 
yellow,    tibiae   brownish   yellow 24   marginata   Loew. 

27.  Mesonotum  with  four,  or  more,  pairs  of  dorso-central  bristles 28 

Mesonotum  with  two  or  three  pairs  of  dorso-central  bristles 35 

28.  The  pair  of  bristles  between  the  posterior  pair  of  dorso-central  almost  of 

equal  strength  with  them;  basal  two  joints  of  antennae,   legs  mostly, 
pleurae,  humeri,  and  abdomen  reddish  yellow;  outer  cross  vein  beyond 

wing  middle 25  canadensis,   new   species. 

The  pair  of  bristles  mentioned  above  much  weaker  than  posterior  dorso- 
centrals,  or  absent;  much  darker  species;  only  sometimes  a  narrow  side 
line  on  pleurae,  knee  joints  more  or  less  broadly,  and  posterior  margins 
of  abdominal  segments  narrowly  yellow;  or  entire  thorax,  abdomen  and 
legs  black,  cross  vein  generally  at  or  before  wing  middle  or  very  slightly 
beyond  it .29 

29.  Third  antennal  joint  in  male  enlarged,  subquadrate,  thickly  covered  with 

short,  silky  pilosity;  in  female  the  third  joint  is  smaller  and  not  so  notice- 
ably pilose;  frontal  lunule    distinct,  whitish  pollinose;  center  stripe  of 

frons   brownish 26  laterella   Zetterstedt. . . 

Third  antennal  joint  normal  in  size  in  both  sexes,  and  not  noticeably  pilose.. 30 


^'"\  ^Sometimes  longipennis  has  the  antennae  yellowish,  in  which  case  the  spec- 
imens will  run  down  to  indecisa  when  a  comparison  of  the  descriptions  will  be 
necessary. 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  273 

30.  Halteres  pale  yellow,  with  a  black  spot  on  outer  side  of  knob;  dorso-central 

bristles  strong,  anterior  pairs  almost  as  sti"ong  as  posterior  pairs;  last 

section  of  fifth  vein  shorter  than  penultimate  section 

27  maculosa,  new  species. 
Halteres  without  any  dark  spot  on  knob 31 

31.  Outer  cross  vein  at  about  the  length  of  inner  cross  vein  from  that  vein;  third 

and  fourth  veins  very  distinctly  divergent  at  apices 

28  waltoni,  new  species. 

Outer  cross  vein  separated  by  a  greater  distance  than  inner  cross  vein  from 

that  vein;  third  and  fourth  veins  slightly  divergent  at  aoices 32 

32.  Small  species,  at  most  2  mm.,  base  of  wing,  including  basal  half  of  first  vein, 

upper  part  of  pleurae  and  mesopleural  vertical  suture  narrowly,  a  small 
patch  below  base  of  .wing,  stjuamas,  and  fringe  lemon  yellow;  general 
color  shining  black;  outer  cross  vein  below,  or  at  very  slightly  beyond 

end    of    first    vein 29    angulata    Loew. 

Species  other  than  above  in  color,  etc 33 

33.  Larger  species,  3  mm.  and  over,  almost  entirely  black-browTi ;  lower  half  of 

orbits  rather  closely  set  with   hairs 30  setosa  Loew. 

Smaller  species,  about  2  mm.,  not  so  uniformly  colored;  lower  half  of  orbits 
sparsely  haired 34 

34.  Rather  robust  species;  wings  broad;  cheeks  linear;  tibiae  and  tarsi  yellowish. 

31  isolata,  new  species. 
More  slender  species-  wings  narrow;  cheeks  one-fourth  as  high  posteriorly  as 

height  of  eyes;  tioiae  and  tarsi  barely  paler  than  femora 

32  fragaricB,  new  species. 

35.  Species  with  three  distinct  pairs  of  dorso-central  bristles 36 

Species  with  2  distinct  parts  of  dorso-central  bristles 39 

36.  Glossy  black  species;  base  of  wing,  squamae  and  small  portion  of  pleurae  pale 

lemon  yellow;  frons  not  one- third  the  width  of  head;  anterior  pair  of 
dorso-central  bristles  strong;  arista  as  long  as  from  its  base  to  anterior 
ocellus;  frontal  lunule  yellowish,   distinctly  white  pollinose;  male  with 

apical  segments  of  abdomen  conspicuously  pale  yellow 

'  33  posticata  Meigen 

Apex  of  abdomen  in  male  not  yellow;  frontal  lunule  not  yellow,  not  noticeably 

white  pollinose 37 

37.  Smaller  species,  less  than  2  mm.  in  length 38 

Larger  species,  over  2  mm.  in  length 36  dubitata,  new  species. 

38.  Last  section  of  fifth  vein  distinctly  shorter  than  penultimate  sectioii 

34  neptis  Loew. 

Last  section  of  fifth  vein  distinctly  longer  than  penultimate  section 

35  inco7ispicua,  new  species. 

39.  Abdomen    black,    without    any   metallic    sheen;    antennae   brownish;    aristae 

distinctly     pubescent 37     parvicornis  Loew. 

Abdomen  black,  with  a  metallic,  bluish,  or  greenish  sheen;  antennas  black; 

arista    never    distinctly    pubescent 38    viridida    Coquillett. 

"  40.     Costa  to  end  of  third  vein  .* 41 

Costa  to  end  of  fourth  vein 43 

41.  Arista  short,  not  more  than  three  times  as  long  as  breadth  of  third  antennal 

joint,  distinctly  pubescent;  outer  cross  vein  at  its  own  length  from  inner 

cross  vein;  three  pairs  of  dorso-central  bristles  on  mesonotum 

39  salicis,  new  species. 
Arista  bare;  mesonotum  with  two  pairs  of  dprso-centrals 42 

42.  Cheeks  very  short,  not  higher  posteriorly  than  anteriorly,  and  about  one- 

sixth  as  high  as  eye;  antennae  of  moderate  size;  arista  about  three  times  as 

long  as  width  of  third  joint 40  winnemance,  new  species. 

Cheeks  long,  distinctly  higher  posteriorly  than  anteriorly,  at  highest  part 
at  least  one-third  as  high  as  eye;  antennas  rather  small,  arista  about 
six  times  as  long  as  width  of  third  joint 41  simplex  Loew. 


274  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

43.  Male  with  anterior  angle  of  cheek  produced,  the  vibrissse  formed  of  a  number 

of  bristles,  fasciculate,  turned  upward  and  generally  ending  in  an  acute 
joint;  female  with  the  mouth  margin  produced  anteriorly,  but  without  a 
fasciculus 44 

Mouth  margin  not  produced  anteriorly  in  either  sex;  male  vibrissse  normal.  .47 

44.  Large  species,  over  3  mm.  in  length;  cheeks  of  almost  equal  height  at  anterior 

and  posterior  margins;  antennas  brownish;  arista  shortly  and  distinctly 
swollen  at  base;  palpi  almost  entirely  bare.  .  .  .42  vibrissata,  new  species. 
Smaller  species,  generally  less  than  2.5  mm.  in  length;  antennse  black;  arista 
with  elongate  swelling;  cheeks  always  higher  anteriorly  than  posteri- 
orly  45 

45.  Small  species,  1.5-2  mm.;  frons  weakly  bristled;  discal  setulae  not  carried 

beyond  the  transverse  line  of  the  posterior  pair  of  dorso-centrals,  gen- 
erally ceasing  distinctly  in  front  of  that  point 46 

Larger  species,  2-2.5  mm.;  frons  strongly  bristled;  discal  setulae  carried  at 
least  to  transverse  line  of  posterior  pair  of  dorso-centrals  generally 
beyond   that   point 43   affinis,   new   species. 

46.  Very  small  species,  barely  1.5  mm.;  vibrissas  in  male  not  very  prominent; 

the  anterior  angle  of  cheeks  in  neither  sex  much  produced 

44  insularis,  new  species. 

Larger  species,  about  2  mm.;  vibrissas  in  male  prominent;  anterior  angle  of 

cheek  in  both  sexes  very  distinctly  produced ...  45  texana,  new  species. 

47.  Species   with  four   distinct  pairs   of   dorso-central   bristles   on  mesonotum; 

outer  cross  vein  at  barely  beyond  end  of  first  vein;  last  section  of  fifth 
vein  twice  as  long  as  penultimate  section.  AQ'abtiormalis,  new  species. 
Species  with  generally  only  two  distinct,  rarely  three,  pairs  of  dorso-centrals; 
the  outer  cross  vein  at  distinctly  beyond  end  of  first  vein,  and  the  last 
section  of  fifth  never  twice  as  long  as  penultimate  section 48 

48.  Eyes  bare 49 

Eyes  with  very  distinct  pubescence  on  the  upper  surface  close  to  frontal 

orbits 47   virens  Loew. 

49.  Fore  tibia  with  a  distinct  bristle  on  the  posterior  surface  at  about  apical 

third 50 

Fore  tibia  without  any  distinct  bristle  at  that  point 51 

50.  Thorax  blue,  abdomen  bronzy-black;  orbits  with  sparse  pubescence  and  the 

bristles  situated  at  nearer  to  the  eye  margin  than  to  the  inner  margin; 

squamse    white,    fringe    concolorous 48    caridea,    new    species. 

Thorax  black;  abdomen  bronzy;  orbits  thickly  pubescent,  the  bristles  sit- 
uated on  nearer  to  the  inner  margin  than  to  the  eye  margin;  squamae 
grayish,    margin   and   fringe    brown 49    hurgessi,    new    species. 

51.  Arista   with   very   long   pubescence,   much   longer   than   basal   diameter   of 

arista 50  pliimiseta,  new  species. 

Arista  with  shorter  pubescence,  or  entirely  bare 52 

52.  Mesonotum  with  three  distinct  pairs  of  dorso-centrals;  large  species,  3.5-4 

mm.     Larva  living  in  galls  on  wistaria  twigs 51  websteri,  new  species. 

Mesonotum  with  only  two  distinct  pairs  of  dorso-centrals;  smaller  species, 
not  near  4  mm.,  generally  2.5  to  3  mm 53 

53.  Squamae  grayish  or  brownish,  margin  and  fringe  always  brown  or  blackish.. 54 
Squamae  whitish  or  yellowish,  fringe  concolorous 47  virens  Loew. 

54.  Arista  distinctly  pubescent,  and  almost  as  long  as  from  its  base  to  vertex. . 

52  longiseta,  new  species. 
Arista  much  shorter,  less  distinctly  pubescent 55 

55.  Large  species,  2-3  mm.;  outer  cross  vein  at  less  than  its  own  length  from 

inner,  inner  at  distinctly  beyond  middle  of  discal  cell 56 

Smaller  species,  distinctly  less  than  2  mm 57 

56.  Mid  tibial  bristles  distinct;  larva  in  galls  on  lime  trees... 53  tilise.  Couden. 
Mid  tibial  bristles  absent;  larva  in  galls  on  poplar  trees.  .54  schineri,  Giraud. 

57.  Mouth  margin  with  numerous,  rather  strong  bristles,  which  form  a  group, 

though  not  a  fasciculus,  at  anterior  angle... 55  congregata,  new  species. 
Mouth  margin  with  the  bristles  as  usual,  the  single  vibrissa  diflferentiated. 

56  minima,  new  species. 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  275 


1.     Agromyza  xanthophora  Schiner. 

Syn:  Agromyza  xanthophora  Schiner,  Reise  d.  Novara,  Vol.  I,  1868,  p.  291. 
Agromyza  picta  Coquillett,  Jour.  N.  Y.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  X,  1902,  p.  188. 

Female:  Head  black;  frons  opaque,  orbits  slightly  shining,  very 
narrow;  ocellar  region  raised,  sub-shining,  distance  between  ocelli  less 
than  the  distance  from  either  ocellus  to  eye;  lower  orbital  bristles 
cruciate,  second  pair  slightly  inwardly  directed,  the  upper  two  pairs 
backwardly  directed,  the  center  pair  in  vertical  row  divergent,  outer 
slightly  convergent,  post-vertical  pair  divergent.  Frontal  lunule 
yellow,  with  white  pollinosity;  face  brown,  sub-opaque,  concave, 
unkeeled;  cheeks  almost  linear,  narrowest  posteriorly,  mouth  margin 
with  numerous  hairs,  and  one  strong  incurved  anterior  vibrissa;  antennae 
black,  third  joint  of  moderate  size,  rounded,  arista  thin,  slightly  thick- 
ened at  base,  longer  than  the  distance  from  its  base  to  post-vertical 
bristle,  thickly  covered  with  pubescence,  which  is  as  long  as  the  diam- 
eter of  arista  at  base.  Proboscis  pale  yellow;  palpi  black,  slightly 
thickened.  Thorax  yellow;  disk  of  mesonotum  shining,  but  not 
glossy,  with  a  black  mark  covering  all  but  the  margins  anterior  to  the 
suture,  which  is  sharply  indented  transversely  at  suture,  subquad- 
rately  excised  centrally  on  the  posterior  margin,  does  not  reach  to 
scutellum,  and  has  a  dentiform  longitudinal  excision  in  each  lateral  lobe 
posteriorly;  four  pairs  of  dorso-central  bristles  present,  the  anterior  two 
pairs  reduced  in  size,  the  anterior  pair  just  in  front  of  suture;  all  black 
portion  of  disk  with  short  hairs,  yellow  portion  bare,  except  for  5-6 
scattered  hairs  present  on  the  central  posterior  excision.  Pleur£e  with 
the  upper  half  yellow,  lower  half  black;  squamae  yellow  at  base,  apically 
black,  the  hairs  brown;  scutellum  yellow,  disk  bare,  margin  with  4 
bristles ;  postnotum  black.  Abdomen  yellow,  third  and  fourth  segments 
with  indications  of  a  central  and  two  lateral  dark  spots,  most  distinct 
on  fourth;  fifth  and  sixth  segments  glossy  black;  all  segments  with 
numerous  black  hairs  which  are  bristle-like  on  posterior  margins  and 
most  noticeable  on  fifth.  Coxag  and  legs  entirely  shining  black;  the 
mid  tibia  with  the  usual  two  posterior  bristles.  Wings  slightly  infus- 
cated  on  anterior  half;  subcostal  vein  only  indistinct  at  apex,  costa 
from  himieral  vein  to  end  of  first  vein  about  two-thirds  as  long  as  next 
costal  division;  second,  third  and  fourth  veins  slightly  divergent;  outer 
cross  vein  as  long  as  penultimate  section  of  fourth,  which  is  distinctly 
shorter  than  the  preceding  section  of  fourth;  penultimate  .section  of 
fifth  slightly  longer  than  last  section.     Halteres  pale  yellow. 

Length,  3  mm. 

Besides  the  type  specimen  of  picta  from  Frontero,  Tabasco, 
Mexico  (C.  H,  T.  Townsend),  there  is  in  the  U.  S.  National 
Museum  collection  one  female  from  Las  Cruces,  New  Mexico, 
June,   1893,   (T.   D.  A.  Cockerell). 

Food-plant  unknown. 


276  An7ials  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


2.     Agromyza  longispinosa,  new  species. 
Plate  XXX,  Fig.  22. 

Male  and  Female:  Head  yellow,  ocellar  region,  back  of  head,  vertex, 
and  third  joint  of  antenna  black;  frons  opaque,  very  pale  yellow,  par- 
allel-sided, distinctly  broader  than  the  eye;  bristles  as  in  xanthophora. 
Third  joint  of  antennas  black,  sharply  contrasting  with  the  pale  yellow 
basal  joints,  regularly  rounded  and  of  moderate  size;  arista  black- 
brown,  swelling  at  base  of  terminal  section  elongate,  almost  as  long  as 
length  of  third  antennal  joint,  pubescence  very  short,  pale;  face  almost 
perpendicular,  mouth  margin  not  produced,  cheeks  distinctly  higher 
posteriorly  than  anteriorly,  at  highest  part  about  one-third  as  high  as 
greatest  eye-height,  the  row  of  bristles  on  mouth  margin  not  very  strong, 
black,  the  vibrissa  of  moderate  strength;  proboscis  and  palpi  yellow; 
the  latter  slightly  the  darker,  and  weakly  bristled.  Mesonotum  yellow, 
with  opaque  black-gray  mark  somewhat  similar  in  outline  to  that  of 
xanthophora  but  reaching  more  nearly  to  scutellum  and  more  elongate 
owing  to  the  species  being  less  robust  than  xanthophora;  the  male  shows 
some  indication  of  a  pale,  hnear  stripe  carried  forward  from  the  central 
posterior  excision  at  either  anterior  angle,  which  may  in  some  cases  be 
so  distinct  as  to  cause  the  disk  to  present  a  trivittate  appearance. 
Four  pairs  of  very  long  dorso-central  bristles  present,  the  anterior  two 
pairs  but  little  reduced,  the  anterior  pair  distinctly  anterior  to  the 
suture,  and  the  second  pair  but  little  posterior  to  it;  between  the  dorso- 
centrals  there  are  two  slightly  irregular  rows  of  setulas,  which  are 
exceptionally  long  for  this  genus,  and  which  are  carried  back  as  far  as 
the  prescutellar  pair  of  dorso-centrals ;  humeri  yellow,  with  a  black 
spot;  pleurae  yellow  with  a  brownish  spot  above  and  slightly  behind 
fore  coxse,  another  large  one  covering  the  space  between  the  fore  and 
mid  coxae,  and  another  one  between  the  mid  and  hind  coxce,  squamag 
with  narrow  black  border,  and  brown  fringe;  scutellum  yellow,  bare  on 
disk,  the  four  marginal  bristles  very  long;  postnotum  glossy  black. 
Abdomen  yellow,  with  apical  segments  darkened  or  with  bases  of  all 
segments  brownish;  base  of  ovipositor  in  female  glossy  black;  hypo- 
pygium  in  male  glossy  brownish  black,  of  moderate  size;  all  segments 
with  black  hairs  much  as  in  xanthophora.  Legs  yellow,  tarsi  brownish. 
Wings  clear,  veins  2-3  divergent,  3-4  almost  parallel  on  last  fourth; 
second  portion  of  costa  about  two  and  one-half  times  as  long  as  first; 
outer  cross  vein  a  little  shorter  than  section  of  fourth  vein  anterior  to 
it;  first  and  second  sections  of  fourth  vein  vSubequal;  penultimate 
section  of  fifth  vein  distinctly  shorter  than  ultimate. 

Halteres  yellow.       Length,  1.5  mm. 

Type— Cat.  No.  15558,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Male:  Bear  Lake,  British  Columbia,  July  20, 
1903,    (R.   P.   Currie). 

Paratypes:  Female — Kaslo,  British  Columbia,  July  18, 
1903,  (R.  P.  Currie);  female,  same  locality,  July  7,  1903, 
(A.  N.  Caudell),  and  one  one  male  ex.  collection,  Wm.  Brodie, 
without  locality,   but  presumably  Canadian. 

Food-plant  unknown. 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  277 


2a.     Agromyza  variata,  new  species. 
Plate  XXIX,  Fig.  14. 

Female:  Frons  lemon  yellow,  slightly  over  one-third  the  width  of 
head;  ocellar  region  black;  orbits  darkened  on  outer  edge  on  upper  half; 
five  orbital  bristles  present ;  the  anterior  three  closely  placed  and  decreas- 
ing much  in  size  to  front  one,  which  is  very  weak;  an  irregular  row  of 
weak  hairs  on  orbits,  laterally,  beyond  the  bristles;  antennae  of  mod- 
erate size;  yellow,  third  joint  infuscated  on  apical  half;  arista  brown, 
base  swollen,  pubescence  very  short ;  length  of  arista  equal  to  a  little  more 
than  twice  the  length  of  antenna;  face  and  cheeks  pale  yellow;  height  of 
cheek  posteriorly  distinctly  higher  than  anteriorly,  at  highest  point  less 
than  one-fourth  the  height  of  eye,  marginal  bristles  of  moderate  length, 
the  vibrissa  differentiated;  proboscis  yellow;  palpi  yellow,  blackened 
and  shghtly  dilated  apically,  occiput  not  visible  on  upper  half.  Meso- 
notum  glossy  black  on  disk,  lateral  margins  and  a  large  patch  on  center 
of  posterior  margin,  which  is  rounded  in  front,  pale  lemon  yellow;  four 
pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present,  the  disk  except  on  the  yellow  parts 
covered  with  short  black  setulse;  pleurae  shining  black,  yellow  along 
sutures  and  below  wing  base;  squamee  yellow,  darkened  on  margins, 
fringe  brown;  scutellum  pale  yellow  on  disk,  a  black  spot  on  each  side 
at  base.  Abdomen  glossy  black,  posterior  margins  of  segments  narrowly 
yellow.  Legs  yellow,  bases  of  coxae,  tibi«  except  bases,  and  tarsi 
black;  no  bristles  on  posterior  surface  of  mid  tibia.  Wings  clear;  inner 
cross  vein  at  below  end  of  first  vein  and  at  middle  of  discal  cell;  last 
section  of  fifth  vein  twice  as  long  as  penultimate  section. 

Halteres  yellow. 

Length,  1.5  mm. 

Type:     In  collection  C.  W.  Johnson. 
Locality:     Calais..  Maine. 
Food-plant  unknown. 

3.     Agromyza  discalis,  new  species. 

Plate  XXX,  Fig.  21. 

Female:  Frons  yellow,  opaque,  almost  parallel-sided,  except  at 
near  posterior  margin,  where  the  sides  very  abruptly  diverge,  in  breadth 
it  occupies  less  than  one-third  the  width  of  head;  orbits  very  narrow; 
four  orbital  bristles  present ;  nearer  to  eye  margin  on  orbit  is  an  irregular 
row  of  very  short  hairs ;  ocellar  region  and  back  of  head  black ;  antennae 
clear  yellow,  of  less  than  average  size;  second  joint  with  short  dorsal 
bristle;  third  joint  small,  not  longer  than  broad,  rounded;  arista  black, 
yellowish  for  a  short  space  at  just  beyond  the  rather  distinct  basal 
swelling;  pubescence  indistinguishable;  length  of  arista  equal  to  from 
its  base  to  second  uppermost  orbital  bristle,  face  yellow,  perpendicular; 
cheeks  yellow,  twice  as  high  at  posterior  margin  as  at  anterior,  and  at 
highest  part  rather  more  than  one-third  as  high  as  eye;  marginal 
bristles  weak;  vibrissa  moderately  strong;  proboscis  brownish  yellow;. 


278  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

palpi  pale  yellow,  of  nonnal  size,  bare.  Mesonotum  shining  black  on 
disk,  finely  granulose;  lateral  margins  broadly  pale  yellow;  hiimeri 
brown;  four  pairs  of  dorso-central  bristles  present,  the  posterior  pair 
more  widely  separated  and  stronger  than  the  others ;  in  addition  there 
is  in  the  type  an  additional  pair  of  bristles,  sHghtly  anterior  to  the  front 
pair,  which  may  be  abnonnal ;  no  setulee  present  between  dorso-centrals 
on  any  part  of  disk;  pleurae  glossy  black,  sutures  narrowly  yellow; 
squamae  pale  yellow,  fringe  concolorous;  scutellum  pale  yellow  on  disk, 
broadly  black  on  sides;  normal  bristles  four,  but  the  type  has  an 
adventitious  bristle  close  to  base  of  posterior  one  on  left  side;  post- 
notum  glossy  black.  Abdomen  glossy  black;  a  narrow  posterior 
marginal  band  on  all  segments,  and  a  narrow  longitudinal  dorsal  line 
on  last  three  segments  yellow;  base  of  ovipositor  glossy  black;  all  seg- 
ments with  dorsal  hairs,  those  on  apex  of  sixth  segment  bristle-like. 
Legs  yellow;  blackened  more  or  less  on  mid  and  hind  coxse;  bases  of 
femora;  apices  of  tibiae,  and  all  tarsi;  mid  tibia  without  posterior 
bristles.  Wings  clear;  first  costal  division  one-half  as  long  as  second; 
subcostal  vein  distinct,  outer  cross  vein  at  slightly  before  the  end  of 
first  vein,  and  at  about  its  own  length  from  inner  cross  vein;  last  section 
of  fifth  vein  four  times  as  long  as  penultimate  section;  veins  2-3-4 
gradually  divergent  on  their  last  sections,  the  cells  enclosed  by  these 
veins  of  equal  width  at  below  apex  of  second  vein.  Halteres  yellow. 
Length,  1.5  mm.     ^ 

Type:     Cat.   No.   15559,  U.   S.   N.   M. 

Locality:  Adamana,  Arizona,  May  7,  1903  (H.  S.  Barber) 
one  female. 

This  species  is  so  evidently  distinct  from  those  of  the 
pusilla  group  that  I  consider  it  safe  to  describe  it  from  a  single 
specimen. 

Food-plant  unknown. 

4.     Agromyza  pusilla  Meigen. 

Syn:  Agromyza  pusilla  Meigen,  Syst.  Beschr,  Vol.  6,  1830,  p.  185,  species  60. 

Agromyza  pumila  Meigen,  1.  c.  p.  185,  species  62. 

Agromyza  strigata  Meigen,  1.  c.  p.  186,  species  63. 

Agromyza  exilis  Meigen,  1.  c.  p.  186,  species  64. 

Agromyza  orbona  Meigen   1.  c.  p.  186,  species  65. 

Agromyza  pusio  Meigen,  1.  c.  p.  187,  species  66. 

Agromyza  pvella  Meigen,  1.  c.  p.  187,  species  67. 

Agromyza  amoeyia  Meigen,  1.  c.  p.  187,  species  68. 
(?)       Agromyza  blanda  Meigen,  L  c.  p.  188,  species  69. 
(?)       Phytomyza  diminuta  Walker,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.,  n.  ser.  4,  1857,  p.  232. 

Oscinis  Irifolii  Burgess,  Dept.  Agric.  Rept.  1879,  p.  201. 

Oscinis  brassicce  Riley,  Dept.  Agric.  Rept.  1884,  p.  322. 

The  above  synonomy  is  I  am  confident  correct,  as  an 
•examination  of  a  large  number  of  specimens  from  widely 
separated  localities,  including  Europe,  and  many  states  in  the 
Union,   reared  from  different  food  plants  proves  that  all  the 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  ,         279 

minor  diifferences  used  by  Meigen  for  the  separation  of  his 
species  may  be  found  in  the  same  species.  Agromyza  blanda 
Meigen  may  be  a  different  species  as  also  may  A.  annulipes 
Meigen,  species  61  of  the  series  quoted  in  synonomy,  but  they 
may  only  be  color  varieties.  The  number  of  examples  in 
existence  representing  Meigen's  types  of  this  group  are  as 
follows:  pusilla,  1,  (Paris);  annulipes,  1,  (Paris);  pumila, 
3,  (Vienna);  exilis,  1,  (Paris);  pusio,  1,  (Paris);  2,  (Vienna); 
orbona,  1,  (Vienna);  puella,  1  defective  specimen,  (Vienna); 
amoena,  1,  (Paris);  blanda,  1,  (Paris). 

Male  and  Female:  Black,  shining.  Marked  in  most  variable 
degree  with  yellow.  Frons  except  ocellar  region,  and  sometimes  a 
narrow  side  stripe  posteriorly,  ^^ellow;  remainder  of  head  parts  except 
behind  vertex,  yellow.  Mesonotum  with  a  more  or  less  broad  yellow 
margin,  which  never  extends  distinctly  round  the  anterior  nor  posterior 
margin;  four  pairs  of  dorso-central  bristles  present  as  well  as  numerous 
short  hairs  on  disk;  humeri  with  a  black  spot.  Pleurse  with  sometimes 
spots  much  as  in  xanthophora  and  at  other  times  almost  entirely  black, 
with  the  sutures  and  upper  margin  yellow;  scutellum  entirely  yellow, 
or  yellow  with  black  basal  side  spots,  which  in  some  cases  extend 
almost  round  the  entire  margin  and  on  to  the  disk;  postnotinn  black. 
Abdomen  yellowish  with  dark  brownish  bases  to  segments,  black  with 
pale  apices  to  segments,  or  entirel}^  shining  black  with  the  apical  seg- 
ment whitish,  or  yellowish,  at  apex.  Legs  almost  entirely  yellow,  the 
tarsi  only  brownish,  to  legs  almost  entirely  black  with  knee  joints  yellow, 
the  femora  generally  less  intensely  black  than  other  parts  of  legs  Mid 
tibia  without  distinct  posterior  bristles.  Wings  clear;  second  division 
of  costa  about  two  and  one-half  times  as  long  as  first  section,  third  and 
fourth  veins  divergent  at  extremities;  outer  cross  vein  as  long  as  or 
slightly  shorter  than  the  section  of  fourth  anterior  to  it,  basal  two 
sections  of  fourth  subequal  or  the  second  slightly  the  shorter;  last  sec- 
tion of  fifth  vein  about  three  times  as  long  as  preceding  section. 

Halteres  yellow. 

Length,  1-1.75  mm. 

This  is  a  most  variable  species  in  color  and  is  very  widely- 
distributed.  The  following  is  a  list  of  states  from  which  it 
is  represented  in  the  material  I  have  examined.  (A  full  list 
of  American  localities,  with  list  of  food-plants  will  appear 
in  the  economic  bulletin,  now  ready  for  tha  press,  dealing 
with  this  species). 

Massachusetts,  Connecticut,  District  of  Columbia,  Arizona, 
Wyoming,  Texas,  Colorado,  California,  Utah,  Kansas,  New 
Mexico,,  Indiana,  Idaho,  Florida  and  Virginia.  It  is  probable 
that  this  species  occurs  all  over  the  United  States. 


280         ^      Afifials  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI ^ 
5.     Agromyza  seutellata  Fallen. 

Syn:  Agromyza  scvtellata  Fallen  Dipt.  Suec.  Agromyza.  1823.  7.  3. 
Agromyza  flaveola  var.  Fallen,  1.  c.  6,  11. 
Agromyza  pictella  Thomson,  Fregat.  Eugene.  Resa,  Dipt.  1851,  53,  p.  609. 

I  have  compared  examples  of  the  European  species  with 
those  in  collection  representing  pictella  and  am  convinced 
they  are  identical.  I  have  some  slight  doubts  as  to  its  specific 
distinctness,  from  the  foregoing  species,  but  consider  it  justi- 
fiable to  retain  it  as  separate  species  until  I  know  something 
of  the  life  history  of  seutellata,  which  has  not  been  bred  in  t"his 
country,  *"• 

Male  and  female:  Similar. in  coloration  to  pusilla  Meigen, 
except  that  the  femora  are  generally  the  most  intensely  black 
portions  of  the  legs  and  in  no  'examples  that  I  have  seen  is 
there  any  appearance  of  their  being  inclined  to  yellow,  especially 
at  base.  In  size  this  species  is  also  larger  and  the  wing  neura- 
tion  is  different.  Otherwise,  in  bristling,  etc.,  the  species  are 
identical. 

The  only  American  examples  I  have  seen  of  seutellata  are 
five  from  mountains  near  Claremont,  California  (C.  F.  Baker) 
and  one  from  Williams,  Arizona  (H.  S.  Barber). 

6.  Agromyza  borealis  new  species. 
Plate  XXIX,  Fig.  10,  Plate  XXX,  Fig.  23. 
Female:  This  species  is  very  clo^e  to  longispinosa,  but  differs  in 
^  being  more  robust,  in  having  the  frons  reddish  yellow,  instead  of  pale 
yellow;  the  antennas  are  reddish  yellow;  the  arista  is  black,  tapering 
from  base  to  near  middle,  bare,  and  distinctly  shorter  than  from  its  base 
to  vertex;  cheeks  more  than  one-half  the  eye-height;  marginal  mouth 
bristles  numerous,  vibrissa  hardly  differentiated.  Mesonotum  with 
the  marks  dull  gray  black;  the  posterior  lateral  stripes  narrow,  linear, 
distinctly  separated  from  the  inner  lateral  lobe;  the  central  excision 
carried  forward  at  its  angles  but  not  sufficiently  to  separate  the  inner 
lateral  stripes  from  the  central  one  on  their  whole  length;  four  pairs  of 
dorso-central  bristles  present,  the  anterior  two  pairs  about  two-thirds 
as  large  as  the  posterior  pairs;  the  thorax  is  distinctly  broader  than  in 
longispinosa,  being  almost  subquadrate,  in  longispinosa  it  is  at  least 
one-third  longer  than  broad;  the  small  bristles  between  the  dorso- 
centrals  are  at  least  four-rowed  in  borealis.  The  pleuras  and  scutelluin 
are  bristled  and  colored  as  in  longispinosa,  the  scutellum  having  two 
distinct  dark  lateral  basal  spots.  Abdomen  yellow,  basal  three  seg- 
ments brownish,  next  two  with  a  brownish  spot  on  each  side,  sixth  with 
a  central  black  spot;  base  of  ovipositor  glossy  black,  longer  than  sixth 
segment,  which  is  not  elognated,  bristles  as  in  melampyga.  Legs 
yellow,  tarsi  slightly  browned ;  mid  tibiee  as  in  longispinosa,  without  the 
posterior  bristles.     Wings  grayish,  veins  yellowish,  except  third  which 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  281 

is  brown;  outer  cross  vein  more  than  its  own  length  from  inner  cross 
vein,  first  and  second  sections  of  fourth  vein  equal;  first  portion  of  fifth 
two-thirds  as  long  as  last  portion.     Halteres  yellow.     Length,  1.5  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15560,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Much  as  I  dislike  the  idea  of  describing  a  new  species 
from  a  single  specimen,  I  believe  that  in  this  case  I  am  justified 
in  doing  so,  as  the  specimen  is  in  good  condition  and  presents 
some  good  characters  for  its  separation  from  longispinosa 
and  its  allies.     (Compare  arcticum  Lundbeck) 

7.     Agromyza  flavonigra  Coquillett. 
Plate  XXX,  Fig.  27. 

vSyn:  Agromym  flavonigra  Coquillett,  Jour.  N.  Y.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  10, 1902,  p.  189. 

Female:  Head  yellow,  ocellar  region  and  back  of  head  brownish  or 
blackish;  frons  distinctly,  but  not  greatly,  wider  than  one-third  the  head 
width;  almost  parallel-sided;  the  orbital  bristles  strong,  black;  antennee 
rather  small,  yellow,  third  joint  rounded  in  front,  arista  brown,  yellow 
at  base,  almost  bare,  and  falling  just  short  of  reaching  to  vertex;  base 
distinctly  swollen,  elongate;  cheeks  broad,  one-third  higher  pos- 
teriorly than  anteriorly,  and  at  former  place  one-half  as  high  as  eye- 
height;  marginal  bristles  of  moderate  length,  vibrissa  not  strong  but 
distinctly  longer  than  the  other  marginal  bristles;  proboscis  and  palpi 
yellow;  palpi  linear,  with  numerous  short,  black  bristles.  Mesonotum 
marked  much  as  in  melampyga,  but  the  posterior  quadrate  excision  in 
center  has  two  linear,  yellow,  anterior  prolongations  which  divide  the 
black  portion  more  or  less  disticntly  into  three  vittse;  the  posterior, 
longitudinal,  yellow,  dentiform  incision  of  the  outer  lobe  is  also  pro- 
longed, and  separates  the  outer  portion  of  the  posterior  half  of  the 
black  mark,  so  that  it  forms  a  separate  black  stripe  giving  the  dorsum 
the  appearance  of  having  five  vittae.  Four  pairs  of  dorso-central 
bristles  present,  the  anterior  two  pairs  somewhat  reduced  in  size.  In 
other  respects  the  thorax  is  much  as  in  melampyga,  but  the  fringe  of  the 
squamae  is  pale  and  there  is  a  lateral  black  spot  at  base  on  each  side  of 
scutellum.  Abdomen  yellow;  first  to  fourth  segments  with  a  dorsal, 
brown,  central  spot,  fifth  with  a  pair  of  close  placed  spots  on  center  of 
disk,  sixth  with  a  pair  at  near  base  which  are  wider  placed  than  those  on 
fourth,  and  another  larger  pair  more  widely  placed  at  about  middle; 
sixth  segment  about  four  times  as  long  as  fifth;  base  of  ovipositor 
glossy  black,  conical,  as  long  as  sixth  segment;  all  segments  with 
numerous  black  hairs,  those  on  apices  of  last  two  segments  bristle- 
like. Legs  yellow,  brown  on  base  of  fore  coxae,  bases  and  apices 
of  all  femora,  as  well  as  the  entire  tibiae  and  tarsi  of  all  legs.  Wings 
much  as  in  melampyga,  but  the  inner  cross  vein  is  rather  before 
the  end  of  first  vein,  the  second  portion  of  fourth  vein  is  shorter  than 
first,  the  outer  cross  vein  rather  oblique,  and  the  first  section  of  fifth  is 
shorter  than  in  melampyga,  being  only  two-thirds  as  long  as  last  section. 

Length,  3  mm. 

Locality — Beulah,  New  Mexico,  (T.  D.  Cockerell).  Re- 
described  from  type  specimens.       Food-plant  unknown. 


282  Annals  Entomological  Society  oj  America       [Vol.  VI,. 

8.     Agromyza  melampyga  Loew. 

Plate  XXX,  Fig.  20;  Plate  XXXI,  Fig.  31. 

Syn:  Agromyza  melampyga  Loew,  Dipt.  Amer.  Sept.  Indig.  Cent.  8,  1869. 
Agromyza  sorosis  Williston,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  London,  1896,  p.  429. 
Agromyza  flavivenlris  Johnson,  Can.  Ent.  Vol.  34,  1902,  p.  242. 

Male  and  Female:  Head  yellow,  only  black  behind  and  on  ocellar 
region;  frons  about  one-third  the  width  of  head,  almost  parallel-sided, 
except  at  just  anterior  to  vertex,  where  the  eyes  round  ofif  and  the 
frons  becomes  rather  abruptly  wider;  bristling  normal;  cheeks  narrow, 
distinctly  higher  posteriorly,  marginal  bristles  weak,  anterior  vibrissa 
incurved,  of  moderate  size;  antennee  rather  below  the  average  size, 
third  joint  rounded,  arista  brown,  tapering,  distinctly  but  shortly 
pubescent,  slightly  longer  than  the  length  of  from  its  base  to  vertex; 
proboscis  and  palpi  yellow.  Thorax  colored  and  marked  as  in  xantho- 
phora;  four  pairs  of  dorso-central  bristles  present;  the  anterior  two  pairs 
much  reduced  in  size ;  other  bristling  as  in  that  species ;  squamae  brown- 
ish from  near  base,  the  apex  blackish,  fringe  brown.  Abdomen  vary- 
ing from  yellow  to  brown,  with  pale  apices  to  segments;  all  segments 
with  numerous  black  hairs.  Legs  generally  entirely  yellow,  sometimes, 
the  tibiae  and  tarsi  are  darkened  somewhat;  mid  tibias  with  two  yellow 
posterior  bristles  present.  Wings  clear,  or  slightly  grayish;  first  costal 
division  about  one-half  as  long  as  second;  second,  third  and  fourth  veins, 
divergent  on  outer  third ;  outer  cross  vein  distinctly  shorter  than  section 
of  fourth  vein  anterior  to  it,  or  almost  as  long  as  it,  first  and  second 
sections  of  fourth  vein  subequal,  or  the  former  slightly  the  shorter;, 
penultimate  section  of  fifth  vein  about  three-fourths  as  long  ultimate 
section.     Halteres  yellow. 

Length,  13^-2  mm. 

This  species  was  originally  described  from  District  of 
Columbia,  (Osten  Sacken)  by  Loew.  Coquillett  records  it 
(Bull.  10  in  ser.  U.  S.  Dept.  Agric.  1898,  p.  77)  as  bred  from 
leaves  of  a  cultivated  species  of  Philadelphicus,  collected  at 
Washington,  D.  C.  during  the  latter  part  of  July,  1884,  and 
from  mines  in  leaves  of  Plantago  major,  collected  June  28, 
1888,  same  locality.  He  states  that  the  larva  pupated  within 
the  mines.  These  specimens  are  in  collections  at  U.  S.  National 
Museum.  Besides  these  specimens  there  is  one  from  Biscayne 
Bay,  Florida,  (Mrs.  A.  T.  Slosson)  and  I  have  examined  a 
series  reared  from  Plantain,  June  26,  1912,  Lafayette,  Indiana, 
(J.  J.   Davis). 

Johnson  described  flaviventris  from  Niagara  Falls,  New 
York.  Williston's  species  was  from  St.  Vincent,  West  Indies. 
Other  localities:  New  Jersey  (Smith);  White  Mountains, 
New  Hampshire  (Mrs.  A.   T.  Slosson). 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  283 


Agromyza  melampyga  var.  marginalis,  new  variety. 
Male  and  Female:  This  variety  differs  from  the  type  in  being 
rather  smaller  13^  mm.;  in  being  comparatively  more  strongly  bristled, 
in  having  only  the  margins  of  the  thoracic  markings  black,  the  remain- 
der being  yellowish,  and  in  having  the  arista  shorter,  barely  reaching 
to  vertex  in  the  only  specimen  in  which  it  is  extant. 

The  three  specimens,  two  males,  one  female,  were  reared 
from  Paspalurii,  (Oct. 2,  1912).  Locality:  Columbia,  South 
Carolina,  (P.  Luginbill)  Webster,  No.  9711. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15561,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

It  is  possible  that  this  is  a  distinct  species,  but  the  material 
is  too  scanty  to  give  one  a  basis  for  a  definite  opinion  as  to- 
whether  it  is  so,  or  whether  the  eifect  of  a  different  food  plant, 
is  responsible  for  the  variation  in  color,  etc. 

-9.  Agromyza  brevicostalis,  new  species. 
Plate  XXVIII,  Fig.  S. 
Female:  Frons  lemon  yellow;  one  half  as  broad  as  head  and  dis- 
tinctly broader  than  long;  center  stripe  blackened  on  anterior  half; 
orbits  differentiated  from  center  stripe;  four  orbital  bristles  present;  in 
addition  to  the  bristles  there  is  a  row  of  weak  hairs  nearer  to  eye 
margin,  which  begins  at  opposite  base  of  antennae  and  continues  to 
beyond  upper  orbital  bristle;  ocellar  region  raised,  brown;  back  of 
head,  and  a  triangular  patch  at  lateral  angle  of  orbits  brown,  or  black- 
brown;  lunule  yellow;  antennse  of  moderate  size,  black  brown;  second 
joint  with  distinct  dorsal  bristle;  third  joint  rounded  in  front,  covered 
with  short  pilosity;  arista  brown;  basal  swelling  elongate;  pubescence 
very  indistinct;  length  of  arista  equal  to  from  its  base  to  upper  orbital 
bristle;  face  yellow,  blackened  on  depressions  below  antennas;  concave 
in  profile;  keel  slight;  cheeks  yellow,  blackened  anteriorly;  distinctly 
higher  posteriorly  than  anteriorly;  height  at  highest  part  less  than  one- 
half  the  height  of  eye;  occiput  not  projecting  on  upper  half;  proboscis 
yellow;  palpi  black,  nonnal.  Mesonotum  gray  black,  subopaque, 
broadly  pale  yellow  on  lateral  margins;  a  small  patch  on  each  side 
posteriorly,  the  pale  color  extending  slightly  on  to  anterior  lateral 
angle  of  scutellimi;  four  pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present,  the  anterior 
two  pairs  reduced  in  size;  no  distinct  dorso-centrals  anterior  to  suture, 
though  the  3  setulas  immediately  anterior  to  suture  in  line  with  dorso- 
centrals  are  rather  strong;  discal  setul«  upright,  not  very  numerous; 
about  4  irregtdar  rows  between  the  dorso-centrals;  the  pair  of  bristles 
between  the  posterior  pair  of  dorso-centrals  distinct,  and  of  moderate 
length;  humeri  yellow,  with  a  dark  discal  mark;  pleurae  black-gray, 
subshining;  sutures  and  upper  margin  narrowly,  and  a  patch  below 
wing  base  yellow;  squamae  yellow,  fringe  brown.  Abdomen  glossy 
black,  posterior  margins  of  all  segments  narrowly  pale  yellow ;  segments 
with  numerous  hairs,  stronger  on  posterior  margins;  base  of  ovipositor 
glossy  black,  as  long  as  preceding  segment.     Legs  black,  glossy,  knees 


284  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

pale  yellow,  fore  tibia  and  tarsi  brownish;  mid  tibia  without  posterior 
bristles.  Wings  very  similar  to  those  of  parvicella;  subcostal  vein 
incomplete;  fourth  vein  not  so  indistinct  as  in  parvicella. 

Halteres  yellow. 

Length,  2  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15562,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Glacier  National  Park,  Montana,  (Hopkins 
No.  5932c.),  one  female. 

10.     Agromyza  davisi  Walton. 
Plate  XXVIII,  Fig.  7. 
Syn:  Agromyza  davisii  Walton..  Ent.  News  Vol.  1912. 

Female:  Frons  opaque,  clear  yellow,  slightly  broader  than  long, 
slightly  more  than  one-third  as  wide  as  head,  ocellar  region  shining 
black,  orbits  blackened  posteriorly,  back  of  head  black;  four  pairs  of 
orbital  bristles  present,  the  lower  pair  much  the  weakest;  besides  those 
bristles  there  is  a  row  of  short  hairs,  nearer  to  eye  margin,  almost  on 
the  whole  length  of  orbit;  antennae  above  the  average  size,  deep  black, 
third  joint  subquadrate,  covered  with  very  fine  short  pilosity;  arista 
gradually  tapering,  almost  bare,  as  long  as  from  its  base  to  vertex;  face 
brown,  almost  perpendicular,  slightly  keeled,  mouth  margin  not  pro- 
duced, cheeks  opaque,  clear  yellow,  higher  posteriorly  than  anteriorly, 
but  at  highest  part  only  about  one-fourth  as  high  as  eye-height;  pro- 
biscis  yellow;  palpi  black.  Mesonotum  opaque  gray,  four  pairs  of 
dorso-central  bristles  present,  anterior  pairs  slightly  weaker  than  the 
posterior  two  pairs;  between  the  dorso-centrals  there  are  on  the  anterior 
half  of  disk  ntmierous  setulae  which  are  irregularly  arranged,  but  which 
represent  at  least  four  rows;  anterior  pair  of  dorso-centrals  as  widely 
placed  as  posterior  pair;  all  bristles  on  margins  very  long;  pleurse  sub- 
shining  gray  black,  the  upper  margin  narrowly  yellow,  as  well  as  a 
patch  below  wing  base,  and  the  suture  behind  middle  coxae;  squamae 
pale  whitish  yellow,  fringe  concolorous;  scutellum  concolorous  with 
mesonottmi,  four  marginal  bristles  present;  postnotum  shining  black. 
Abdomen  brownish  black,  apices  of  segments  yellowish,  ovipositor 
glossy  black,  distinctly  longer  than  sixth  segment;  all  abdominal  seg- 
ments with  scattered  hairs,  which  are  strongest  on  the  posterior  mar- 
gins. Legs  black,  knees  narrowly  yellowish;  mid  tibia  without  pos- 
terior bristles.  Wings  with  costa  to  slightly  beyond  third  vein,  outer 
cross  vein  below  one-fourth  from  end  of  first  costal  division,  and  at 
about  one-half  its  own  length  from  inner  cross  vein;  discal  cell  shorter 
than  lower  basal  cell;  third  and  fourth  veins  regularly  divergent  on 
their  last  sections;  fourth  vein  indistinct  from  outer  cross  vein;  last 
section  of  fifth  vein  about  two  times  as  long  as  penultimate  section. 

Halteres  yellow. 

Length,  2.5  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15563,  U.  S.  N.  M. 
Locality:     Lafayette,  Ind.  (J.  J.  Davis). 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  285 

A  single  specimen  of  this  species  stood  in  the  U.  S.  National 
Museum  collection  as  Napomyza  lateralis  Fallen.  Localit}": 
Missouri,  reared  from  R,  ahortivus. 

Food-plant:     Ranunculus  abortivus. 

11.     Agromyza  abbreviata,  new  species. 
Plate  XXXI,  Fig.  32. 

Male:  Frons  black;  center  stripe  opaque,  brownish  in  center; 
orbits  glossy  at  base  of  bristles;  five  orbital  bristles  present,  the  bristles 
situated  on  near  to  inner  margin  of  orbits ;  beyond  them  is  an  irregular 
row  of  hairs;  ocellar  region  and  ocellar  triangle  glossy,  the  latter  rather 
distinctly  defined  for  this  group ;  antennas  as  in  kincaidi,  but  pubescence 
on  arista  much  shorter;  face  subshining  black,  slightly  concave  in  pro- 
file, the  keel  slight;  cheeks  opaque  brown,  rather  long,  distinctly  higher 
at  posterior  margin  than  at  anterior,  at  highest  part  a  little  more  than 
one-fourth  as  high  as  eye;  marginal  bristles  weak,  in  a  double  row,  and 
rather  niimerous;  the  vibrissa  weakly  differentiated;  eye  comparatively 
larger  than  in  kincaidi  the  occiput  less  projecting;  proboscis  yellow; 
palpi  black,  normal.  Mesonotimi  shining  black;  the  surface  hairs 
numerous,  and  rather  long;  three  distinct  pairs  of  dorso-centrals  pres- 
ent, the  anterior  pair  reduced,  and  with  a  pair  of  large  setulas  anterior 
to  them ;  the  pair  of  bristles  between  the  posterior  pair  of  dorso-centrals 
distinct,  about  half  as  large  as  the  dorso-central  pair;  pleurae  glossy 
black,  yellowish  below  wing  base;  squamee  yellowish  white,  fringe 
white;  scutellum  and  postnotum  glossy  black.  Abdomen  concolorous 
with  thorax;  all  segments  with  numerous  surface  hairs;  hypopygiimi  of 
nonnal  size,  glossy  black.  Legs  piceous;  knees  yellowish,  femora 
black;  mid  tibia  with  posterior  bristles  distinct.  Wings  clearer  and 
comparatively  broader  than  in  kincaidi.     Halteres  yellow,  knob  white. 

Length,  3.5  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15564,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Las  Vegas,  Hot  Springs,  New  Mexico,  (H.  S. 
Barber).     One   male. 

12.  Agromyza  kincaidi,  new  species. 
Plate  XXIX,  Fig.  12. 
Female:  Entirely  black,  except  the  halteres  and  squamae,  which 
are  white,  distinctly  shining.  Frons  shining  but  not  glossy,  center 
stripe  opaque,  breadth  of  frons  slightly  more  than  one-half  of  the  head 
width,  slightly  divergent  posteriorly,  orbital  bristles  on  near  inner 
margin  of  orbits,  the  upper  one  distinctly  lower  than  anterior  ocellus, 
the  others  close  together  and  decreasing  in  size  as  they  advance  towards 
antennas,  besides  the  strong  bristles  there  are  smaller  hairs  arranged  in 
a  row  nearer  to  eye  margin  on  the  entire  length  of  orbit ;  frons  in  profile 
slightly  projecting  in  front;  face  concave,  with  a  slight  central  longi- 
tudinal keel,  the  upper  mouth  margin  slightly  protruding;  cheeks 
brownish,  posteriorly  almost  one-half  as  high  as  eye-height,  anter- 
iorly less  than  one-half   as  high  as   posterior   height;  mouth  margin 


286  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

with  a  double  row  of  bristles,  the  upper  of  which  are  directed 
forward  and  slightly  upward,  and  continue  to  lowest  level  of  eyes 
anteriorly,  vibrissa  stronger  than  other  bristles,  incurved,  situated 
lower  than  anterior  bristles  on  ridge  above;  antennae  rather  small, 
second  joint  with  short  bristles  in  addition  to  the  dorsal  one,  and  some 
on  under  side,  third  joint  rounded  except  on  dorsal  surface  at  apex, 
where  it  is  truncate;  arista  but  little  swollen  at  base,  thickly  but  shortly 
pubescent,  and  shorter  than  from  its  base  to  anterior  ocellus;  proboscis 
brownish;  palpi  black,  of  moderate  size,  normal  in  shape,  rather  dis- 
tinctly bristled.  Mesonotimi  with  three  pairs  of  dorso-central  bristles, 
and  one  or  two  long  hairs  anterior  to  the  third  pair;  in  addition  to 
these  the  disk  is  covered  with  numerous  short  hairs.  (The  large  pins 
used  for  transfixing  the  two  specimens  have  practically  destroyed  the 
thorax  and  make  it  very  nearly  impossible  to  judge  the  nature  of  the 
chaetotaxy,  and  it  may  be  that  in  some  cases  the  species  has  four  instead 
of  three  pairs  of  dorso-centrals) .  Scutellum  four  bristled,  disk  bare; 
squamae  whitish,  fringe  pale.  Abdomen  glossy  black;  all  segments 
with  numerous  hairs,  those  on  apex  of  sixth  segment  bristle-like,  base 
of  ovipositor  glossy  black,  longer  than  fifth  segment.  Legs  entirely 
black,  the  mid  tibiae  with  the  pair  of  posterior  bristles  present.  Wings 
grayish,  veins  brown,  costa  carried  indistinctly  beyond  third  vein,  but 
falling  much  short  of  fourth;  inner  cross  vein  at  end  of  first  vein,  outer 
cross  vein  at  slightly  beyond  center  of  wing,  and  at  nearly  twice  its  own 
length  from  inner  cross  vein;  second  section  of  fourth  vein  shorter 
than  first,  and  rather  more  than  one-fourth  as  long  as  last  section;  last 
section  of  fifth  three-fifths  as  long  as  the  preceding  section. 

Halteres  white. 

Length,  3  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15565,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:     Juneau,   Alaska,   July   25,    1899,    (Kincaid). 

The  paratype  which  is  in  rather  poor  condition  differs 
slightly  from  the  type  in  neuration,  having  the  outer  sections 
of  the  veins  comparatively  longer  than  in  the  type. 

The  species  is  named  in  honor  of  Prof.  Trevor  Kincaid, 
who  collected  it. 

This  is  the  species  recorded  by  Coquillett  as  A .  neptis  Loew, 
(Proc.  Wash.  Acad.  Sci.  Vol.  2,  1900,  p.  463),  occuring  in 
Alaska.  It  is  very  close  to  the  species  described  by  Schiner 
(Fauna  Austriaca,  Vol.  2,  1864,  p.  303)  as  nigripes  Meigen. 
He  misidentified  Meigen' s  species  which  has  the  costa  to  the 
fourth  vein.  Afterwards  -Rondani  placed  Schiner's  species  in 
Domomyza  and  retained  the  specific  name  as  nigripes  Schiner 
(nee  Meigen).  This  generic  division  has  been  repudiated  by 
various  writers,  and  as  no  other  valid  name  has  been  given  to 
this  species  it  must  be  renamed.     (See  Addenda.) 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  287 


13.     Agromyza  parvicella  Coquillett. 
Plate  XXVIII,  Fig.  4;  Plate  XXX,  Fig.  17. 

Syn:  Agromyza  parvicella  Coquillett,  Jour.  N.  Y.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  X,  1902,  p.  189. 

Female:  Black,  slightly  shining;  very  slender  species.  Frons 
brown,  yellomsh  in  front,  almost  black  at  vertex,  occupying  more 
than  one-half  the  width  of  the  head;  orbits  distinct,  darker  than  frontal 
stripe,  each  orbit  rather  more  than  one-half  as  wide  as  frontal  stripe, 
the  bristles,  four  on  each  side  from  anterior  ocellus,  situated  near 
inner  margin  of  orbit;  the  upper  two  stronger  than  the  lower  two,  post- 
vertical  bristles  divergent;  frons  in  profile  slightly  projecting,  face 
slightl}'  concave,  mouth  margin  not  projecting,  face  sub-shining,  black; 
cheeks  yellowish,  more  than  one-half  as  high  as  eye,  and  of  almost 
equal  breadth  on  their  entire  length,  marginal  bristles  weak,  vibrissas 
l6ng,  but  not  strong;  antennas  black,  second  joint  with  the  usual  dorsal 
bristle,  which  is  hair-like,  otherwise  entirely  bare,  third  joint  subquad- 
rate,  of  moderate  length,  falling  short  of  mouth  margin,  gently  rounded 
at  apex,  arista  thickened  at  base,  very  short,  barely  one  and  one-third 
times  as  long  as  antennse,  thickly,  but  very  shortly  pubescent;  proboscis 
yellow  at  apex,  membraneous;  palpi  black,  slightly  projecting  beyond 
upper  mouth  margin;  occiput  swollen  from  slightly  below  upper  margin 
of  vertex.  Mesonotum  subshining,  four  pairs  of  dorso-central  bristles 
present,  the  pair  anterior  to  the  suture,  and  the  anterior  pair  behind 
sutures  slightly  smaller  than  the  posterior  pairs;  two  irregular  rows  of 
setulas  between  the  dorso-centrals ;  pleurae  concolorous  with  disk  of 
mesonotum,  but  glossy  on  lower  portion;  scutelltim  with  four  marginal 
bristles,  disk  bare;  squamae  brownish,  fringe  long,  brown.  Abdomen 
concolorous  with  thorax;  first  segment  elongated,  about  twice  as  long  as 
second,  remaining  segments  subequal;  last  abdominal  segment  glossy 
black;  all  segments  with  scattered,  rather  long  hairs,  those  on  apex  of 
sixth  segment  longest.  Legs  long  and  slender,  brown,  trochanters, 
apices  of  femora  and  bases  of  tibia  narrowly  yellowish;  no  bristles 
present  on  mid  tibias.  Wings  brownish,  costa  reaching  only  to  end  of 
third  vein,  second  costal  division  two  and  one-half  times  as  long  as 
first;  subcostal  vein  indistinct,  obsolete  on  apical  fifth;  outer  cross  vein 
slightly  before  end  of  first  vein,  and  at  about  its  own  length  from  inner 
cross  vein,  second  section  of  fourth  vein  one-half  as  long  as  first;  section 
of  fifth  vein  between  cross  veins  about  one-fifth  as  long  as  last  section; 
fourth  vein  indistinct,  anal  cell  distinct,  anal  vein  strong,  reaching 
nearly  to  wing  margin.     Halteres  yellow. 

Length,  2  mm. 

Locality:     St.  Paul  Island,  Alaska,   (Kincaid). 

Food-plant  unknown. 

Redescribed  from  type  specimen  in  U.  S.  National  Museum 
collection.  This  species  is  rather  different  from  most  species 
in  Agromyza  and  may  be  considered  by  some  writers  as  be- 
longing to  some  of  the  other  families  in  the  Acalypterate 
Muscidse,  but  I  believe  it  may  be  most  clearly  associated  with 
this  genus.     Like  the  next  species  it  belongs  to  the  segregate 


288  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

of  Agromyza  with  the  costa  to  third  vein  only.  This  char- 
acter is  not  of  such  importance  that  it  may  be  considered 
as  of  generic  value,  and  I  therefore  am  not  using  Rondani's 
generic  name  Domomyza,  as  species  which  are  very  dissimilar 
are  thrown  together  in  Domomyza,  and  thus  separated  from 
forms  to  which  they  are  more  closely  allied  in  Agromyza. 

14.     Agromyza  nitida,  new  species. 
Plate  XXVIII,  Fig.  1;  Plate  XXX,  Fig.  26. 

Female:  Frons  reddish  yellow,  distinctly  longer  than  broad- 
ocellar  region  black;  vertex  and  orbits  posteriorly  blackened;  upper 
parts  of  frons  shining,  lower  and  central  parts  opaque;  five  pairs  of 
moderately  strong  orbital  bristles  present,  w^hich  are  of  almost  uniform 
size  and  situated  nearer  to  inner  margin  of  orbits  than  to  eyes;  face 
slightly  keeled,  brown,  in  profile  a  little  concave;  antennas  brownish 
yellow,  very  short,  second  joint  almost  bare,  the  dorsal  bristle  weak, 
third  joint  longer  than  broad,  twice  as  long  as  second,  regularly  rounded 
at  apex;  arista  brcmni,  slightly  thickened  at  base,  almost  bare,  not  as 
long  as  half  the  length  of  from  its  base  to  vertex;  cheeks  yellow,  lower 
margin  narrowly  shining  black,  in  outline 4ower  margin  rounded,  height 
posteriorly  rather  less  than  one-third  that  of  the  vertically  elongate  eye, 
anteriorly  not  so  high;  marginal  bristles  very  weak,  vibrissa  present  but 
not  strong;  proboscis  yellowish  brown;  palpi  concolorous,  small,  not 
dilated,  bare.  Thorax  rounded  above;  mesonotum  about  one-third 
longer  than  broad,  glossy  black,  covered  on  the  disk  with  short  setulose 
hairs,  two  pairs  of  rather  widely  placed,  post-sutural,  dorso-central 
bristles  present,  the  pair  of  strong  hairs  between  the  posterior  pair 
absent;  humeri  pale  yellow,  margins  of  mesonotum  brownish;  pleurse 
brownish-black,  glossy,  upper  margin  narrowly  yellow  along  suture; 
in  front  of  wing  base  also  yellowish;  squamas  yellowish,  the  margin  and 
fringe  brown;  scutellum  rounded,  concolorous  with  mesonotum,  four 
marginal  bristles  present.  Abdomen  glossy  black-brown,  segments 
with  an  indication  of  a  linear,  yellow,  posterior  margin;  ovipositor 
glossy  black,  barely  longer  than  preceding  segment;  all  abdominal 
segments  with  scattered  hairs,  those  on  the  apical  segment  not  much 
longer  than  the  others.  Wings  grayish;  auxiliary  vein  complete,  but 
indistinct;  second  costal  division  about  two  and  one-third  times  as 
long  as  first;  outer  cross  vein  situated  directly  below  end  of  first  vein 
and  at  its  own  length  from  inner  cross  vein,  portion  of  fourth  vein 
anterior  to  inner' cross  vein  slightly  more  than  twice  as  long  as  section 
beyond  it;  third  and  fourth  veins  regularly  divergent  on  the  whole  of 
the  last  section,  latter  much  less  distinct  than  the  longitudinal  veins 
anterior  to  it;  penultimate  section  of  fifth  vein  one-third  as  long  as 
ultimate  section;  costa  reaching  slightly  beyond  end  of  third  vein. 
Halteres  with  yellow  stalk  and  white  knob. 

Length,  1.5  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15566,  U.  S.  N.  M. 
Locality:     Cabin  John  Bridge,   Maryland,  April  28,   1912, 
(Knab  and  Malloch).     Food-plant  unknown. 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  289 


15.     Agromyza  immaculata  Coquillett. 
Plate  XXVIII,  Fig.  3. 
Syn:  Odinia  immaculata  Coquillett,  Jour.  N.  Y.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  X,  1902,  p.  185. 

Female:  Frons  yellow,  or  reddish  yellow,  almost  parallel-sided,  in 
breadth  distinctly,  but  not  greatly,  more  than  one-third  the  head  width; 
ocellar  region  black ;  orbits  whitish ;  entire  frons  opaque ;  orbital  bristles 
strong,  only  three  pairs  anterior  to  lower  ocellus;  the  lower  pair  of 
which  are  incurved;  face  and  cheeks  pale  yellow,  the  former  almost 
perpendicular  and  with  indistinct  keel,  the  latter  distinctly  higher 
posteriorly  than  anteriorly,  at  middle  less  than  one-third  as  high  as  eye 
height;  marginal  mouth  bristles  distinct,  vibrissa  not  much  longer 
than  other  bristles;  antennas  yellow,  brownish  on  upper  and  outer  sur- 
faces, dorsal  bristle  on  second  joint  distinct,  but  no  other  noticeable 
bristles  present;  third  joint  of  moderate  size,  more  than  twice  as  long 
as  second,  regularly  rounded  at  apex,  distinctly  longer  than  broad; 
arista  brown,  with  almost  the  basal  third  swollen,  lanceolate,  bare,  in 
length  as  long  as  from  its  base  to  vertex;  proboscis  and  palpi  yellow, 
the  latter  with  2-3  weak  hairs  at  apex.  Mesonotum  opaque  gray,  the 
space  between  the  dorso-central  bristles  opaque,  yellowish,  with  the 
appearance  of  pollinosity;  four  pairs  of  strong  dorso-centrals  present, 
which  are  in  parallel  rows,  and  but  little  weaker  anteriorly,  two  rows 
of  bristles  between  dorso-centrals,  which  are  regular,  equally  spaced 
from  dorso-centrals  and  from  each  other,  and  are  not  continued  beyond 
middle  of  disk;  besides  the  other  normal  bristles  there  are  only  3-4 
small  setulas  laterally  beyond  the  dorso-centrals;  humeri  yellow,  with  a 
black  spot,  lateral  margins  of  mesonotum  yellow;  pleurae  yellow,  a 
longitudinal,  elongate  spot  on  middle  from  propleuree  over  mesopleurag, 
a  large  triangular  spot  between  fore  and  mid  coxas,  a  spot  above  hind 
coxae,  and  a  less  distinct  one  below  wing  base;  squamse  brownish,  fringe 
brown;  scutellum  concolorous  \vith  disk  of  mesonotimi,  the  yellow 
central  stripe  more  distinct  and,  narrowly,  much  paler,  with  more  the 
appearance  of  ground  than  surface  color,  in  shape  the  scutellum  is  sub- 
triangular,  flattened  on  surface;  four  marginal  bristles  present;  post- 
notum  anteriorly  yellow,  posteriorly  shining  black.  Abdomen  brown- 
ish with  the  posterior  margins  of  basal  four  segments  narrowly,  and 
apex  of  sixth  broadly  yellow,  or  the  sixth  entirely  yellow  and  the  others 
broadly  yellow  at  apices;  ovipositor  glossy  brown,  shorter  than  sixth 
segment;  all  segments  with  numerous  hair-like  bristles.  Legs  yellow, 
marked  with  brown  ,on  base  of  fore  coxae,  upper  surface  and  base  of  all 
femora;  tibiae  and  tarsi  more  or  less  brownish  tinged;  mid  tibiae  without 
the  posterior  bristles.  Wings  grayish  on  anterior  half;  subcostal  vein 
indistinct;  first  costal  division  one-third  as  long  as  second;  outer  cross 
vein  distinctly  beyond  end  of  first  vein,  and  at  about  twice  its  own 
length  from  inner  cross  vein,  first  division  of  fourth  vein  shorter  than 
second,  first  section  of  fifth  vein  about  three-fourths  as  long  as  last 
section;  third  and  fourth  veins  subparallel,  only  distinctly  divergent 
at  extreme  apices.     Halteres  pale  yellow. 

Length,  2  mm. 


290  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

Type:     Cat.  No.  6649,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Type  Locality:  Mt.  Washington,  New  Hampshire,  (Mrs. 
A.    T.   Slosson). 

Besides  the  type  there  are  specimens  in  collection  from  the 
following  locations:  Two  specimens,  Santa  Fe,  New  Mexico, 
(May),  (H.  S.  Barber),  one  specimen  St.  Louis,  Missouri, 
April  30,  1904  (W.  V.  Warner) ;  and  one  specimen,  Kaslo, 
British  Columbia,  July  17,  1903,  (R.  P.  Currie). 

Food-plant  unknown. 

The  type  specimen  has  the  yellow  thoracic  markings  on 
disk  and  scutellum  rather  indistinct,  but  in  other  respects 
is  similar.  It  is  a  true  Agromyza  and  has  very  little  in  common 
with  Odinia  omata  Zetterstedt,  which  is  represented  in  the 
U.  S.  N.  M.  collection  by  one  specimen  from  Dauphin  county, 
Pennsylvania. 

16.     Agromyza  citreifrons,  new  species. 

Male  and  Female:  Frons  opaque,  lemon  yellow,  distinctly  longer 
than  broad,  one-half  as  wide  as  head,  parallel-sided;  orbits  more  or  less 
blackened  or  broomed,  especially  posteriorly;  three  pairs  of  long,  fine, 
orbital  bristles  anterior  to  front  ocellus,  the  upper  distinctly  in  front  of 
anterior  ocellus,  anterior  to  lower  bristle  there  is  a  weak  hair,  othermse 
the  orbits  are  bare;  ocellar  region  and  back  of  head  black;  antennae  of 
moderate  size,  clear  lemon  yellow;  second  joint  bare  except  for  the 
weak  dorsal  bristle;  third  joint  rounded,  about  three  times  as  long  as 
second;  arista  concolorous  with  antennse  on  the  swollen  base,  brown  on 
remainder,  almost  bare,  barely  as  long  as  from  its  base  to  anterior 
ocellus;  face  yellow,  slightly  retreating  in  profile;  cheeks  concolorous, 
higher  posteriorly  than  anteriorly,  at  highest  part  over  one-third  the 
height  of  eye;  eye  slightly  longer  than  high;  marginal  mouth  bristles 
not  numerous  (4-5)  but  rather  strong,  the  vibrissa  hardly  differentiated; 
proboscis  and  palpi  clear  lemon  yellow.  Mesonotum  opaque,  brown- 
,black;  lateral  margins  and  humeri  brownish  yellow;  four  pairs  of  dorso- 
central  bristles,  arranged  in  parallel  rows,  anteriorly  reduced  in  length; 
setulse  between  dorso-centrals  irregularly  arranged  in  3-4  rows,  extend- 
ing to  posterior  margin;  pleurae  lemon  yellow,  a  large  brown  or  blackish 
triangular  spot  between  the  fore  and  mid  coxae,  another  smaller  one 
over  hind  coxae  and  an  indistinct  longitudinal  mark  sometimes  present 
on  mesopleurae  on  middle;  squainae  brownish,  fringe  brown;  scutellum 
brown,  with  four  marginal  bristles;  postnotum  black.  Abdomen 
shining  brown,  or  blackish,  lateral  margins  yellow  in  female,  ovipositor 
of  female  glossy  brown-black,  as  long  as  preceding  segment  of  abdomen; 
hypopygivmi  of  male  brownish,  organs  knob-like,  of  moderate  size;  all 
segments  with  numerous  black  hairs,  which  are  noticeably  longer  on 
lateral  margins  and  apices  of  last  two  segments.  Legs  yellow,  tarsi 
browned;  mid  tibia  without  posterior  bristles.     Wings  clear  or  slightly 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  291 

browned;  first  costal  division  half  as  long  as  second,  veins  2-3-4  reg- 
ularly divergent  on  last  sections,  outer  cross  vein  at  beyond  end  of  first 
vein,  and  at  a  little  more  than  its  own  length  from  inner  cross  vein  or 
at  its  own  length  from  it,  second  section  of  fourth  vein  distinctly  shorter 
than  first;  last  section  of  fifth  vein  about  twice  as  long  as  penultimate. 

Halteres  lemon  yellow. 

Length,  1-1.5  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15567,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Type  locality:  Eureka,  California,  (H,  S.  Barber).  Seven 
specimens.  I  have  seen  one  specimen  in  C.  W.  Johnson's 
collection  from  Princeton,  Maine,  July  12,  1908. 

Food-plant  unknown. 

17.     Agromyza  pruinosa  Coquillett. 
Syn:  Agromyza  pruinosa  Coquillett,  Jour.  N.  Y.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  X,  1902,  p.  189. 

Male :  Frons  opaque,  center  stripe  reddish,  merging  into  brown  on 
margins  and  posteriorly,  orbits  not  distinctly  differentiated,  and,  with 
outer  margin  of  center  stripe,  blackish;  breadth  of  frons  one-half  as 
wide  as  head;  five  orbital  bristles  present,  the  lower  four  pairs  incurved, 
the  upper  one  backwardly  directed,  no  distinct  orbital  hairs  present; 
vertical  row  and  postvertical  pair  strong;  lunule  not  differentiated 
from  center  stripe;  face  and  cheeks  reddish  yellow,  the  former  concave 
in  profile,  keel  distinct,  and  brownish;  eye  orbits  carried  back  over 
cheeks,  blackish,  cheeks  and  orbits  at  posterior  angle  of  eye  as  high  as 
eye,  marginal  bristles  on  mouth  opening  4-5  in  number,  strong,  upwardly 
directed,  vibrissa  hardly  stronger,  though  distinct;  proboscis  and  palpi 
reddish  yellow.  Mesonotum  grayish  black,  opaque,  elongate,  about 
one-half  longer  than  broad;  four  pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present,  about 
three  irregular  rows  of  setulse  between  the  dorso-centrals;  the  pair  of 
bristles  between  posterior  pair  of  'dorso-centrals  distinct;  pleura  sub- 
shining,  black-brown,  paler  below  wing  base;  squamee  of  moderate  size, 
whitish,  fringe  brown.  Abdomen  subshining,  brownish;  hypopygium 
yellowish  brown;  of  moderate  size,  all  segments  strongly  haired.  Legs 
strong;  reddish  yellow,  bases  of  femora,  apices  of  tibiae  broadly,  and 
entire  tarsi  brown;  fore  femora  with  distinct,  rather  long  central 
bristles;  mid  tibia  without  any  distinct  posterior  bristles.  Wings 
slightly  grayish;  first  costal  division  at  least  one-half  as  long  as  second, 
subcostal  vein  rather  indistinct,  complete;  inner  cross  vein  at  very 
slightly  before  end  of  first  vein,  outer  cross  vein  slightly  outward  bent 
at  middle,  at  almost  its  own  length  from  inner,  and  at  very  little  beyond 
wing  middle;  veins  2-3-4  distinctly  divergent  on  the  outer  section; 
second  and  third  sections  of  fourth  vein  together  half  as  long  as  last 
section;  last  two  sections  of  fifth  vein  subequal.  Halteres  whitish  yellow. 

Length,  2.5  mm. 

Redescribed  from  type  (Cat.  No.  6659,  U.  S.  N.  M.). 
Locality:     Colorado,   (H.  K.  Morrison). 
Food-plant  unknown. 


292  Annals  Entomological  Society  oj  America       [Vol.  VI, 


18.  Agromyza  indecisa,  new  species. 

Female:  Frons  elongate,  fully  one  and  one-third  times  as  long  as 
broad,  two-fifths  as  wide  as  head;  orbits  barely  darker  than  central 
stripe;  four  equally  strong  orbital  bristles  anterior  to  front  ocellus,  the 
upper  only  slightly  lower  than  anterior  ocellus;  besides  these  strong 
bristles  there  are  several  weak  hairs  situated  nearer  to  eye  margin 
opposite  spaces  between  the  bristles;  antennae  reddish  yellow,  shaped 
and  bristled  as  in  citreifrons,  arista  entirely  brown-black,  distinctly 
swollen  at  base,  almost  bare,  not  reaching  to  anterior  ocellus;  face 
pale  yellow,  not  produced  at  mouth  margin,  slightly  keeled;  cheeks 
distinctly  higher  posteriorly  than  anteriorly,  at  highest  part  one-third 
as  high  as  eye;  bristles  much  as  in  citreifrons;  eye  as  high  as  long;  pro- 
boscis and  palpi  yellow.  Mesonotum  black,  subshining,  disk  slightly 
gray  polHnose;  lateral  margins  and  humeri  pale  yellow;  four  pairs  of 
dorso-central  bristles  present;  anterior  to  the  one  in  front  of  suture 
there  is  a  small  bristle  which  may  be  abnormal;  other  bristling  as  in 
citreifrons;  pleurae  brown-black,  shining;  •  sutures  yellow,  squamas 
brown;  scutellum  concolorous  with  disk  of  mesonotum,  four  bristled; 
postnotum  shining  black.  Abdomen  subopaque,  brown-black;  seg- 
ments narrowly  bordered  posteriorly  with  yellow;  ovipositor  with  base 
as  long  as  sixth  segment;  bristles  as  in  citreifrons.  Legs  yellowish 
brown;  fore  coxae,  with  ventral  surfaces  and  apices  of  femora  yellow;  pos- 
terior mid  tibial  bristles  absent.  Wings  grayish;  second  costal  division 
short  of  twice  as  long  as  first;  subcostal  vein  rather  distinct;  outer  cross 
vein  beyond  end  of  first  vein,  and  at  about  its  own  length  from  inner 
cross  vein;  first  section  of  fourth  vein  longer  than  second;  last  section 
of  fifth  twice  as  long  as  penultimate  section.     Halteres  yellow. 

Length,  1.5  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15568,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:     Las    Vegas,    New    Mexico,    June,    1901,    11,000 
feet  level,   (T.   D.  A.   Cockerell). 
Food-plant  unknown. 

19.  Agromyza  varifrons  Coquillett. 

Syn:  Agromyza  varifrons  Coquillett,  Jour.  N.  Y.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  X,  1902,  p.  189. 

Female:  Frons  parallel-sided,  subopaque,  center  stripe  and  orbits 
clear  reddish  yellow  on  lower  half,  blackened  on  upper  half;  orbits 
differentiated  from  center  stripe,  very  narrow,  each  about  one-fifth  as 
wide  as  center  stripe;  four  orbital  bristles  present,  which  are  slightly 
reduced  in  strength  from  upper  to  lower  bristle;  no  hairs  on  orbits 
besides  the  bristles;  antennas  yellow,  darkened  on  third  joint  at  insertion 
of  arista ;  second  joint  with  dorsal  bristle  and  weak  apical  hairs;  third  joint 
rounded  in  front,  of  moderate  size,  not  longer  than  broad,  covered  with 
thick,  but  very  short,  white  pilosity ;  arista  brown,  short,  about  one  and 
one-third  times  as  long  as  antenna,  and  as  long  as  from  its  base  to  between 
upper  two  orbital  bristles ;  pubescence  very  short  but  close ;  face  and  cheeks 
yellow,  paler  than  frons,  the  latter  gradually  becoming  higher  towards 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  293 

posterior  margin,  at  posterior  margin  less  than  one-third  the  eye  height, 
bristles  on  margin  rather  weak,  vibrissa  well  differentiated;  proboscis 
and,  palpi  yellow.  Mesonotum  glossy  black,  humeri  brownish;  two 
pairs  of  dorso-central  bristles  present;  disk  with  numerous  short  setulse; 
pleurae  glossy  black,  brownish  below  wing  base,  squamae  grayish,  mar- 
gin and  fringe  brown;  scutellimi  and  postnotum  concolorous  with  disk 
of  mesonotum.  Abdomen  glossy  black;  base  of  ovipositor  distinctly 
longer  than  preceding  abdominal  segment;  posterior  marginal  bristles 
on  last  abdominal  segment  strong.  Legs  brown,  apices  of  femora 
and  bases  of  tibiae  paler,  yellowish,  mid  tibia  without  distinctly 
differentiated  posterior  bristles.  Wings  clear,  broad;  first  costal 
division  almost  one-half  as  long  as  second;  inner  cross  vein  beyond 
end  of  first  vein,  outer  cross  vein  at  below  middle  of  wing,  taking  its 
upper  end  as  below  middle  of  costa,  and  at  less  than  its  own  length  from 
inner  cross  ^'ein;  second  section  of  fourth  vein  less  than  one-half  as 
long  as  first,  first  and  second  sections  of  this  vein  together  half  as  long 
as  last  section;  veins  2-3-4  divergent,  fourth  vein  at  below  apex  of 
wing;  last  two  sections  of  fifth  vein  subequal.  Halteres  pale  yellow. 
Length,  2  mm. 

Redescribed  from  type.     (Cat.  No.  6658,  U.  S.  N.  M.). 

Locality:  Washington,  District  of  Columbia,  (collection 
Coquillett).  A  male  in  C.  W.  Johnson's  collection  from 
Pottstown,  Pennsylvania,  differs  from  the  type  in  having  the 
frons  and  antennae  paler  lemon  yellow,  the  arista  slightly 
longer,  and  the  cheeks  distinctly  over  one-third  the  height  of 
eye.     In  other  respects  similar  to  the  female. 

Food-plant  unknown. 

20.     Agromyza  platyptera  Thomson. 

Syn:  Agromyza  platyptera  Thomson,  Eugene  Resa,  ISel^lSaS,  p.  60S. 

Agromyza  coronata  Loew,  Dipt.  Amer.  Sept.  Indig.,  Cent.  8,  1869,  p.  162. 
Agromyza  jiicunda  v.  d.  Wulp.,  Tijdschr.  v.  Entom.  Vol.  X,  1866,  p.  161. 
Oscinis  malvcB  Burgess,  Dept.  Agric.  Rept.  1879,  p.  202. 
Agromyza  lateralis  Williston,  Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.  1896,  p.  428. 

Male  and  Female:  Frons  opaque,  lemon  yellow;  orbits  sometimes 
posteriorly  blackened,  four  pairs  of  orbital  bristles  anterior  to  front 
ocellus;  frons  generally  over  one  and  one-half  times  as  long  as  broad, 
and  one-third  of  the  head  with;  ocellar  region  and  back  of  head  black; 
face  slightly  concave  in  profile,  yellow,  slightly  keeled  in  center;  cheeks 
yellow,  rather  short,  higher  posteriorly  than  anteriorly,  at  highest  part 
short  of  one-third  the  height  of  eye;  eye  higher  than  long;  bristles  on 
mouth  margin  moderately  strong,  numerous,  upper  ones  upturned, 
vibrissa  stronger  than  other  bristles;  proboscis  yellow;  palpi  black, 
normal  in  shape;  antennas  black;  dorsal  bristle  on  second  joint  weak, 
third  joint  short,  regularly  rounded,  higher  than  long,  arista  brown- 
black,  swollen  at  base,  very  shortly  pubescent;  not  as  long  as  from  its 
base  to  vertex.  Mesonotum  shining  black;  lateral  margins,  including 
humeri,  broadly  pale  yellow;  two  pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present,  some- 


^TS 


294  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI^ 

times  a  weaker  anterior  pair  vivsible  also ;  surface  of  disk  with  numerous 
irregularly  arranged  setulse;  pleurae  glossy  black,  with  upper  margin 
rather  broadly  and  sutures  nari-owly  yellow;  scutellum  and  postnotiun 
concolorous  with  disk  of  mesonotum,  the  foiTner  with  four  bristles. 
Abdomen  shining,  brownish-black,  segments  sometimes  narrowly 
yellow  on  posterior  margins;  last  segment  elongate;  all  segments  with 
black  hairs.  Legs  glossy  black,  only  in  immature  specimens  paler  on 
knees;  mid  tibise  with  the  posterior  bristles  indistinct.  Wings  clear; 
first  costal  division  one-half  as  long  as  second;  subcostal  vein  indistinct 
at  apex;  outer  cross  vein  at  very  sUghtly  beyond  end  of  first  vein,  and 
at,  or  nearly  at,  its  own  length  from  inner  cross  vein,  second  section  of 
fourth  vein  about  as  long  as  first  vein  or  short  of  it;  veins  2-3-4  diver- 
gent, last  section  of  fifth  vein  about  twice  as  long  as  penultimate  section. 
Halteres  yellow,  knob  paler. 
Length,  2-3  mm. 

Originally  described  from  California.  Loew's  specimens 
(coronata)  were  from  Cuba  and  Pennsylvania.  Van  der 
Wulp  obtained  his  specimens  (jucunda)  from  Wisconsin. 
Burgess  described  his  specimens  {malvce)  reared  from  Malva 
rotundifolia  from  District  of  Columbia;  while  Williston's 
specimens,  {lateralis),  came  from  St.  Vincent,  West  Indies. 

I  have  before  me  specimens  from  the  following  localities: 
Algonquin,  Illinois,  (collection  Coquillet) ;  Tempe,  Arizona, 
(V.  L.  Wildermuth),  Webster's  No.  7286;  White  Mountains,  New 
Hampshire,  (Morrison  ?) ;  Los  Angeles,  California;  (Coquillett) ; 
District  of  Columbia,  from  Solidago,  (no  collector's  name) ;  Cabin 
John,  Maryland,  (Knab  and  Malloch) ;  San  Rafael,  Vera  Cruz, 
(C.  H.  T.  Townsend) ;  Baracoa,  Cuba,  (Busck) ;  Mayaguez, 
Porto  Rico,  (Busck) ;  and  3  specimens  without  locality,  one 
from  aster,  one  from  sunflowers  and  one  from  verbena. 

One  of  the  two  specimens  from  Cabin  John,  Maryland 
(April  28,  1912)  is  much  larger  than  the  average,  nearly  4  mm. 
and  has  the  orbital  bristles  five  in  number,  as  well  as  the 
anterior  hairs  in  line  with  the  dorso-centrals  much  stronger 
than  normal,  so  that  there  may  be  said  to  be  four  pairs  of  dorso- 
centrals.  I  consider,  however,  that  it  is  merely  an  abnormal 
specimen  and  not  a  distinct  species,  because  in  almost  every 
other  respect  it  agrees  with  the  typical  specimens. 

I  have  arrived  at  the  decision  as  to  the  synonymy  of  this, 
species  from  a  careful  persual  of  the  various  descriptions,  and 
consider  that  it  is  correct'. 

I  have  examined  specimens  from  C.  W.  Johnson's  col- 
lection from  the  following  localities:     Wollaston,  Woods  Holl, 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  295 

Dedham,  Auburndale,  Fall  River  and  Chester,  Massachusetts; 
Durham,  New  Hampshire,  Winnipauk,  Connecticut;  Kingston, 
Rhode  Island,  and  Riverton,  New  Jersey,  which  agree  well 
with  the  description  given.  Three  specimens  from  same 
collection  taken  in  the  following  localities:  Chester  and  Blue 
Hills,  Massachusetts,  and  Delaware  Water  Gap,  Pennsylvania 
(Mrs.  A.  T.  Slosson),  differ  in  size,  3  mm.,  and  in  having  an 
anteriorly  bidentate,  yellow  spot,  posteriorly  on  each  side  of 
disk,  the  pale  color  extending  on  to  scutellum  at  base  on  each 
side.  I  consider  that  this  is  merely  a  color  variety,  due  pos- 
sibly to  a  difference  in  food-plant,  or  some  other  cause  which 
could  only  be  determined  by  rearing  the  species. 

21.     Agromyza  coquilletti,  new  species. 

Plate  XXX,  Fig.  28. 

Male  and  Female:  Frons  lemon  yellow,  subshining,  center  stripe 
blackened,  most  distinctly  on  anterior  margin  where  it  meets  the 
lunule,  which  is  exceptionally  elongated,  the  black  color  generally 
disappears  on  posterior  part  of  center  stripe;  ocellar  region  black; 
orbits  black  on  posterior  angle,  each  orbit  half  as  wide  as  center  stripe 
at  anterior  ocellus,  gradually  broadened  to  anterior  margins  of  center 
stripe  where  each  orbit  is  almost  of  equal  width  with  center  stripe; 
four  orbital  bristles  present,  situated  on  middle  of  orbit,  laterally 
beyond  these  there  is  a  row  of  5-7  short  setulee,  which  does  not  extend 
to  upper  orbital  bristle;  antennse  of  moderate  size,  black,  second  joint 
brownish;  third  joint  twice  as  long  as  second,  upper  margin  flattened 
a  little  and  apex  rather  acute,  not  regularly  rounded;  arista  brown,, 
thickened  at  base  for  about  one-fourth  the  length  of  arista,  nearly  bare, 
and  as  long  as  from  its  base  to  anterior  ocellus;  face  almost  perpendic- 
ular, slightly  produced  at  mouth  margin,  slightly  keeled,  yellow;  cheeks 
yellow,  posteriorly  almost  one-third  the  length  of  eye,  anteriorly  much 
less;  marginal  bristles  of  moderate  size,  vibrissa  strong;  proboscis  yel- 
low; palpi  black.  Mesonotum  subshining,  black,  with  grayish  pol- 
linosity;  three  pairs  of  distinct  dorso-central  bristles,  the  setulas  anterior 
to  them  stronger  than  the  other  discal  hairs;  lateral  margins  and  humeri 
pale  yellow;  the  pair  of  bristles  between  posterior  dorso-centrals  weak; 
pleurse  brown-black,  shining,  upper  margin  and  central,  vertical,  suture 
narrowly  yellow;  squama  and  its  fringe  pale  yellow;  scutellum  and  post- 
notum  black,  shining;  abdomen  brown-black,  shining;  all  segments 
narrowly  margined  with  yellow  posteriorly;  hypopygium  of  male  yel- 
lowish-brown ;  ovipositor  of  female  glossy  black,  the  base  as  long  as 
last  abdominal  segment.  Legs  glossy  black,  knees  distinctly  pale 
yellow;  posterior  bristles  absent  from  mid  tibia;  ventral  bristles  on  fore 
femur  rather  long.  Wings  clear,  basal  part  of  veins  lemon  yellow; 
subcostal  vein  indistinct;  outer  cross  vein  a  little  before  wing  middle 
and  well  beyond  end  of  first  vein;  second  section  of  fourth  vein  longer 


296  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

than  first  and  twice  as  long  as  outer  cross  vein;  third  and  fourth  veins 
almost  parallel  from  outer  cross  vein,  only  divergent  at  extreme  apices; 
last  section  of  fifth  vein  about  one-fourth  longer  than  penultimate  sec- 
tion.    Halteres  yellow. 
Length,  2  mm. 

Type:     Female.     Cat.. No.  15569,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Type  locality:  Fort  Collins,  Colorado,  Webster's  No. 
6G10,  (C.  N.  Ainslie),  bred  from  oats 

Paratypes:  Tower  City,  North  Dakota,  Webster's  No. 
3047,  (G.  I.  Reeves),  swept  amongst  grass;  Fort  Collins, 
Colorado,  Webster's  No.  6646,  reared  from  Hordeiim  jubatum, 
July,  1910,  (C.  N.  Ainslie);  Buckton,  Kansas,  Webster's  No. 
5555;  reared  from  volunteer  wheat,  June  11,  1909,  (C.  N. 
Ainslie);  Hawkins,  Summit  County,  Ohio  (?),  August  16, 
1902  (no  collector's  name) ;  Massachusetts  (collection  Coquillett). 
I  have  also  examined  specimens  from  C.  W.  Johnson's  col- 
lection from  the  following  localities:  Fern  Rock,  Pennsyl- 
vania; Norwich,  Vermont,  Nantucket,  Massachusetts  and 
Hanover,    New   Hampshire. 

This  species  is  named  in  honor  of  the  late  D.  W.  Coquillett, 
whose  work  has  done  much  to  facilitate  an  understanding  of 
the  North  American  Diptera. 

22.     Agromyza  longipennis  Loew. 

Syn:  Agromyza  longipennis  Loew,   Dipt.   Amer.   Sept.   Indig.,   Cent.   8,   1869, 
species  90. 

Female:  Frons  pale  lemon  yellow,  incision  above  lunule  slightly 
darkened;  orbits  blackened  posteriorly;  ocellar  region  black;  breadth  of 
frons  equal  to  over  one-third  the  width  of  head,  in  outline  the  sides  are 
almost  parallel  or  a  little  divergent  anteriorly;  four  pairs  of  long  orbital 
bristles  present,  in  addition  to  the  bristles  there  is  an  irregular  row  of 
weak  hairs  nearer  to  eye  margins,  which  begins  at  base  of  antennas  and 
•extends  to  opposite  the  anterior  ocellus;  antennse  brownish  yellow, 
darker  dorsally,  of  moderate  size;  second  joint  with  weak  hairs  on 
apical  margin,  and  the  usual  dorsal  bristle  of  moderate  length;  third 
joint  rounded,  covered  with  thick,  but  short,  pilosity;  arista  brownish, 
swollen  at  base,  very  thickly  pubescent,  the  pubescence  as  long  as 
basal  diameter  of  arista,  arista  as  long  as  from  its  base  to  posterior 
ocelli;  face  and  cheeks  clear  lemon  yellow,  the  former  slightly  concave, 
and  with  slight  keel;  cheeks  about  twice  as  high  at  posterior  as  at 
anterior  margin,  at  highest  part  slightly  less  than  one-third  the  eye 
height;  eye  distinctly  higher  than  long,  marginal  mouth  bristles  weak 
but  numerous,  vibrissa  strong.  Mesonotum  subshining,  black;  four 
pairs  of  almost  equally  strong  dorso-central  bristles  present;  between 
which  are  4-5  rather  irregular  rows  of  setulae,  no  distinctly  differentiated 
bristles  between  posterior  dorso-central s;  lateral  margins  of  inesonotum 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  297 

sometimes  brownish,  pleurse  brown-black,  subshining;  upper  margin, 
central  vertical  suture,  and  below  base  of  wing  narrowly  yellow;  scu- 
tellum  concolorous  with  mesonotum,  four  bristled;  postnotum  brown- 
black,  shining.  Abdomen  shining  brownish  or  blackish;  ovipositor 
glossy  black,  base  slightly  longer  than  last  abdominal  segment,  covered 
with  numerous  short  hairs.  Legs  brownish;  fore  coxa,  apices  of  all 
femora  broadly,  and  bases  of  tibiae  yellow ;  the  basal  two  pairs  of  former 
are  generally  almost  black;  posterior  bristles  absent  from  mid  tibiae. 
Wings  elongate,  clear  or  slightly  grayish;  first  costal  division  one-third 
as  long  as  second;  inner  cross  vein  at  just  below  end  of  first  vein  or  very 
slightly  beyond  it;  outer  cross  vein  distinctly  shorter  than  section  of 
fourth  vein  anterior  to  it,  first  and  second  sections  of  fourth  vein  sub- 
equal;  last  two  sections  of  fifth  vein  subequal.  Halteres  pale  yellow. 
Length,  2.5  to  3  mm. 

Originally  described  from  District  of  Columbia  (Osten 
Sacken) . 

Represented  in  collection  by  two  specimens  from  Mount 
Washington  and  Franconia,  New  Hampshire,  (Mrs.  A.  T. 
Slosson,  collection  Coquillett) ;  and  two  from  Algonquin,  111., 
(collection  Coquillett).  Three  of  the  specimens  were  stand- 
ing as  A.  xanthocephala  Zetterstedt,  in  collection.  This  iden- 
tification '  may  have  been  given  out  by  Coquillett,  though  I 
cannot  find  any  published  record  of  the  name.  Zetterstedt's 
species  differs  from  Loew's  in  having  the  legs  entirely  black, 
Longipennis  comes  very  close  capitata  Zetterstedt  as  under- 
stood in  Britain,  but  I  have  no  specimens  for  comparison,  and 
as  Kertesz  gives  capitata  as  a  synonym  of  geniculata,  which  I 
have  from  Holland,  and  find  distinct,  I  consider  it  advisable 
to  continue  the  use  of  Loew's  name,  meantime. 

Food-plant  unknown. 

23.  Agromyza  coloradensis,  new  species. 
Male  and  Female:  Frons  opaque,  ochreous  yellow,  about  one-third 
longer  than  broad,  sides  almost  parallel;  orbits  at  lunule  not  one-half  as 
wide  as  center  stripe  at  same  part;  five  pairs  of  orbital  bristles  present, 
the  one  nearest  antennae  weakest;  these  bristles  occupy  middle  of  orbit 
and  laterally  beyond  them  is  an  irregular  row  of  short  hairs  which 
extends  from  base  of  antennae  to  fifth  orbital  bristle;  vsides  of  orbits  and 
back  of  head  blackened;  ocellar  region  shining  black;  antennae  black; 
basal  joint  and  apex  of  second  on  inner  surface  yellow;  second  joint  with 
numerous  short  hairs  on  dorsal  and  ventral  surfaces,  the  dorsal  bristle 
distinct;  third  joint  of  moderate  size,  slightty  longer  than  high,  regularly 
rounded  on  the  upper  margin  or  apex  obtusely  angled;  arista  black, 
sHghtly  thickened  at  base,  the  pubescence  thick  but  very  short,  arista 
in  length  reaching  to  front  ocellus;  face  and  cheeks  pale  yellow,  the 
former  concave  and  very  slightly  keeled  in  center;  cheeks  higher  pos- 


298  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

teriorly  than  anteriorly,  at  highest  part  about  one-third  as  high  as  eye, 
marginal  bristles  distinct,  6-7,  the  anterior  pair  higher  than  vibrissa; 
vibrissa  strong;  proboscis  yellow;  palpi  black,  distinctly  bristled.  Meso- 
notum  subopaque,  gray-black,  about  one-third  longer  than  broad; 
lateral  margins  with  indications  of  brownish  color,  but  not  yellow;  four 
pairs  of  long  dorso-central  bristles  present,  which  are  in  parallel  rows, 
the  anterior  pair  distinctly  in  front  of  suture;  four  irregular  rows  of 
setulas  between  the  dorso-centrals,  which  are  carried  to  between  pos- 
terior pair;  no  distinctly  differentiated  bristles  between  posterior  dorso- 
centrals;  pleurse  marked  as  in  longipennis;  squamse  yellow,  fringe 
brownish;  postnotum  and  scutellum  concolorous  with  disk  of  mesono- 
tum.  Abdomen  elongate,  shining  black,  with  grayish  pollinosity,  only 
the  last  segment  with  distinct,  very  narrow,  yellow  posterior  margins; 
ovipositor  glossy  black,  base  as  long  as  last  abdominal  segment,  seg- 
ments with  numerous  short  hairs;  hypopygium  of  male  rounded,  with 
two  flap-like  protruding,  downward  directed,  apical  organs.  Legs 
black,  shining,  knees  distinctly,  but  narrowly,  pale  yellow;  mid  tibiae 
without  posterior  bristles.  Wings  grayish,  rather  elongate,  venation 
almost  as  in  longipennis.  Halteres  yellow. 
Length,  3.5  to  4  mm. 

Type:     (Male);  Cat.  No.  15570,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Florissant,  Colorado,  (7,000  feet  level)  June 
21,  1907,  (S.  A.  Rohwer).  Five  specimens,  two  males  and 
three  females.  Taken  amongst  grass.  There  is  a  female 
from  Colorado  in  C.  W.  Johnson's  collection  and  a  male  in 
same  collection  from  Eastport  Maine. 

Food-plant  unknown. 

24.    Agromyza  marginata  Loew. 

Syn:  Agromyza  marginata  Loew,    Dipt.   Amer.    Sept.    Indig.    Cent.   8,    1869, 
species  91. 

Male  and  Female:  Frons  pale  lemon  yellow,  shining,  center 
stripe  opaque  black,  deepest  in  color  at  anterior  margin  above  lunule; 
ocellar  triangle  distinct,  black,  margins  narrowly  yellow;  orbits  of 
nearly  equal  breadth  on  their  entire  length,  darkened  anteriorly,  four 
orbital  bristles  anterior  to  front  ocellus,  these  are  on  middle  of  orbits, 
there  are  no  additional  hairs  present  on  any  of  the  specimens  before 
me;  antennee  brown,  of  rather  less  than  normal  size,  dorsal  bristles  on 
second  joint  of  moderate  size;  third  joint  rounded,  barely  longer  than 
broad;  arista  brown,  slightly  swollen  and  tapering  at  base,  almost 
bare,  reaching  from  its  base  to  anterior  ocellus  in  female,  slightly 
shorter  in  male;  face  brown,  concave  in  profile,  the  lower  margin,  at 
mouth,  projecting  slightly,  center  keel  indistinct;  cheeks  yellowish 
brown,  short,  gradually  deepening  from  front  to  back,  where  they 
are  less  than  one-fourth  the  height  of  the  eye;  marginal  bristles  dis- 
tinct, vibrissa  strong;  eye  distinctly  higher  than  long.  Mesonotum 
slightly  longer  than  broad,  glossy  black  brown;  three  pairs  of  dorso- 
centrals  present,  the  anterior  pair  weak,  disk  with  niumerous  distinct 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  299 

setulae;  lateral  margins  and  humeri  brown;  pleurse  glossy  brown-black; 
upper  margin  and  central,  vertical,  suture  narrowly,  and  a  patch 
below  wing  base  yellow;  scutellum  distinctly  broader  than  long,  con- 
colorous  with  disk  of  mesonotum;  postnotum  concolorous  with  pleurae; 
squamse  yellow,  margin  and  fringe  brown.  Abdomen  glossy  brown, 
or  black-bro^¥n,  posterior  margin  of  last  segment  sometimes  narrowly 
yellowish;  last  abdominal  segment  almost  as  long  as  the  three  pre- 
ceding seginents,  ovipositor  elongate,  glossy  black;  male  hypopygium 
knob-Uke,  of  moderate  size,  about  one-fourth  as  long  as  preceding 
abdominal  segment ;  surface  hairs  most  numerous  on  the  sides  of  second 
segment,  and  longest  on  apical  segments.  Legs  yellow;  basal  half 
of  each  femur  brown-black,  apices  of  tibiae  and  all  tarsi  more  or  less 
browned;  posterior  mid  tibial  bristles  absent.  Wings  grayish;  first 
costal  division  one-third  as  long  as  second,  subcostal  vein  indistinct, 
but  complete,  inner  cross  vein  at  just  below  end  of  first  vein,  outer 
cross  vein -at  distinctly  more  than  its  own  length  from  inner  and  at 
wing  middle;  first  and  second  sections  of  fourth  vein  subequal;  penu- 
timate  section  of  fifth  vein  slightly  shorter  than  ultimate;  outer  half 
of  last  sections  of  veins  3-4  almost  parallel.  Halteres  clear  yellow. 
Length,  1.5  mm. 

Originally  described  from  District  of  Columbia  (Osten 
Sacken) . 

Represented  in  collection  by  three  specimens,  two  females 
and  one  male,  from  Beverly,  Massachusetts  (Burgess).  These 
specimens  bear  the  dates  May  28,  1868;  August  28,  1869;  and 
May  24,  1874,  respectively. 

Food-plant  unknown. 

25.  Agromyza  canadensis,  new  species. 
Plate  XXX,  Fig.  19. 
Female:  Frons  opaque,  brown,  sides  subparallel,  in  breadth  one- 
third  the  width  of  head  and  distinctly  longer  than  broad,  orbits  shghtly 
differentiated,  subshining;  orbital  bristles  five  in  number,  situated  near 
to  inner  margin  of  orbits,  decreasing  in  size  from  back  to  front;  no  hairs 
on  orbits  in  addition  to  bristles;  ocellar  region  shining,  the  anterior 
ocellus  separated  more  widely  from  posterior  ocelli  than  posterior 
ocelli  from  each  other;  antennse  yellowish-red,  third  joint  brown; 
second  joint  with  strong  dorsal  bristle,  and  weaker  apical  hairs;  third 
joint  rather  elongate,  one-third  longer  than  broad,  rounded  at  tip; 
arista  brown,  yellow,  and  with  an  elongate  swelling  at  base,  pubescence 
very  weak,  distinctly  shorter  than  basal  diameter  of  arista,  length  of 
arista  as  long  as  from  its  base  to  between  upper  two  orbital  bristles; 
face  in  profile  perpendicular,  yellow,  with  whitish  dusting  and  distinct 
keel,  a  blackish  line  on  each  side  of  keel,  cheeks  linear,  only  slightly 
higher  at  posterior  margin  than  anteriorly,  brown,  paler  on  margins; 
marginal  bristles  upturned,  of  moderate  strength;  vibrissa  strong; 
the  weak  bristles  are  continued  upward  beyond  the  level  of  vibrissa; 
proboscis  yellow;  palpi  brown,  slightly  spatulate,  with  distinct  bristles. 


300  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

Mesonotum  shining,  brown-black  on  disk,  with  gray  dusting,  humeri  and 
lateral  margins  reddish  yellow;  five  pairs  of  dorso-central  bristles 
present,  the  anterior  three  pairs  reduced  in  size,  only  the  front  pair 
anterior  to  suture;  the  pair  of  bristles  between  the  posterior  dorso- 
centrals  very  strong;  disk  with  numerous  setulose  hairs;  pleurae  brown, 
shining,  sutures  and  below  wing  base  yellowish;  squamee  whitish  yel- 
low, fringe  concolorous;  scutellum  and  postnotiim  concolorous  with 
disk  of  mesonotum.  Abdomen  reddish  yellow;  last  segment  not 
elongated;  base  of  ovipositor  glossy  black,  slightly  longer  than  preceding 
abdominal  segment;  all  segments  with  nuinerovis  black  bristle-like 
hairs.  Legs  yellow,  stout;  posterior  side  of  mid  tibia  with  two  bristles. 
Wings  slightly  grayish;  costa  thickened  at  end  of  first  vein,  first  costal 
division  (to  near  side  of  first  vein)  less  than  one-half  as  long  as  next 
division  (from  end  of  swollen  junction  of  first  vein  with  costa);  upper 
end  of  outer  cross  vein  below  a  point  in  costa  beyond  middle  of  wing; 
veins  2-3  distinctly,  3-4 hardly  divergent;  section  of  fourth  vein  beyond 
inner  cross  vein  one  and  one-half  times  as  long  as  outer  cross  vein, 
and  distinctly  longer  than  preceding  section  of  fourth;  inner  cross  vein 
below  junction  of  first  vein  with  costa;  last  section  of  fifth  vein  three- 
fifths  as  long  as  penultimate  section;  basal  part  of  wing  veins  clear 
yellow.  Halteres  yellow,  knob  whitish. 
Length  3  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15571,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:     Cottage  Beaulieu,  Ottawa,  Canada,  August  14,. 
1906,  (Germain  Beaulieu),  one  female. 
Food-plant  unknown. 

26.     Agromyza  laterella  Zetterstedt. 

Syn:  Agromyza  laterella  Zetterstedt,  Ins.  Lappon,  1838,  p.  788,  species  7. 

Agromyza  grossicornis  Zetterstedt;  Dipt.  Scand.  Vol.  XIV,  1860,  p.  64.56. 
Agromyza  magnicornis  Loew,   Dipt.  Amer.   Sept.   Indig.,   Cent.  8,   1869, 
species  86. 

Male  and  Female:  Frons  about  one-half  as  broad  as  head,  center 
stripe  opaque,  brownish  or  blackish,  with  slight  whitish  dusting,  orbits 
shining,  four  or  five  orbital  bristles  anterior  to  front  ocellus,  beyond 
these,  laterally,  is  an  irregular  row  of  hairs;  frontal  lunule  whitish 
dusted,  very  distinct;  ocellar  region  shining  black;  antennae  black; 
in  male  large,  third  joint  very  variable  both  in  size  and  shape,  either 
subquadrate,  elongated  and  truncate  at  apex,  or  enlarged  and  rounded 
at  apex,  very  thickly  covered  with  distinct,  pale  pilosity;  in  female 
the  third  antennal  joint  is  much  smaller  and  rounded;  arista  black, 
inserted  near  base  of  third  joint,  thickened  on  basal  third,  pubescence 
very  short  and  indistinct,  length  of  arista  equal  to  froin  its  base  to  second 
uppermost  orbital  bristle;  head  of  male  slightly  produced  in  front, 
the  frons  slightly  buccate;  face  concave;  cheeks  short,  distinctly  higher 
posteriorly  than  anteriorly,  but  at  highest  part  not  one-fourth  as  high 
as  eye,  marginal  bristles  distinct;  vibrissa  well  differentiated;  proboscis 
yellow;  palpi  black,  normal;  occiput  unprojecting  on  upper  half.  Meso- 
notum black,  slightly  shining,  indistinctly  gray  dusted,  lateral  margins- 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  301 

brownish  yellow;  four  pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present;  discal  setulise 
rather  strong;  the  pair  of  bristles  between  the  posterior  pair  of  dorso- 
centrals  distinct,  but  not  large;  pleurag  glossy  black,  narrowly  lemon 
yellow  along  upper  and  medium  vertical  suture,  and  broadly  below 
wing  base;  squamae  almost  white,  fringe  concolorous;  scutellum  and 
postnotum  gray  black.  Abdomen  glossy  black,  or  black-brown, 
posterior  margins  of  segments  generally  narrowly  yellow,  sometimes 
the  base  of  abdomen  yellow  laterally;  hypopygium  of  male  small; 
ovipositor  of  female  glossy  black  on  basal  portion.  Legs  black,  or 
black-brown,  knees  distinctly  pale  yellow;  mid  tibia  without  distinct 
bristles  on  posterior  surface,  except  in  one  specimen.  Wings  clear, 
basal  part  of  thick  veins  pale  yellow;  subcostal  vein  indistinct,  but 
complete;  second  costal  division  about  23/^  times  as  long  as  first;  inner 
cross  vein  at  just  before  end  of  first  vein,  and  at  about  middle  of  discal 
cell;  last  cell  section  of  fifth  vein  subequal  with  penultimate  section; 
veins  3-4  slightly  divergent  on  their  last  sections.  Halteres  yellow. 
Length  1.5-2.5  mm. 

Localities  of  specimens  examined:  Algonquin,  Illinois, 
(collection  Coquillett);  Franconia,  New  Hampshire,  (Mrs. 
A.  T.  Slosson) ;  Biscayne  Bay,  Florida,  (Mrs.  A.  T.  Slosson) ; 
Rosslyn,  Virginia,  October,  1903,  (E.  S.  G.  Titus) ;  Beverly, 
Massachusetts,  June  1,  1868,  (Burgess);  another  same  collector 
and  locality,  June  2,  1876;  Worcester,  Mass.,  "Gall  on  Iris" 
(no  collector's  name) ;  and  South  Fork,  British  Columbia, 
(R.  P.  Currie).  There  are  specimens  in  C.  W.  Johnson's 
collection  from  Chester  and  Framingham,  Massachusetts. 

This  species  has  been  recorded  by  Thomson,*  as  feeding 
galls  on  blue  Iris,  and  although  there  is  no  collector's  name 
on  the  Worcester  specimen  mentioned  above,  it  is  very  proba- 
bly belongs  to  the  lot  reared  by  him,  as  Coquillett  identified 
specimens. 

This  is  a  very  variable  species  in  color,  and  structure  of 
the  antennae,  and  one  might  be  easily  led  into  considering 
some  of  the  forms  as  distinct  species.  I  am,  however,  con- 
vinced from  my  acquaintance  with  the  species  in  Britain,  that 
there  is  but  one  species,  though  it  probably  feeds  upon  different 
food  plants,  as  I  have  met  with  it  in  situations  where  it  could 
not  have  fed  upon  Iris. 

*Psyche,  Vol.  XIV,  1907,  p.  74. 


302  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


27.     Agromyza  maculosa,  new  species. 

Male  and  Female:  Shining  black,  frontal  lunule  silvery  white 
pollinose;  legs  with  tibiae  and  tarsi  sometimes  brownish;  halteres  white 
with  black  spot. 

Frons  very  slightly  more  than  one-third  the  head  width;  center 
stripe  opaque;  orbits  glossy,  differentiated  from  center  stripe;  five 
(and  occasionally  six),  strong  orbital  bristles  present;  frontal  lunule 
distinct,  viewed  from  above  and  behind  shining  silvery  white;  antennse 
with  second  joint  brownish,  dorsal  bristle  distinct;  third  joint  of  moder- 
ate size,  rounded  at  apex,  covered  with  very  short,  brownish  pubescence; 
arista  brown,  distinctly  swollen .  and  tapering  at  base,  pubescence 
short  and  close ;  length  of  arista  equal  to  from  its  base  to  between  upper 
two  orbital  bristles  anterior  to  ocelli ;  face  shining  in  center,  subopaque 
on  sides,  in  profile  concave;  the  central  keel  rounded,  not  sharp,  cheeks 
rather  short,  twice  as  high  posteriorly  as  anteriorly,  marginal  bristles 
rather  strong  though  short,  slightly  upcurved  and  continued  weakly 
beyond  vibrissa;  vibrissa  strong,  well  differentiated;  proboscis  brownish 
yellow;  palpi  black,  of  normal  size  and  shape.  Mesonotum  with  four 
pairs  of  strong  dorso-centrals  which  are  slightly  reduced  in  size  from 
posterior  to  anterior  pairs;  five  or  six  rather  irregular  rows  of  setulse  be- 
tween the  dorso-centrals,  the  pair  of  bristles  between  the  posterior 
dorso-centrals  slightly  differentiated  from  the  discal  setulas;  pleurse  below 
wing  base  slightly  yellowish;  squamse  of  rather  large  size,  white,  fringe 
concolorous.  Abdomen  rather  broad,  ovate;  all  segments  with  short 
dorsal  hairs,  stronger  on  margins  laterally  and  posteriorly,  noticeably 
longer  on  posterior  margins  of  last  two  segments;  base  of  ovipositor 
barely  longer  than  preceding  segment.  Legs  strong,  front  femur 
with  distinct  ventral  bristles;  mid  tibia  with  the  posterior  two  bristles 
distinct.  Wings  with  base  slightly  yellowish;  first  vein  yellowish 
to  end;  subcostal  vein  weak;  first  costal  division  one-half  as  long  as 
second;  inner  cross  vein  at  below  end  of  first  vein;  outer  cross  vein  at 
slightly  beyond  middle  of  wing,  and  at  its  own  length,  or  slightly  more, 
from  inner  cross  vein ;  last  section  of  fifth  vein  distinctly,  but  not 
greatly  shorter  than  penultimate  section;  veins  2  and  3  distinctly, 
3  and  4  slightly  divergent.  Halteres  white,  outer  surface  of  knob 
and  most  of  stalk  blackened. 

Length,  3-4  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15641,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Type  locality:  Jamaica,  New  York,  October,  1896.  Bred 
from  chrysanthemum  leaves.  Paratypes  from  Louisville,  Ky., 
October  27,  1898;  6  specimens  bred  from  chrysanthemum 
leaves  No.  4064;  Lafayette,  Ind.,  October  11,  1901,  (H.  B. 
Dorner),  5  specimens  bred  from  leaves  of  aster;  Jamaica, 
New  York,  2  specimens  from  same  lot  as  type ;  and  one  specimen 
without  data  from  Georgia.  One  specimen  in  C.  W.  John- 
son's collection  from  Bermuda,  West  Indies. 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  303 


28.     Agromyza  waltoni,  new  species. 
Plate  XXVIII,  Fig.  G;  Plate  XXXI,  Fig.  36. 

Female:  Frons  black,  center  stripe  opaque,  orbits  subshining, 
glossy  at  base  of  bristles;  breadth  of  frons  slightly  more  than  one-half 
the  head  width,  and  almost  subquadrate;  orbits  slightly  differentiated 
from  center  stripe,  each  at  broadest  part  about  one-fourth  the  breadth 
of  center  stripe  at  same  part,  orbital  bristles  five  in  number,  on  one 
side  at  margin  of  lunule  is  another  smaller  bristle  which  I  take  to  be 
abnormal;  lunule  brownish  yellow,  covered  with  white  poUinosity; 
ocellar  region  subopaque;  posterior  ocelli  occupying  about  one-fifth  the 
width  of  vertex;  antennas  black,  rather  below  average  size;  second 
joint  with  apical  bristles  on  outer  side,  the  dorsal  bristle  distinct; 
third  joint  rounded,  barely  longer  than  broad,  not  distinctly  pilose; 
arista  black,  paler  at  base,  swollen  on  basal  fourth,  almost  bare,  in 
length  reaching  almost  from  its  base  to  upper  orbital  bristle;  face  and 
cheeks  black-brown;  slightly  gray  dusted;  the  former  in  profile  almost 
perpendicular,  center  raised  slightly,  but  not  sharply  keeled;  cheeks 
at  posterior  margin  about  one-sixth  the  eye  height,  anteriorly  becoming 
linear;  marginal  bristles  strong,  anterior  two  higher  than  vibrissa; 
vibrissa  strong;  proboscis  yellow;  palpi  black,  slightly  spatulate,  bris- 
tles weak.  Mesonotum  black,  slightly  shining,  grayish  dusted;  four 
pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present,  these  are  reduced  in  size  anteriorly; 
the  setulce  between  the  dorso-centrals  in  about  10  irregular  rows,  the 
two  bristles  between  posterior  dorso-centrals  distinct,  separated  from 
each  other  by  almost  twice  the  distance  between  them  and  the  dorso- 
centrals;  pleurae  black,  shining,  sutures  brownish;  squamae  brownish 
yellow,  fringe  brown;  scutellum  and  postnotum  concolorous  with 
pleurae.  Abdomen  shining  black.  Sixth  segment  elongated;  base  of 
ovipositor  shorter  than  preceding  segment;  all  segments  with  numerous 
hairs,  those  on  apices  of  segments,  and  especially  the  sixth,  bristle 
like.  Legs  black,  shining;  knees  brownish;  fore  femur  with  long 
ventral  bristles;  the  posterior  bristles  on  mid  tibia  present,  but  very 
short  in  type.  Wings  yellowish  brown  at  base ;  subcostal  vein  complete, 
rather  distinct;  second  costal  division  slightly  more  than  twice  as  long 
as  first;  inner  cross  vein  slightly  beyond  end  of  first  vein,  outer  at 
length  of  inner  from  that  vein,  and  distinctly  before  wing  middle, 
veins  2-3-4  very  noticeably  divergent  at  apices;  penultimate  section 
of  fifth  distinctly  shorter  than  ultimate  section.  Halteres  yellow, 
knobs  whitish. 

Length,  4  mm. 

Type:     Cat.   No.   15572,  U.  S.   N.  M. 

Locality:  Long  Lake,  Adirondack  Mountains,  (Horvath). 
One  female. 

Food-plant  unknown. 

Named  in  honor  of  Mr.  W.  R.  Walton  of  the  Bureau  of 
Entomology. 


304  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


29.     Agromyza  angulata  Loew. 

Plate  XXIX,  Fig,  16;  Plate  XXX,  Fig.  18. 

Syn:  Agromyza   angulata   Loew,    Dipt.    Amer.    Sept.    Indig.,    Cent.    8,    1869, 
species  87. 

Male  and  Female:  Frons  deep  black,  with  sometimes  a  slight 
indication  of  paler  color  very  narrowly  along  the  inner  margin  of  orbits; 
central  stripe  opaque,  orbits  shining;  breadth  of  frons  distinctly  over 
one-third  the  head  width,  of  orbits  about  one-half  the  width  of  center 
stripe;  generally  5  orbital  bristles  present;  in  addition  to  the  bristles 
there  are  numerous  short  hairs  nearer  to  eye  margin,  forming  an  ir- 
regular row  from  opposite  insertion  of  antenna  to  upper  bristle;  ocellar 
region  glossy  black;  antennae  black,  of  moderate  size;  dorsal  bristle 
on  second  joint  distinct;  third  joint  rounded  at  apex;  arista  brown, 
basal  fifth  yellowish  and  swollen,  pubescence  very  short,  length  of 
arista  equal  to  from  its  base  to  between  upper  two  orbital  bristles; 
face  and  cheeks  black,  or  black  brown,  opaque;  the  former  with  a  slight 
central  keel,  and  a  little  produced  at  mouth  margin;  cheeks  almost 
linear,  very  little  higher  at  posterior  margin  than  at  anterior;  marginal 
bristles  in  a  double  row,  of  moderate  strength;  vibrissa  well  differ- 
entiated; proboscis  yellow;  palpi  black,  of  normal  size  and  shape. 
Mesonotum  glossy  black,  lateral  margins  sometimes  brownish;  four 
pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present,  the  posterior  pair  strong,  the  others 
gradually  reduced  towards  anterior  pair,  which  are  rather  weak  and 
slightly  in  front  of  suture;  7-S  irregular  rows  of  short  setulse  between 
dorso-centrals;  no  distinctly  differentiated  pair  of  bristles  between 
posterior  dorso-centrals;  pleuree  glossy  black,  very  narrowly  lemon 
yellow  along  upper  margin  to  humerus,  narrowly  along  vertical 
mesopleural  suture,  more  broadly  at  upper  angles  of  that  suture 
and  below  wing  base;  postnotum  and  scutellum  colored  as  disk  of 
mesonotum,  squamee  whitish  yellow,  fringe  whitish.  Abdomen 
ovate,  glossy  black,  sometimes  with  the  segments  very  narrowly  pale 
yellow,  or  brownish;  sixth  segment  elongated;  all  segments  with  numer- 
ous surface  hairs;  apical  margin  of  sixth  segment  with  moderately 
long  bristles;  hypopygium  of  male  of  moderate  size,  colored  as  abdomen, 
base  of  ovipositor  of  female  glossy  black.  Legs  black,  shining;  fore 
knees  pale  yellow,  knees  of  hind  pairs,  fore  tibise  and  tarsi  brownish, 
or  yellowish;  mid  tibia  without  posterior  bristles.  Wings  clear;  bases 
•of  thick  veins  lemon  yellow;  first  costal  division  one-half  as  long  as 
second;  outer  cross  vein  below,  or  slightly  beyond  end  of  first  vein; 
subcostal  vein  indistinct;  first  two  sections  of  fourth  vein  subequal, 
or  the  first  slightly  the  shorter;  last  section  of  fifth  twice  as  long  as 
penultimate  section;  veins  2-3-4  slightly  divergent.  Halteres  pale 
yellow. 

Length  1.5-2  mm. 

Originally  described  from  Pennsylvania  (Osten  Sacken), 
and  since  recorded  from  New  Jersey,  (Smith  Cat.).  Represented 
in  U.  S.  National  Museum  collection  by  four  specimens  from 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  305 

Lafayette,  Indiana,  (P.  Luginbill)  Webster's  No.  9700,  reared 
from  timothy  grass,  and  two  specimens  with  the  No.  6719, 
July  13,  1895,  District  of  Columbia.  There  is  one  specimen 
in  C.  W.  Johnson's  collection  from  Auburndale,  Massachusetts. 

"30.     Agromyza  setosa  Loew. 
Syn:  Agromyza  setosa  Loew,  Dipt.  Amer.  Sept.  Indig.,  Cent.  8,  1869,  species  83. 

Male  and  Female:  Frons  "black  or  black-brown;  center  stripe 
opaque;  orbits  shining;  width  of  frons  equal  to  slightly  over  one-third 
the  width  of  head;  orbits  about  one-half  as  wide  aS  center  stripe;  five 
orbital  bristles  present,  situated  nearer  to  inner  than  outer  margin  of 
orbits;  in  addition  to  the  bristles  there  are  nimierous  short  hairs  pres- 
ent, between  the  eye  margins  and  the  bristles,  which  are  particularly 
numerous  on  the  lower  half  of  'orbit  and  terminate  in  an  irregular  row 
at  about  level  of  upper  orbital  bristle;  ocellar  region  shining;  ocellar 
triangle  slightly  indicated,  shining;  antennae  black,  moderately  large; 
second  joint  slightly  over  the  average  size,  with  numerous  hairs,  the 
usual  bristle  distinct;  third  joint  rounded  at  apex,  barely  longer  than 
broad,  covered  with  short  brownish  pilosity;  arista  brown,  for  a  short 
space  paler  beyond  the  distinctly  thickened  base;  pubescence  short 
but  distinct,  very  close;  length  of  arista  equal  to  from  its  base  to  the 
second  uppermost  orbital  bristle;  face  and  cheeks  black -brown;  the 
former  perpendicular  and  with  a  rounded  central  keel;  cheeks  increasing 
in  height  from  anterior  to  posterior  margin,  where  they  are  about  one- 
fourth  the  height  of  eye;  marginal  bristles  of  moderate  length,  in  two 
rows,  and  rather  numerous,  the  upper  row  upwardly  directed;  vibrissa 
differentiated;  probocis  brown;  palpi  black,  of  moderate  size,  rather 
numerously  bristled;  eyes  microscopically  haired.  Mesonotum  sub- 
shining  black;  thickly  covered  with  hairs  and  with  four  pairs  of  dorso- 
central  bristles,  the  anterior  pairs  much  reduced  and  the  front  pair 
not  much  stronger  than  the  other  dorsal  hairs;  the  pair  of  bristles 
between  the  posterior  dorso-centrals  distinct,  and  of  moderate  length; 
pleurae  concolorous  with  disk  of  mesonotum,  only  brownish  below 
wing  base;  squamae  brown,  fringe  concolorous;  postnotum  and  scutellum 
colored  as  pleurae.  Abdomen  concolorous  with  thorax;  the  surface 
rather  thickly  covered  with  hairs;  sixth  segment  with  some  bristle- 
like hairs  on  posterior  margin;  hypopygiiun  of  male  almost  similar  to 
that  of  parvicornis;  ovipositor  of  female  with  base  thickly  covered  with 
hairs.  Legs  black,  tibiae  and  tarsi  black  brown;  posterior  bristles  on 
mid  tibiffi  very  weak.  Wings  grayish,  veins  brown;  first  costal  division 
nearly  one-half  as  long  as  second;  subcostal  vein  indistinct,  almost 
coalescent  with  first  at  its  apex;  costa  thickened  at  end  of  first  vein; 
inner  cross  vein  at  slightly  beyond  end  of  first  vein  or  at  just  below  it; 
outer  cross  vein  at  slightly  beyond  wing  middle,  and  at  slightly  more 
than  its  own  length  from  inner  cross  vein ;  last  section  of  fifth  vein  about 
one-half  as  long  as  pentdtimate  section;  veins  3-4  only  slightly  diver- 
gent at  apices.     Halteres  yellow,  stalk  darkened  at  base. 

Length  3-4  mm. 


(306  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

Originally  described  from  District  of  Columbia  (Osten 
Sacken).  Represented  in  U.  S.  National  Museum  collection 
by  3  specimens,  one  from  Monroe,  Michigan,  no  other  data; 
one  with  the  number  2464 — ,  and  the  third  with  label  to  the 
effect  that  it  was  reared  from  wild  rice  {Zizania  aqa^ntica) 
August  8,  1891,  District  of  Columbia,  (T.  Pergande).  The 
other  records  given  by  Coquillett  for  this  species  in  Bull. 
No.  10,  n,  ser.  1898,  Dept  Agric,  Div.  Ent.  refer  to  fragaria 
and  maculosa. 

There  is  a  male  specimen  in  the  U.  S,  National  Museum 
collection  which  represents  probably  a  distinct  species,  but 
its  condition  is  not  good  enough  to  permit  me  deciding  the 
question,  as  the  species  of  the  group  are  all  very  closely  allied. 

Locality:     San   Mateo  County,    California   (C.   F.   Baker). 

31.     Agromyza  isolata,  new  species. 

Female:  Frons  black-brown;  center  stripe  opaque,  orbits  shining; 
breadth  of  frons  a  little  over  one-third  the  width  of  head;  orbits  slightly 
differentiated  from  center  stripe,  and  each  about  one-fourth  as  wide; 
four  long  orbital  bristles  present,  situated  about  on  middle  of  orbits; 
the  short  hairs  sparse  and  in  a  short  irregular  row;  ocellar  region  raised, 
shining;  ocellar  triangle  not  distinguishable ;  antennae  black-brown; 
second  joint  with  numerous  short,  apical  marginal  hairs,  and  the  dorsal 
bristle  distinct,  third  joint  slightly  longer  than  broad;  the  upper  extrem- 
ity less  distinctly  roimded  than  the  lower,  covered  with  rather  distinctive 
pile,  which  is  brownish  in  color,  and  most  distinct  on  dorsal  surface 
at  apex;  arista  brown,  the  swelling  at  base  short  and  glossy;  pubescence 
very  short;  length  of  arista  equal  to  from  its  base  to  upper  orbital 
bristle;  face  brown-black,  perpendicular,  almost  without  a-  central 
keel;  cheeks  nearly  linear,  brown-black;  marginal  bristles  in  two  rows 
of  moderate  strength;  vibrissa  distinctly  differentiated,  the  bristles 
continued  above  level  of  vibrissa;  eye  apparently  bare,  about  one  and 
one-half  times  as  high  as  long;  proboscis  yellow;  palpi  black.  Meso- 
notum  black,  shining,  but  not  glossy;  four  pairs  of  distinct  dorso- 
centrals  present,  the  posterior  pair  most  widely  placed  and  strongest, 
the  anterior  pair  of  moderate  strength,  distinctly  longer  than  discal 
setulse,  and  appreciably  in  front  of  suture;  about  7  irregular  rows  of 
setulas  between  the  rows  of  dorso-centrals;  the  pair  of  bristles  between 
the  posterior  dorso-centrals  as  long  as  anterior  dorso-central  pair; 
pleurse  black-brown,  glossy,  narrowly  paler  along  upper  margin  and 
sutures,  yellowish  beneath  wing  base;  squamas  yellowish  white,  margin 
and  fringe  brown;  postnotum  and  scutellum  concolorous  with  disk 
of  mesonotum.  Abdomen  ovate  in  shape,  glossy  black,  apical  segment 
yellowish  brown  at  apex,  base  of  ovipositor  longer  than  preceding 
segment;  hairs  on  ovipositor  yellowish,  on  abdomen  and  thorax  brown- 
ish.    Legs  yellowish  brown,  the  femora  blackened;  all  legs  with  num- 


1913]  Agromyza  aftd  Cerodontha.  307 

•erous  hairs,  which  are  yellowish  in  color;  mid  tibia  with  the  posterior 
bristles  small.  Wings  clear;  second  costal  division  about  two  and  one- 
half  times  as  long  as  first;  subcostal  vein  distinct,  evidently  coalescent 
with  first  at  apical  fourth;  inner  cross  vein  at  slightly  before  end  of 
first  vein;  outer  at  slightly  beyond  wing  middle,  and  at  one  and  one- 
half  times  its  own  length  from  inner;  veins  3-4  slightly  divergent  at 
apices;  last  section  of  fifth  vein  rather  over  two-thirds  as  long  as  the 
penultimate  section.  Halteres  yellow,  knob  whitish. 
Length  2  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15573,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:     Eureka  California,  May,  (H.  S.  Barber). 

Food-plant  unknown. 

32.     Agromyza  fragariae,  new  species. 

Plate  XXVIII,  Fig.  5. 

Male  and  Female:  Frons  dark  brown,  or  black  brown;  center 
stripe  opaque;  orbits  subopaque;  breadth  of  frons  distinctly  over  one- 
third  the  width  of  head;  orbit  one-fourth  as  broad  as  center  stripe; 
four  orbital  bristles  present,  the  hairs  on  orbits  not  ntimerous;  ocellar 
region  shining,  black,  raised,  frontal  triangle  not  distinguishable; 
antennse  black,  sometimes  with  indications  of  paler  color  at  apex  of 
second  joint  on  inner  surface;  rather  below  the  average  in  size;  second 
joint  with  weak  apical  hairs,  and  the  dorsal  bristle  distinct,  third  joint 
not  longer  than  broad,  rounded  in  front,  and  covered  with  short  brown- 
ish pile;  arista  brown,  thickened  on  basal  fourth,  the  pubescence  close, 
but  very  short ;  length  of  arista,  equal  to  from  its  base  to  slightly  beyond 
second  uppermost  orbital  bristle;  face  shining  black,  perpendicular, 
keel  very  slight;  cheeks  pale  brown,  linear  at  anterior  margin,  about 
one-third  as  high  as  eye  at  posterior  margin;  marginal  bristles  in  a 
double  row,  numerous,  of  moderate  length,  extending  above  level  of 
vibrissa,  which  is  distinctly  differentiated;  proboscis  yellow;  palpi 
black.  Mesonotum  subopaque,  black,  with  slight  indications  of  gray- 
ish dusting;  four  pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present,  which  become  shorter 
towards  front,  the  anterior  pair  slightly  in  front  of  suture;  6-7  irregular 
rows  of  setulce  between  the  dorso-centrals;  the  pair  of  bristles  between 
the  posterior  pair  of  dorso-centrals  distinctly  differentiated  from  the 
discal  setulas,  about  as  long  as  anterior  pair  of  dorso-centrals;  pleurse 
shining  black-brown,  the  suture  yellowish  brown;  squamae  whitish, 
fringe  brownish-yellow;  postnotum  and  scutellum  black,  subshining. 
abdomen  shining  black,  subovate  in  female,  elongate  in  male;  covered 
with  hairs,  those  on  posterior  margins  of  segments  bristle-like;  the  dor- 
sal hairs  on  abdomen  and  mesonotiun  are  brownish  yellow.  Legs 
rather  slender,  black-brown,  tibiee  and  tarsi  paler;  posterior  mid  tibial 
bristles  minute.  Wings  elongate,  grayish;  first  costal  division  one- 
third  as  long  as  second;  subcostal  vein  rather  distinct,  almost  coalescent 
with  first  at  its  apex;  inner  cross  vein  at  slightly  before  end  of  first  vein, 
and  at  middle  of  discal  cell;  outer  cross  vein  at  about  one  and  one-half 


308  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

times  its  own  length  from  inner  and  at  wing  middle;  last  section  of 
fifth  vein  about  two-thirds  as  long  as  penultimate  section;  veins  3-4 
gradually  and  slightly  divergent.     Halteres  yellow. 
Length  1.5-2  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15574,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:     Placer    County,    California,    November,    mining 
leaves  of  strawberry,   (A  Koebele). 
Three  specimens. 

33     Agromyza  posticata  Meigen. 
Plate  XXXI,  Fig.  29. 
Syn:  Agromyza    posticata    Meigen,    Syst.    Beschr.,    Vol.    VI,    1830,    p.    172, 
species  16. 
Agromyza  terminalis  Coquillett,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phil.  1895,  p.  318. 
Agromyza  taeniola  Coquillett,  Proc.  Ent.  Soc.  Wash.,  Vol.  VI,  1904,  p.  191. 

Male  and  Female:  Frons  black,  >3enter  stripe  opaque,  orbits 
shining,  breadth  of  frons  less  than  one-third  the  head  width;  four 
orbital  bristles  below  anterior  ocellus,  small  hairs  on  orbits  microscopic 
in  male,  strongest  in  female;  lunule  silvery  white  poUinose;  antennae 
brown,  of  normal  size;  dorsal  bristle  on  second  joint  distinct,  apex 
of  same  joint  with  ntmierous  short  hairs,  which  are  most  distinct  on 
the  under  side;  third  joint  rounded,  covered  with  short,  pale  pilosity; 
arista  brown,  pale  yellowish  on  basal  elongate  swelling,  very  thickly 
covered  with  short  pubescence,  which  is  not  longer  than  the  basal 
diameter  of  arista;  arista  as  long  as  from  its  base  to  beyond  upper 
orbital  bristle;  eyes  microscopically  haired,  cheeks  and  face  bro-wTi; 
the  latter  concave  in  profile,  keel  slight;  cheeks  linear  at  anterior  mar- 
gin, at  posterior  margin  very  slightly  broadened,  marginal  bristles, 
5-7,  of  moderate  strength;  vibrissa  strong;  proboscis  yellow;  palpi 
brownish  yellow,  normal  in  size,  with  weak  end  bristles'.  Mesonotum 
glossy  brownish-black,  margins  and  humeri  pale  brown,  with  an  in- 
dication of  yellow  along  suture  between  margin  of  disk  and  pleuras; 
three  distinct  pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present,  in  one  specimen  an  ad- 
ditional bristle  is  visible  on  one  side  anterior  to  the  front  pair;  5-6 
irregular  rows  of  setulee  between  dorso-centrals,  the  pair  of  bristles 
between  posterior  dorso-centrals  distinctly  differentiated  from  setulse 
but  much  weaker  than  dorso-centrals;  pleuree  glossy  brown,  yellowish 
along  suture  and  below  wing  base ;  scutellum  and  postnotum  concolorous 
with  disk  of  mesonotum;  squamae  whitish,  fringe  white.  Abdomen 
glossy  black-brown;  apical  three  segments  and  hypopygium  of  male  pale 
yellow,  of  female  posterior  margin  of  sixth  segment  distinctly  pale  yel- 
low; apical  segments  brownish,  ovipositor  glossy  black;  last  abdominal 
segment  in  male  slightly  elongated;  all  segments  with  numerous  short 
black  hairs,  the  apical  segments  with  unusually  weak  posterior  mar- 
ginal bristles.  Legs  brown-black,  glossy,  knee  joints  paler;  mid-tibia 
with  posterior  bristles  present,  in  some  cases  those  number  three,  in- 
stead of  the  normal  two.  Wings  yellow  at  base;  first  costal  division 
almost  one  half  as  long  as  second;  inner  cross-vein  at  below,  or  slightly 
beyond,   end  of  first  vein;   subcostal  vein  indistinct,   but  complete; 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  309 

outer  cross  vein  at  slightly  beyond  wing  middle,  and  at  rather  more  than 
its  own  length  from  inner  cross  vein;  last  section  of  fifth  vein  about 
two-thirds  as  long  as  penultimate  section;  veins  2  and  3  distinctly,  3 
and  4  slightly  divergent  at  apices.     Halteres  yellow,  knob  whitish. 
Length  3-4  mm. 

Localities  of  male  specimens  in  collection:  Delaware  coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania,  July  23,  1893  (collection  Coquillet),  the  type 
of  terminalis  Coquillett;  Franconia,  New  Hampshire,  (Mrs. 
A.  T.  Slosson) ;  White  Mountains,  New  Hampshire  (Morrison) ; 
District  of  Columbia,  June  (collection  Coquillett) ;  Oswego, 
New  York,  July  7,  1897;  and  Athens,  Tennessee,  August, 
(H.  S.  Barber). 

The  female  has  the  apical  abdominal  segments  so  much 
less*  distinctly  pale  than  the  male,  that  it  is  with  difficulty 
one  associates  it  with  that  sex.  So  dissimilar  are  the  sexes 
that  Coquillett  in  describing  terminalis  failed  to  associate 
with  the  male  two  females  taken  at  the  same  time  and  place. 

It  was  this  sex  which  he  recorded*  as  neptis  Loew,  from 
Chicago.  There  are  females  in  collection  from  Delaware 
county,  Pennsylvania,  Plummers  Island,  Maryland,  August 
3,  1912  (J.  R.  Malloch);  Georgia  (no  other  data);  and  a  speci- 
men reared  from  mine  in  leaves  of  Solidago,  July  20,  1884, 
Virginia  (T.  Pergande).  I  have  also  seen  a  male  and  female 
taken  by  W.  L.  McAtee,  on  Plummers  Island,  Maryland; 
and  specimens  in  C.  W.  Johnson's  collection  from  the  following 
localities:  Hanover,  New  Hampshire;  Machias,  Maine;  East- 
port,  Maine;  Chester,  Massachusetts;  Winnipauk,  Connecticut;, 
Danbury,  Connecticut,  Rowayton,  Connecticut;  Buttonwoods, 
Rhode  Island;  Norwich,  Vermont,  and  Cornish,  New  Hamp- 
shire. The  type  specimen  of  taeniola  Coquillett  is  a  male  of 
this  species. 

A  peculiarity  about  this  species  is  that  after  death  the  eyes 
are  red,  whereas  in  practically  all  the  other  species  they  become 
brown  or  black. 

34.     Agromyza  neptis  Loew. 

Syn:  Agromyza  neptis  Loew,  Dipt.  Amer.  Sept.  Indig.,  Cent.  8,  1869,  species  93. 

Male:  Frons  black,  one-third  as  wide  as  head;  center  stripe  opaque 
brown-black;  orbits  glossy,  each  orbit  about  one-third  as  wide  as  center 
stripe;  four  orbital  bristles  present,  the  hairs  on  orbits  in  an  irregular 
row  between  bristles  and  eye  margin;  ocellar  region  raised,  glossy 
black;  antennee  black,  rather  above  the  average    size;    second  joint 

*Bull.  10,  n.  ser.,  1898,  Dept.  Agric.  p.  78. 


310  A  nnals  Entomological  Society  of  A  merica       [Vol .  VI , 

with  rather  weak  dorsal  bristle,  and  weak  apical  marginal  hairs;  third 
joint  large,  distinctly  longer  than  broad,  covered  with  distinct  pale 
pile;  arista  brown,  tapering,  distinctly  and  thickly  covered  with  short 
pubescence,  which  is  about  as  long  as  basal  diameter  of  arista;  length 
of  arista  equal  to  three  times  the  length  of  third  antennal  joint;  face 
subshining,  black,  rather  long,  concave  in  profile,  central  keel  slight, 
but  sharp;  cheek  black,  almost  linear,  slightly  higher  at  posterior  mar- 
gin. Marginal  bristles  weak;  vibrissa  weakly  differentiated,  eye 
distinctly  higher  than  long;  proboscis  yellow;  palpi  black,  normal. 
Mesonotum  glossy  black,  thickly  covered  with  rather  long  setulas, 
three  pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present,  the  anterior  pair  weak;  the  pair  of 
bristles  between  the  posterior  dorso-centrals  as  long  as  second  pair 
of  dorso-centrals;  pleurae  glossy  black,  with  a  slight  indication  of  pale 
color  along  upper  margin,  and  distinctly  pale  below  wing  base;  squamae 
yellowish  white,  fringe  white;  postnotum  and  scutellum  concolorous 
with  mesonottrai,  the  apical  pair  of  bristles  on  scutellum  as  strong  as 
basal  pair.  Abdomen  glossy  black,  similar  in  shape  to  that  of  par- 
vie  ornis.  Wings  clear;  first  costal  division  almost  one-half  as  long  as 
second,  inner  cross  vein  at  slightly  beyond  middle  of  wing  and  at  dis- 
tinctly more  than  its  own  length  from  inner;  last  section  of  fifth  vein 
distinctly  shorter  than  penultimate  section.  Halteres  white. 
Length  2  mm. 

Originally  described  from  District  of  Columbia  (Osten 
Sacken).  Aldrich  gives  it  as  from  Nebraska,  but  probably 
refers  to  another  record  of  the  species.  I  have  before  me 
only  one  specimen  which  is  referable  to  this  species. 

Locality:  Plummers  Island,  Maryland,  August  3,  1912 
(J.   R.   Malloch). 

Food-plant    unknown. 

35.     Agromyza  inconspicua,  new  species. 

Male:  Frons  slightly  over  one-third  the  width  of  head;  black, 
center  stripe  opaque,  orbits  and  ocellar  region  shining;  four  orbital 
bristles  present,  orbits  otherwise  almost  entirely  bare;  antennas  black, 
brownish  at  base;  third  joint  small,  rounded,  not  as  long  as  broad, 
arista  slightly  swollen  and  tapering  at  base,  pubescence  very  short, 
length  of  arista  equal  to  from  its  base  to  upper  orbital  bristle;  face 
black,  concave  in  profile,  slightly  produced  at  mouth  margin;  center 
keel  rounded;  cheek  brownish  yellow,  twice  as  high  at  posterior  as  at 
anterior  margin,  at  highest  part  one-third  as  high  as  eye,  marginal 
bristles  of  moderate  strength,  vibrissa  slightly  differentiated;  proboscis 
yellow;  palpi  black;  occiput  linear  on  upper  half.  Mesonotum  shining 
black,  three  pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present,  the  anterior  pair  weak  and 
anterior  to  the  suture  a  setula  which  may,  in  other  specimens,  be  strong 
enough  to  be  classed  as  a  dorso-central ;  disk  very  sparsely  covered 
with  setulas,  only  three  irregular  rows  between  the  dorso-centrals; 
no  distinct  bristles  between  the  posterior  pair  of  dorso-centrals;  pleurae 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  311 

glossy  black,  median  vertical  suture  narrowly  pale  yellow;  scutellum 
sub-opaque,  brownish-black;  apical  pair  of  scutellar  bristles  strongest. 
Abdomen  rather  narrow;  shining  black-brown;  hypopgium  normal  in 
size.  Legs  black-brown,  knees  distinctly  yello\y;  tarsi  yellowish 
brown,  no  distinct  bristles  on  posterior  surface  of  mid  tibia.  Wings 
narrow,  clear,  veins  on  basal  half  pale  yellow;  costa  brown,  first  division 
about  half  as  long  as  second;  inner  cross  vein  at  distinctly  anterior 
to  end  of  first  vein  and  middle  of  discal  cell;  outer  cross  vein  at  dis- 
tinctly more  than  its  own  length  from  inner  and  very  slightly  before 
middle  of  wing;  veins  3-4  on  last  sections  almost  parallel;  last  section 
of  fifth  vein  about  one-fourth  longer  than  penultimate  section.  Hal- 
teres  yellow,  knob  whitish. 

Length  slightly  over  1  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15575,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Fort  Collins,  Colorado,  reared  from  mine  in 
Agropyron,  July  28,  1910,  (C.  N.  Ainslie).  Webster's  No. 
6611. 

36.     Agromyza  dubitata,  new  species. 

'Female:  Frons  black,  center  stripe  opaque,  orbits  shining  at 
base  of  bristles;  breadth  of  frons  a  httle  over  one-third  the  width  of 
head,  of  each  orbit  about  one-half  the  width  of  center  stripe;  four 
rather  weak  orbital  bristles  present,  situated  on  near  to  inner  margin 
of  orbit;  the  orbital  hairs  less  numerous  than  in  calif orniensis;  ocellar 
region  shining  black,  raised,  the  ocelli  in  an  equilateral  triangle;  an- 
tennse  black,  rather  smaller  than  in  preceding  species,  the  third  joint 
not  so  regularly  rounded  at  apex  on  upper  surface;  arista  similar  to 
calif  orniensis,  but  slightly  shorter;  face  brown-black,  opaque,  concave 
in  profile;  cheeks  brown,  almost  as  in  preceding  species;  proboscis 
yellow;  palpi  spatulate,  with  several  moderately  strong  end  bristles; 
occiput  narrow  on  upper  half.  Mesonotum  shining  black,  bristled  as  in 
preceding  species,  but  the  pair  of  bristles  between  posterior  pair  of 
dorso-centrals  shorter  and  more  widely  placed;  pleurae,  squamae,  post- 
no  tum  and  scutellum  as  calif  orniensis.  Abdomen  shining  black;  ovate; 
last  segment  with  the  hind  marginal  bristles  moderately  strong.  Legs 
almost  entirely  black,  the  knees  brownish,  or  the  tibias  and  tarsi  brown. 
Halteres  yellow,  knob  paler. 
Length  3-4  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15576,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Beverly,  Massachusetts,  July  19,  1869,  (Bur- 
gess). Other  localities:  Cottage  Beaulieu,  Ottawa,  and  He 
de  Montreal,  Ottawa,  Canada,  June  and  July,  1906.  Nine 
specimens. 

Food-plant  unknown. 


312  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

37.     Agromyza  parvicornis  Loew. 

Plate  XXIX,  Fig.  11;  Plate  XXXI,  Figs.  35,  37. 

Syn:    Agromyza  parvicornis  Loew.  Dipt.  Amer.  Sept.  Indig.,  Cent.  8,  1869, 
species  92. 

Male  and  Female:  Frons  black  or  black-brown,  opaque,  orbits 
slightly  shining,  black,  four  orbital  bristles  present;  orbits  difleren- 
tiated  from  center  stripe,  bristles  situated  nearer  inner  than  outer 
margin  of  orbits,  a  few  weak  hairs  in  an  irregular  row  laterally  beyond 
them;  antennas  brown  or  brownish  black,  rather  below  the  normal  size;, 
third  joint  short,  rounded  in  front,  thickly  covered  with  soft,  short, 
whitish  pilos'ty;  arista  brown,  generally  yellowish  near  base,  except 
on  the  short  thickened  portion  which  is  glossy  black;  pubescence  very 
close,  generally  distinct;  length  of  arista  equal  to  from  its  base  to  upper 
orbital  bristle;  face  brown,  nearly  perpendicular  in  profile,  the  central 
keel  slight ;  cheeks  brown,  or  yellowish  brown,  very  much  higher  poster- 
/  iorly  than  anteriorly,  at  highest  part  one-third  as  high  as  eye;  marginal 
bristles  numerous;  vibrissa  differentiated,  but  not  very  strong;  proboscis 
brown;  palpi  black,  very  slightly  dilated,  weakly  bristled.  Mesonotum 
glossy  black;  disk  thickly  covered  with  short  setulas;  two  pairs  of 
dorso-centrals  present;  the  bristles  between  the  posterior  pair  distinct; 
pleurae,  scutellum  and  postnotum  concolorous  with  disk  of  mesonotuin, 
pleural  sutures  rarely,  and  beneath  wing  bases  generally  yellowish; 
squamae  whitish  yellow,  fringes  brown.  Abdomen  colored  as  thorax; 
hypopygium  of  male  as  Fig.  35,  Plate  XXXI.  Legs  black,  the  tibi«  and 
tarsi  sometimes  paler,  brownish  yellow,  most  distinct  on  knee  joints; 
mid  tibia  with  the  posterior  bristles  distinct.  Wings  clear,  slightly 
grayish  on  anterior  half;  venation  as  in  figure,  halteres  yellow, 
the  knob  whitish. 

Length  3-4  mm. 

Originally  described  from  District  of  Columbia,  (Osten 
Sacken).  Larva  lives  in  mines  in  leaves  of  corn;  occurs  in  the 
following  states:  Florida,  District  of  Columbia,  Indiana, 
Vermont,  Maine,  Massachusetts,  Connecticut,  New  Hamp- 
shire, Wisconsin,  Alabama,  South  Carolina,  Illinois  and  Texas. 
Probably  generally  distributed  throughout  the  United  States. 
A  full  list  of  localities  will  be  given  in  the  bulletin  in  preparation 
dealing  with  the  economic  importance  of  this  species  and  several 
others  affecting  field  and  forage  crops. 


1913]  '  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  313 


38.     Agromyza  viridula  Coquillett. 

Syn:  Agromyza  viridula  Coquillett,  Jour.  N.  Y.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  X,  1902,  p.  190. 

Female:  Frons  black,  center  stripe  opaque,  orbits  distinctly 
differentiated,  shining;  breadth  of  head  one-third,  or  slightly  over  one- 
third,  the  head  width;  each  orbit  about  one-fourth  as  wide  as  center 
stripe;  four  strong  orbital  bristles  present,  and  beyond  these,  laterally, 
an  irregular  row  of  short  hairs;  lunule  white  pollinose;  oc^llar  region 
shining  black;  antennee  of  moderate  size,  second  joint  with  distinct 
dorsal  bristles  and  very  weak  apical  hairs;  third  joint  rounded,  not 
as  long  as  broad,  covered  with  very  short,  whitish  pile;  arista  thickened 
at  base,  tapering  on  basal  third,  bare,  as  long  as  from  its  base  to  an- 
terior ocellus;  face  black,  opaque,  concave  in  profile,  mouth  margin 
slightly  produced,  keel  very  slight;  cheek  linear  at  anterior  margin, 
at  posterior  margin  about  one-sixth  as  high  as  eye,  marginal  bristles 
moderately  strong,  increasing  in  length  towards  anterior  margin; 
vibrissa  differentiated;  occiput  not  visible  on  upper  half;  proboscis 
yellow;  palpi  black,  of  moderate  size,  the  bristles  distinct.  Mesonotum 
glossy  black;  the  pair  of  bristles  between  posterior  pair  of  dorso-centrals 
well  defined;  pleurae  glossy  black,  brownish  below  wing  base;  squamas 
whitish,  fringe  white;  bristles  on  scutellum  subequal.  Abdomen 
glossy  black,  with  a  distinct  brassy  sheen,  ovate,  bristled  as  in  par- 
vicornis.  Legs  shining  black;  tarsi  brownish;  mid  tibia  with  posterior 
pair  of  bristles  distinct.  Wings  clear,  veins  black-brown;  second 
costal  division  2 3^  times  as  long  as  first;  subcostal  vein  distinct; 
fused  with  first  at  its  apex;  inner  cross  vein  at  slightly  before  end 
of  first  vein,  and  distinctly  before  middle  of  discal  cell;  outer 
cross  vein  at  wing  middle,  and  l}/^  times  its  own  length  from 
inner  cross  vein;  last  section  of  fifth  vein  little  over  one  half  as  long  as 
penultimate  section,  sixth  vein  distinctly  short  of  wing  margin.  Hal- 
teres  with  yellow  stalk  and  white  knob. 

Length  2.5-3  mm. 

Redescribed  from  type  specimen  (Cat.  No.  6660,  U.  S.  N.M.) 
Locality:  District  of  Columbia,  June,  (collection  Coquil- 
lett). The  other  specimens  in  collection  are  from  District 
of  Columbia,  July;  Maryland,  June;  Georgia;  Beverly,  Mass.; 
June  29,  1876,  (Burgess) ;  and  three  specimens  from  the  West 
Indies  in  poor  condition  that  probably  belong  to  this  species, 
Aguadilla,  and  Mayaguez,  Porto  Rico,  (A.  Busck),  and  St. 
Domingo,  (A.  Busck).  These  specimens  are  slightly  smaller 
than  the  type,  but  have  no  distinctive  characters  by  which 
they  may  be  separated.  I  have  also  seen  one  specimen  sub- 
mitted by  Prof.  Chittenden  of  the  Bureau  of  Entomology, 
from  Piano,  Texas,  June,  1907  (E.  S.  Tucker)  No.  561.  There 
are  three  specimens  in  Prof.  Webster's  material  labelled  "Reared 
from  blotch  mine  red  oak  leaf,  June  20,  1912."  Lafayette, 
Indiana,   (J.  J.   Davis). 


314  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI,. 


39.     Agromyza  salicis,  new  species. 
Plate  XXIX,  Fig.  15. 

Male:  Frons  black,  center  stripe  opaque  brown-black,  orbits 
and  ocellar  region  shining;  width  of  frons  about  one-half  the  head 
width;  each  orbit  about  one-half  as  broad  as  center  stripe;  five  distinct 
orbital  bristles  present,  the  hairs  between  these  and  the  eye  margin 
rather  conspicuous  and  numerous;  ar|,tennse  black;  rather  small;  third 
joint  rounded,  distinctly  shorter  than  broad;  arista  brown;  swollen 
on  basal  fourth;  pubescence  very  short,  but  distinct;  length  of  arista 
not  as  long  as  from  its  base  to  second  uppermost  orbital  bristle;  face 
black,  subopaque,  retreating  towards  mouth  margin;  cheek  brown- 
black,  distinctly  higher  at  posterior  than  at  anterior  "margin,  at  highest 
point  more  than  one-half  as  high  as  eye;  marginal  bristles  of  moderate 
strength;  vibrissa  hardly  differentiated;  proboscis  yellow;  palpi  black, 
of  moderate  size.  Mesonotum  shining  black;  three  distinct  pairs 
of  dorso-centrals  present;  the  anterior  pair  distinctly  weaker  than  the 
other  two  pairs,  and  close  to  suture;  the  pair  of  bristles  between  the 
posterior  pair  of  dorso-centrals  weakly  differentiated;  pleura  shining 
black,  brownish  along  sutures  and  below  wing  base;  squams  grayish, 
fringe  dark  brown;  scutellum  and  postnotum  concolorous  with  disk 
of  mesonotum,  the  former  with  the  bristles  subequal.  Legs  black; 
mid  tibia  without  distinct  posterior  bristles.  Abdomen  black-brown, 
shining,  covered  with  short  setulas;  hypopygium  glossy  black,  small. 
Wings  rather  narrow;  second  costal  division  2)^  times  as  long  as  first; 
subcostal  vein  distinct;  fused  with  first  at  its  apex;  inner  cross  vein  at 
about  apex  of  junction  of  first  vein  with  costa;  outer  cross  vein  at 
distinctly,  but  not  greatly,  before  wing  middle,  and  at  slightly  more 
than  its  own  length  from  inner  cross  vein;  last  section  of  fifth  vein 
subequal  with  penultimate  section;  sixth  vein  indistinct.  Halteres 
black. 

Length  2  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15577,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Reading,  Massachusetts,  May  16,  1908.  New- 
York  State  Collection,  from  Willow,   (E.  P.  Felt).     One  male. 

40.     Agromyza  winnemanae,  new  species. 

Female:  Deep  black,  glossy;  abdomen  with  an  indication  of 
metallic  bluish  sheen.  Frons  deep  black,  center  stripe  opaque;  orbits 
glossy;  width  of  frons  slightly  more  than  one-third  the  head  width;, 
each  orbit  a  little  less  than  one-fourth  the  width  of  center  stripe;  four 
orbital  bristles  present;  an  irregular  row  of  weak  hairs  between  eye 
and  orbital  bristles;  antennae  of  moderate  size;  second  joint  with  dis- 
tinct dorsal  bristle;  third  joint  barely  longer  than  broad,  rounded  at 
apex;  arista  swollen  at  base,  tapering,  bare,  in  length  equal  to  from  its 
base  to  second  uppermost  orbital  bristle;  face  brownish  black,  opaque; 
almost  perpendicular  in  profile,  with  slight,  rounded  keel;  cheek  very 
short,   almost  linear,   not  over  one-eighth  as  high  as  eye,  marginal 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  315 

bristles  weak;  vibrissa  distinctly  differentiated  though  not  very  strong; 
proboscis  brown;  palpi  black,  normal;  occiput  linear,  the  eyes  very 
large  and  occupying  nearly  the  whole  side  of  head.  Mesonotum  with 
two  pairs  of  dorso-centrals ;  disk  covered  with  short  setulas;  the  pair 
of  bristles  between  the  posterior  dorso-centrals  not  differentiated 
from  the  other  discal  setulce;  squamae  yellowish  brown,  fringe  brown; 
apical  bristles  on  scutellum  weaker  than  the  basal  pair.  Abdomen 
with  segments  covered  with  short  setulce,  those  on  the  posterior  mar- 
gins slightly  stronger;  sixth  segment  slightly  elongated;  base  of  ovi- 
positor not  as  long  as  preceding  segment.  Legs  shining  black;  posterior 
surface  of  mid  tibia,  in  type,  without  any  bristles.  Wings  clear; 
second  costal  division  a  little  over  twice  as  long  as  first;  subcostal 
vein  indistinct,  coalescent  with  first  at  its  apex;  outer  cross  vein  at 
distinctly  before  wing  middle,  and  at  its  own  length  from  inner;  fourth 
vein  rather  indistinct  from  outer  cross  vein  to  apex;  last  section  of 
fifth  distinctly,  but  not  greatly,  longer  than  penulate  section;  costa  not 
reaching  beyond  end  of  third  vein.  Halteres  black. 
Length  3  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15578,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:     Plummers    Island,    Maryland,    June    27,    1909^ 
(W.  L.  McAtee),  one  female. 
Food-plant  unknown. 

41.     Agromyza  simplex  Loew. 

Syn:  Agromyza  simplex  Loew,  Dipt.  Amer.  Sept.,  Cent.  8,  1869,  species  84. 

Male  and  Female:  Entirely  shining  black.  Frons  occupying 
distinctly  more  than  one-third  the  width  of  head ;  center  stripe  opaque ;. 
orbits  glossy;  ocellar  region  glossy;  the  frontal  triangle  distinguishable, 
but  not  separated  from  center  stripe  by  an  impressed  line;  five  orbital 
bristles  present,  in  addition  to  those  there  are  numerous  soft  hairs 
covering  the  entire  surface,  laterally,  beyond  the  bristles,  and  stretching 
from  opposite  base  of  antennas. to  upper  orbital  bristle;  antennae  rather 
small,  second  joint  with  moderately  long  dorsal  bristle;  third  joint 
rounded,  with  very  short,  whitish  pile;  arista  bare,  the  base  swollen, 
length  of  arista  equal  to  from  its  base  to  between  uppermost  two  or- 
bital bristles;  face  slightly  keeled,  concave  in  profile,  opaque,  brown- 
black;  cheeks  opaque  brown;  orbits  carried  almost  to  hind  margin  of 
eye,  shining;  height  of  cheek  at  anterior  margin  less  than  at  posterior, 
where  it  is  about  two-fifths  as  high  as  eye;  marginal  bristles  rather 
weak,  upturned;  vibrissa  weakly  differentiated;  proboscis  brown ^ 
palpi  black,  normal.  Mesonotum  covered  with  short  setulas;  two 
distinct  pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present,  and  in  addition  to  these  there 
are  generally  2-3  setulae  anterior  to  them  stronger  than  the  discal 
hairs;  squamas  black-brown,  fringe  concolorous;  scutellum  with  the 
apical  two  bristles  weaker  than  the  basal  two.  Abdomen  broadly 
ovate  in  female,  somewhat  narrower  in  male;  no  metallic  sheen  visible; 
last  abdominal  segment  in  female  elongate;  apical  bristles  on  seg- 
ments not  conspicuous;  base  of  ovipositor  not  longer  than  preceding. 


316  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

segment;  male  hypopgium  exposed,  rather  small.  Legs  entirely 
black;  mid  tibia  with  the  posterior  bristles  present,  but  weak.  Wings 
grayish;  veins  black;  subcostal  vein  indistinct,  joining  first  vein 
near  its  apex;  first  costal  division  half  as  long  as  second;  inner 
cross  vein  at  below  end  of  first  vein;  outer  cross  vein  at  about 
one-half  its  own  length  from  inner;  last  section  of  fifth  vein  slightly 
longer  than  penultimate  section.  Halteres  black. 
Length  2.5-3  mm. 

Originally  described  from  the  Middle  States.  Recorded 
in  the  Smith  Catalogue  for  New  Jersey,  and  from  New  York 
in  Bull.  189,  N.  Y.  Exper.  Sta.  1900.  Represented  in  col- 
lection by  two  specimens  from  Berlin,  Germany,  (C.  Schirmer) 
labeled  Agromyza  schineri  Loew,  in  Coquillett's  handwriting. 
The  only  other  specimen  I  have  ever  seen  was  reared  from 
asparagus  by  I.  J.  Condit,  Portsmouth,  Virginia,  submitted 
by  Prof.  Chittenden  of  the  Bureau  of  Entomology. 

This  species  attacks  asparagus  and  in  the  New  York  Bul- 
letin above  mentioned  is  an  account  of  its  life  history.  Giard* 
has  found  it  in  France,  and  Collinf  in  England,  associated 
with  the  same  plant. 

42.     Agromyza  vibrissata,  new  species.        \ 
Plate  XXVIII,  Fig.  2;  Plate  XXX,  Figs.  24,  25. 

Male:  Frons  opaque  brown -black,  only  the  orbits  and  ocellar 
triangle  slightly  shining;  breadth  of  frons  nearly  one-half  the  head 
width;  six  orbital  bristles  present,  the  lower,  or  anterior,  two  lying 
close  to  surface  of  the  frons,  which  is  rather  buccate,  and  pointing  back- 
ward and  slightly  inward;  numerous  closely  placed  short  hairs  on  orbits 
between  bristles  and  eye  margin;  lunule  depressed;  face  sunk  in  and  with 
a  central  keel,  which  is  raised  on  a  level  with  eye  orbits;  antennas 
brown,  rather  snjall  and  half  hidden  in  face  cavities;  arista  yellowish 
brown,  distinctly  swollen  at  base,  bare,  not  three  times  as  long  as 
third  antennal  joint;  face  black,  a  yellowish  brown  patch  on  center 
of  epistome;  epistome  much  produced;  cheeks  brown;  eye  orbit  dis- 
tinct; cheek,  including  orbit,  two-fifths  as  high  as  eye;  marginal  bristles 
weak,  vibrissa  formed  of  a  fasciculus  of  bristles,  which  is  about  two- 
fifths  as  long  as  length  of  cheek;  proboscis  yellowish-brown;  palpi 
black,  shghtly  spatulate,  and  weakly  bristled.  Mesonotum  shining 
black;  covered  with  short  setulas  and  with  two  pairs  of  dorso-central 
bristles;  the  pair  of  bristles  between  the  posterior  dorso-centrals  not 
differentiated;  pleuree  glossy  brown-black,  the  sutures,  and  below  wing 
base  paler;  the  normal  bristles  present,  squamas  yellowish,  fringe 
brown;  scutellum,  and  postnotimi  concolorous  with  disk  of  meso- 
notum; the  former  with  the  posterior  pair  of  bristles  slightly  reduced 

*Bull.  Soc.  Ent.  France,  1894,  p.  179. 
tEnt.  Mon.  Mag.,  Vol.  XXII,  1911,  p.  254. 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  317 

in  size.  Abdomen  glossy  black;  all  segments  with  numerous  short 
hairs  on  dorsum;  those  on  lateral  margins  of  segments  longer;  the 
posterior  margin  of  last  abdominal  segment  not  noticeably  bristly; 
last  segment  slightly  elongated;  hypopygium  small.  Legs  black- 
brown,  shining,  tibiae  and  tarsi  paler;  posterior  bristles  on  mid  tibia 
present,  but  not  large.  Wings  clear;  veins  brown;  first  costal  division 
fully  one-half  as  long  as  second;  subcostal  vein  indistinct,  fused  with 
first  at  near  apex;  inner  cross  vein  below  swelhng  caused  by  junction 
of  first  vein  and  costa;  outer  cross  vein  at  wing  middle,  and  at  nearly 
its  own  length  from  inner;  last  section  of  fifth  vein  shghtly  shorter 
than  penultimate  section.     Halteres  black. 

Length  3.5  mm. 

Female:  Similar  in  color  and  size  to  the  male,  but  the  cheeks 
as  in  figure  25;  the  last  segment  of  abdomen  has  the  bristles  at  apex 
stronger  than  in  the  male;  and  the  ovipositor  is  glossy  black. 

Type:     Cat.  No.   15579,  U.  S.  N.   M. 

Locality:  Georgia,  no  other  data  on  specimens.  Two 
males,   one  female. 

Food-plant  unknown. 

43.     Agromyza  affinis,  new  species. 

Female:  Frons  black,  center  stripe  opaque,  orbits  shining;  breadth 
of  frons  slightly  over  one-third  the  head  width;  orbits  less  than  one- 
half  the  width  of  center  stripe:  four  strong  orbital  bristles  present,  on 
both  sides  there  is  a  weaker  bristle  close  under  the  front  one;  hairs 
on  orbits,  between  bristle  and  eye  margin,  short,  but  ntmierous,  on 
front  half  of  orbit;  antennas  black,  of  moderate  size;  second  joint  with 
distinct  dorsal  bristle;  third  joint  rounded,  pilosity  very  short,  dark; 
arista  black,  basal  swelhng  slight  and  tapering,  pubescence  very  short 
and  close;  length  of  arista  equal  to  from  its  base  to  a  little  beyond 
second  uppermost  orbital  bristle;  face  black,  opaque,  concave  in  pro- 
file, mouth  margin  produced,  keel  distinct ;  cheek  black,  brown  on  lower 
half,  higher  anteriorly  then  posteriorly,  vibrissa  very  clearly  differ- 
entiated from  the  inarginal  bristles;  proboscis  brown;  palpi  in  type 
retracted.  Mesonotum  shining  black;  two  distinct  pairs  of  dorso- 
centrals  present;  disk  covered  with  short  setrdse,  which  are  carried 
back  beyond  the  transverse  line  of  the  posterior  pair  of  dorso-centrals; 
pleurce  shining  black,  brownish  along  sutures  and  below  wing  base; 
squamas  brown-black,  fringe  almost  black;  scutellum  concolorous  with 
disk  of  mesonotum.  Abdomen  glossy  black;  all  segments  with  discal 
setulae;  those  on  posterior  margin  of  sixth  segments  most  noticeable, 
but  not  strong;  base  of  ovipositor  distinctly  longer  than  preceding 
segment,  its  surface  covered  on  the  sides  and  apex  with  short  hairs. 
Legs  entirely  black,  shining;  posterior  surface  of  mid  tibia  without 
distinct  bristles.  Wings  grayish,  veins  brown;  outer  cross  vein  at  dis- 
tinctly less  than  its  own  length  from  inner,  and  at  wing  middle;  last 
section  of  fifth  vein  distinctly  shorter  than  the  penultimate  section. 
Halteres  black. 

Length  2  mm. 


318  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15580,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Glen  Echo,  Maryland,  June  3,  1898  (R.  P. 
Currie).  This  species  comes  very  close  to  the  European 
curvipalpis  Zetterstedt,  but  the  two  males  of  that  species  in 
collection  (Bonhill,  Dumbartonshire,  Scotland,  May,  1907- 
1908,  J.  R.  Malloch)  have  the  arista  bare,  the  basal  swelling 
much  more  pronounced,  and  elongate;  the  frons  half  as  broad 
as  width  of  head;  the  last  section  of  fifth  vein  about  equal 
to  the  penultimate  section,  and  the  outer  cross  vein  before 
wing  middle.  It  may  be  well  to  indicate  here  that  the  name 
curvipalpis  (Dipt.  Scand.  Vol.  7,  1848,  p.  2782,  species  44) 
was  given  to  this  species  because  of  a  misapprehension  on  the 
part  of  Zetterstedt,  who  mistook  the  vibrissae  for  a  prolongation 
of  the  palpi.  Schiner  in  Fauna  Austrica  followed  him  in  this 
respect.  The  species  was  afterwards  described  by  Kaltenbach 
as  bicornis  (Pflanzenf.  1873,  p.  330,  species  33). 

In  the  collection  are  three  specimens  which  may  be  males 
of  affinis,  but  their  condition  is  so  poor  that  I  do  not  con- 
sider it  desirable  to  either  place  their  description  on  record  as 
such,  or  describe  them  as  belonging  to  another  species. 

The  localities  are.  Key  West,  Florida,  January  1  and  Feb- 
ruary 6,  1869,  (Hubbard-?)  and  one  from  North  Carolina, 
without  other  data. 

Food-plant  unknown. 

44.     Agromyza  insularis,  new  species. 

Plate  XXXI,  Fig.  38. 

Male  and  female:  Frons  black;  center  stripe  opaque,  orbits  and 
the  weakly  defined  ocellar  triangle  shining;  breadth  of  frons  in  female 
barely  one-third  as  wide  as  head,  in  male  slightly  wider;  each  orbit 
equal  to  about  one-fourth  the  width  of  center  stripe;  four  rather  weak 
orbital  bristles  present;  in  addition  to  the  bristles  there  is  an  irregular 
row  of  very  short  hairs  nearer  to  eye  margin;  frons  in  profile  declevitous, 
not  projecting;  antennse  brown-black,  small;  third  joint  not  as  long  as 
broad,  rounded  in  front,  distinctly  pilose;  arista  black,  basal  fifth 
thickened,  tapering,  almost  bare,  length  equal  to  from  its  base  to 
second  uppermost  orbital  bristle;  face  black,  concave,  mouth  margin 
slightly  produced;  cheek  black-brown,  narrow,  almost  linear  at  posterior 
margin,  distinctly  higher  anteriorly,  but  not  very  much  produced; 
vibrissa  in  male  fasciculate  in  form,  the  length  not  equal  to  that  of 
cheek,  and  not  very  conspicuous;  in  female  the  vibrissa  is  distinct 
and  almost  as  long  as  in  male,  but  consisting  on  only  one  bristle;  mar- 
ginal cheek  bristles  much  weaker  then  vibrissa;  proboscis  brownish 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  319 

yellow  at  apex;  palpi  black,  rather  short  and  slightly  spatulate,  the 
bristles  weak;  occiput  linear.  Mesonotum  shining  black;  two  pairs 
of  dorso-centrals  present;  the  discal  setulae  very  sparse  behind  anterior 
pair  of  dorso-centrals,  and  not  carried  to  level  of  transverse  line  of 
posterior  dorso-centrals;  pleurse  glossy  brown  or  blackish,  margin  and 
fringe  black-brown;  scutellum  concolorous  with  disk  of  mesonotum, 
the  bristles  subequal.  Abdomen  glossy  black;  ovate;  segments  with 
numerous  short  setulge,  posterior  margins  with  more  distinct  bristle- 
like setulas;  base  of  ovipositor  glossy  black.  Legs  black.  Wings 
grayish;  veins  black-brown;  second  costal  division  slightly  more  than 
twice  as  long  as  first;  subcostal  vein  indistinct,  coalescent  with  first 
at  its  apex;  inner  cross  vein  at  below  end  of  first;  outer  at  its  own 
length  from  inner,  and  at  slightly  before  wing  middle,  last  section 
of  fifth  vein  barely  longer  than  penulimate  section;  veins  ^-A  slightly 
divergent  on  last  sections.  Halteres  black. 
Length  barely  1.5  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15581,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Cayamas,  Cuba,  December  (E.  A.  Schwarz). 
Male  and  female,  taken  in  cop. 

45.    Agromyza  texana,  new  species. 

Male  and  Female:  This  species  is  very  similar  to  insularis  in  gen- 
eral appearance,  but  differs  as  follows:  The  arista  is  not  so  much 
swollen  at  base,  nor  for  such  a  long  distance;  the  cheek  is  much  more 
distinctly  produced  in  both  sexes,  and  comparitively  higher  anteriorly; 
the  vibrissa  is  much  more  conspicuous  in  the  male,  and  as  long  as 
cheek  length,  in  female  the  vibrissa  is  comparatively  weak  and  not 
nearly  so  long  as  in  male,  consisting  of  one  hair  only;  the  thorax  is 
more  densely  covered  with  setulce,  which  are  carried  at  least  to  level 
of  transverse  line  of  posterior  dorso-centrals;  the  legs  are  black  in  both 
species  and  the  posterior  bristles  are  absent  from  mid  tibis;  the  wings 
have  the  outer  cross  vein  at  wing  middle,  or  very  slightly  beyond  it, 
and  the  last  section  of  fifth  vein  slightly  shorter  than  penultimate 
section. 

Length  L5-2  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15582,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Brownsville,  Texas,  January  27,  1909  (Mc- 
Millan and  Marsh),  reared  from  Roripa.     One  male. 

Paratypes:  Cabin  John  Bridge,  Maryland,  April  28,  1912, 
two  females  (Knab  and  Malloch) ;  Brownsville,  Texas,  Jan- 
uary 27,  1909,  one  female,  same  data  as  type;  and  one  female 
Veitch,  Virginia,  June  9,  1912  (F.  Knab). 


320  Annals  Entomological  Society  oj  America       [Vol.  VI, 


46.     Agromyza  abnormalis,  new  species. 
Plate  XXIX,  Fig.  9. 

Fentale:  Frons  black-brown;  center  stripe  opaque;  orbits  black, 
shining;  breadth  of  frons  over  one-third  that  of  head;  orbits  at  widest 
part  one-third  as  wide  as  center  stripe  at  that  part;  five  strong 
orbital  bristles  present,  and  in  the  type  a  weak  one  anterior  to  the 
lower  strong  one;  upper  two  bristles  situated  near  to  inner  margin  of 
orbits,  the  others  nearer  to  center;  besides  the  bristles  there  are  scat- 
tered short  hairs  present  on  the  orbits  nearer  to  eye  margin  than  bristles; 
ocellar  region  raised,  shining  black;  ocellar  triangle  not  defined;  frons 
in  profile  slightly  protruding  anteriorly;  antennae  black-brown,  of 
moderate  size;  dorsal  bristle  on  second  joint  distinct;  third  joint  rounded 
in  front,  slightly  longer  than  broad,  pilosity  very  short;  arista  rather 
thick,  swollen  more  distinctly  on  basal  fifth,  pubescence  short,  but 
distinct;  length  of  arista  equal  to  from  its  base  to  upper  orbital  bristle; 
face  shining  black,  slightly  retreating,  mouth  margin  not  produced, 
center  keel  very  slight;  cheek  opaque  brown,  half  as  high  anteriorly  as 
posteriorly,  where  it  is  half  as  high  as  eye ;  marginal  bristles  of  moderate 
length;  the  vibrissa  slightly  differentiated;  proboscis  yellow;  palpi 
black,  normal;  occiput  slightly  projecting.  Mesonotum  black,  sub- 
shining;  four  pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present,  the  anterior  pair  in  front 
of  suture,  discal  setulas  numerous  and  rather  regularly  arranged  in 
rows,  of  which  there  are  about  five  between  the  dorso-centrals;  no 
differentiated  bristles  between  posterior  pair  of  dorso-centrals;  pleurae 
shining  black,  the  sutures  and  below  wing  base  brown;  squamae  gray- 
brown,  margins  black-brown,  fringe  brown;  scutellum  concolorous  with 
disk  of  mesonotum,  the  bristles  subequal.  Abdomen  black,  glossy; 
segments  rather  strongly  setulose;  ovipositor  very  glossy  black.  Legs 
black,  tibiae  and  tarsi  brownish;  mid  tibia  without  posterior  bristles. 
Wings  grayish;  first  costal  division  distinctly  over  one-half  as  long  as 
second;  subcostal  vein  indistinct,  but  complete,  not  fused  with  first 
at  its  apex;  inner  cross  vein  distinctly,  but  not  greatly  in  front  of  end 
of  first  vein,  and  at  or  shghtly  beyond  middle  of  discal  cell;  outer  cross 
vein  at  about  its  own  length  from  inner  and  very  slightly  beyond  end 
of  first  vein;  veins  3-4-5  gradually  and  slightly  divergent  on  their  last 
sections;  last  section  of  fifth  vein  twice  as  long  as  penultimate  section. 
Halteres  brown. 

Length  3  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15583,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Washington,  District  of  Columbia,  June,  1903, 
No.  9727— "on  Aphid"— "On  roots  of  Amaranthus." 

Paratype:  labeled  "Twilight"  Lawrence,  Kansas,  (E.  S. 
Tucker). 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  321 


47.     Agromyza  virens  Loew. 

Dipt.  Amer.  Sept.  Indig.  Cent.  8,  1869,  species  84. 

Male  and  Female:  Frons  black,  orbits  and  ocellar  triangle  glossy, 
center  stripe  opaque;  breadth  of  frons  slightly  over  one-third  that  of 
head;  breadth  of  orbits  over  one-third  that  of  center  stripe;  five  orbital 
bristles  generally  present,  the  orbits  densely  covered  with  short,  fine, 
hairs ;  frons  generally  slightly  buccate ;  antennae  brown-black,  of  moder- 
ate size;  third  joint  rounded;  arista  shghtly  swollen  at  base,  very  thickly, 
but  shortly  pubescent;  as  long  as  from  its  base  to  upper  orbital  bristle; 
face  concave  in  profile,  brown-black;  cheeks  higher  at  posterior  than 
anterior  margin,  at  highest  part  about  one-fourth  as  high  as  eye; 
marginal  bristles  of  moderate  strength;. vibrissa  differentiated;  proboscis 
brown;  palpi  black,  normal;  occiput  slightly  projecting;  eyes  generally 
distinctly  and  thickly  pubescent  above.  Mesonotum  glossy  black, 
with  sometimes  a  bluish  or  greenish  tinge;  squamae  white,  or  yellowish, 
the  margin  yellowish,  fringe  pale  yellowish,  or  white.  Abdomen 
glossy  black,  generally  with  a  metallic  tinge,  either  bluish,  greenish, 
or  bronzy;  in  shape  and  vestiture  as  in  tilicE.  Legs  as  in  tilice;  the  poster- 
ior mid  tibial  bristles  distinct.  Wings  grayish,  or  almost  clear,  veins 
brown;  venation  almost  as  in  tilice.. 

Length  1.5-2.5  mm. 

vSpecimens from  Lafayette,  Indiana  (F,  M.  Webster).  Mining 
in  roots  of  clover.  There  are  five  other  specimens  in  collection  with 
Webster's  No.  10,073,  from  Lafayette,  Indiana;  one  from  Glad- 
brook,  Iowa,  February  14,  1890,  (No.  4608)  mining  in  stems  of 
Ambrosia  artimisaejolia  (A.  M.  Sharp);  two  from  Cambridge, 
Massachusetts,  "mining  in  stems  of  a  weed"  (H.  G.  Hubbard); 
one  marked  3042o,  referred  to  as  a  Tachinid  in  notes,  from 
stem  of  a  weed  in  which  some,  species  of  Cecidomyid  was 
mining,  April  18,  1883  (locality  doubtful) ;  two  specimens  labeled 
"Parasitic  on  Cecidomyid  on  aster  with  yellow  flowers,"  May 
23,  1884  (locality  doubtful) ;  two  from  stems  of  Ambrosia, 
March,  1895,  District  of  Columbia,  one  from  Nabalus  albus, 
May  14,  1883  (locality  doubtful) ;  two  from  California  (Ala- 
meda and  Los  Angeles) ,  collection  Coquillett ;  one  from  Georgia, 
no  other  data;  one  from  Flag-staff,  Arizona,  July,  (H.  S.  Bar- 
ber). One  from  Plummers  Island  and  four  from  Washington, 
D.  C.  are  in  the  collection  of  W.  L.  McAtee  and  a  series  of 
13  specimens  from  the  Brodie  collection  are  in  the  U.  S.  National 
Museum  collection,   locality  Toronto,   Ontario,   Canada. 

In  some  cases,  I  believe  with  specimens  which  have  been 
on  the  wing,  it  is  not  very  easy  to  see  the  hairs  on  the  eyes, 
but  in  freshly  emerged  examples  these  are  very  noticeable  on 


322  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

the  upper  surface  of  the  eyes  close  to  the  orbits.  A  single 
specimen  from  Claremont,  California  (Baker),  may  belong 
to  a  distinct  species. 

48.     Agromyza  caerulea,  new  species. 
Plate  XXIX,  Fig.  13. 

Female:  Frons  black;  center  stripe  opaque  brown-black,  orbits 
and  ocellar  triangle  glossy  black;  width  of  frons  equal  to  slightly  over 
one-third  that  of  head;  each  orbit  slightly  less  than  one-fourth  the 
breadth  of  center  stripe;  four  strong  orbital  bristles  present,  the  orbital 
pubescence  not  very  conspicuous;  frontal  triangle  fairly  well  defined, 
reaching  over  three-fourths  of  the  way  to  lunule;  lumile  shining,  brown- 
ish, with  indications  of  whitish  pollinosity;  antennae  small,  black; 
dorsal  bristle  on  second  joint  long;  third  joint  not  longer  than  broad, 
roimded  at  apex,  pilosity  pale,  very  short;  arista  thickened  and  tapering 
on  basal  fourth,  pubescence  distinct,  slightly  longer  than  basal  diameter 
of  arista,  length  of  arista  equal  to  from  its  base  to  upper  orbital  bristle; 
face  short,  black,  concave  in  profile;  cheek  short,  shining  black,  mar- 
ginal bristles  very  numerous,  strong,  and  irregularly  arranged,  not  in 
a  single  row,  carried  upward  beyond  the  level  of  the  weakly  differ- 
entiated vibrissa;  proboscis  yellow  at  apex;  palpi  black,  niunerously 
bristled;  occiput  not  produced.  Mesonotum  glossy  blue-black,  more 
inclining  to  brown-black  on  lateral  margins;  two  distinct  pairs  of  dorso- 
centrals  present;  disk  covered  with  numerous  short  setulse;  no  distinct 
bristles  between  the  posterior  dorso-centrals;  pleurae  glossy  blue- 
black,  sutures  and  below  wing  base  brown;  squamse  white,  fringe  con- 
colorous;  scutellum  concolorous  with  disk  of  mesonotum,  the  marginal 
bristles  subequal.  Abdomen  ovate,  bronzy  blue-black;  first  two  seg- 
ments short,  the  others  subequal,  all  segments  with  short  discal  setulae, 
those  on  posterior  margins  of  segments  strong;  base  of  ovipositor  not 
longer  than  preceding  segment.  Legs  strong,  especially  the  femora, 
which  are  thickened;  black,  shining,  tibiae  at  base  brownish;  fore  tibia 
with  a  strong  bristle  on  posterior  surface  at  below  middle;  the  pair  of 
bristles  on  posterior  surface  of  mid  tibia  strong.  Wings  clear,  veins 
brownish  yellow;  second  costal  division  about  twice  as  long  as  first; 
subcostal  vein  indistinct;  outer  cross  vein  at  slightly  below  wing  middle, 
and  at  a  little  more  than  its  own  length  from  margin  to  wing  on  fifth 
vein,  and  from  inner  cross  vein;  veins  2-3  divergent,  3-4  slightly  con- 
vergent at  apices;  inner  cross  vein  at  below  junction  of  first  vein  with 
costa,  and  at  middle  of  discal  cell.  Halteres  black,  pedical  yellowdsh  brown. 

Length  3-4  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15584,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  The  specimen  bears  the  M.  S.  label  "S.  J. 
Allende,  Mexico,"  and  the  numbers  11-29,  which  probably 
means  that  it  was  taken  on  November  29.  I  cannot  find  on 
the  available  maps  of  Mexico  any  locality  in  accordance  with 
that  on  the  label.     No  collector's  name  is  given.     One  specimen. 

Food-plant  tmknown. 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  323 


49.     Agromyza  burgessi,  new  species. 
Plate  XXXI,  Fig.  34. 

Female:  Frons  black;  center  stripe  brown-black,  opaque,  orbits 
glossy  black ;  breadth  of  frons  distinctly,  but  not  greatly,  over  one- 
third  the  width  of  head;  breadth  of  each  orbit  about  equal  to  one- 
fourth  the  width  of  center  stripe;  generally  six  strong  orbital  bristles 
present,  in  one  specinem  five  only;  the  bristles  situated  on  nearer  to 
inner  than  outer  margin  of  orbits;  the  space  between  eye  margin  and 
bristles  thickly  covered  with  short  hairs;  ocellar  triangle  poorly  defined 
anteriorly,  the  gloss  on  surface  not  continuing  to  its  apex;  lunule  whitish 
pollinose;  frons  projecting  slightly  anteriorly,  giving  the  head  a  some- 
what buccate  appearance;  eye  orbit  continued  to  almost  hind  angle 
of  eye;  glossy  black;  antennae  small,  brown;  third  joint  not  longer  than 
broad,  regularly  rounded  at  apex;  arista  swollen  at  base,  bare,  as  long 
as  from  its  base  to  between  second  and  third  uppermost  orbital  bristles ; 
cheek  brown,  distinctly  higher  at  posterior  than  at  anterior  margin, 
and  at  highest  point  distinctly  over  one-third  the  height  of  eye;  marginal 
bristles  of  moderate  strength,  not  numerous;  vibrissa  well  differentiated; 
proboscis  brown;  palpi  black,  slightly  spattilate,  weakly  bristled  at 
apex;  occiput  distinctly  visible  on  upper  half.  Mesonotum  black, 
glossy,  without  any  distinct  bluish  fringe;  bristles  as  in  ccerulea;  pleurae 
brown-black,  the  sutures  and  below  wing  base  pale  brown;  squamae 
grayish,  margin  black-brown,  the  fringe  brown;  scutellimi  black, 
glossy,  bristles  subequal.  Abdomen  glossy  black  or  brown-black, 
with,  in  some  lights,  a  bronzy  luster;  second  segment  not  so  distinctly 
shortened  as  in  ccsndea;  in  other  respects  similar  to  that  species.  Legs 
similar  to  previous  species,  but  the  bristle  on  fore  tibia  is  weaker. 
Wings  in  most  respects  similar  to  ccendea,  but  the  third  and  fourth  veins 
are  distinctly  divergent  on  their  outer  sections.     Halteres  brown. 

Length  3.5-4  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15585,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Beverly,  Massachusetts,  June  2,  1876  (Bur- 
gess). 

Specimens  of  this  species  are  in  collection  from  Tower 
City,  North  Dakota,  (G.  I.  Reeves),  Webster's  No.  3122, 
2  females;  and  Colorado,  No.  1563,  no  collector's  name,  1 
female.  I  have  named  this  species  in  honor  of  the  late  Edward 
Burgess,  who  collected  the  type  specimen  37  years  ago,  I 
haive  seen  one  specimen  in  C.  W.  Johnson's  collection  from 
Lancaster,  New  York,  which  has  the^  bristles  on  fore  tibia 
indistinguishable. 

Food-plant  unknown. 


324  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


50.     Agromyza  plumiseta,  new  species. 

Female:  Frons  black,  center  stripe  opaque,  orbits,  ocellar  region, 
and  the  well  defined  ocellar  triangle  glossy  black;  breadth  of  frons 
one-third  the  head  width,  ocellar  triangle  reaching  three-fourths  of  the 
way  to  luniile,  which  is  whitish  pollinose ;  orbital  bristles  four  in  number, 
moderately  strong;  hairs  on  orbits  numerous  and  irregularly  arranged; 
■each  orbit  one-fourth  the  width  of  center  stripe;  the  bristles  situated 
■close  to  inner  margin;  antennas  of  moderate  size,  deep  black;  third  joint 
rounded  in  front,  not  as  long  as  broad;  second  joint  with  distinct  dorsal 
bristle;  arista  brown,  swollen  at  base,  pubescence  very  distinct,  longer 
than  basal  diameter  of  arista,  length  of  arista  equal  to  from  its  base 
to  upper  orbital  bristle;  face  black,  concave,  mouth  margin  slightly 
produced;  cheek  very  short  and  low;  marginal  bristles  rather  weak, 
vibrissa  well  differentiated;  proboscis  yellow  at  apex;  palpi  black, 
slightly  spatulate,  and  weakly  bristled  at  tips;  occiput  not  projecting. 
Mesonotum  blue-black;  two  pairs .  of  dorso-centrals  present;  setulas 
numerous  on  disk,  continued  posteriorly  beyond  transverse  line  of 
posterior  dorso-centrals;  pleuras  black,  shining,  with  a  bluish  sheen, 
the  sutiu-es,  and  below  wing  base  brown;  squamae  yellowish  white, 
fringe  concolorous;  scutellum  colored  as  disk  of  mesonotum,  apical 
pair  of  bristles  very  slightly  smaller  than  basal  pair.  Abdomen  black, 
with  a  distinct,  metallic  blue  sheen;  basal  segment  brown;  all  segments 
with  very  niimerous  discal  setulcE,  those  on  apices  of  segments  most 
distinct;  sixth  segment  very  slightly  elongated;  base  of  ovipositor 
not  longer  than  preceding  segment.  Legs  black,  shining,  strong; 
posterior  surface  of  mid  tibia  with  the  pair  of  bristles  distinct.  Wings 
clear;  veins  brownish  yellow;  first  costal  division  barely  more  than  one- 
third  as  long  as  second;  inner  cross  vein  at  below  end  of  first  vein  and 
at  middle  of  discal  cell;  outer  cross  vein  at  very  slightly  beyond  wing 
middle,  and  at  more  than  its  own  length  from  inner;  veins  2-3-4  grad- 
ually divergent  on  their  last  sections;  last  section  of  fifth  vein  about 
two-thirds  as  long  as  penultimate  section.     Halteres  black. 

Length  2  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15586,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Bayamon,  Porto  Rico,  January,  1899,  (A.  Busck) 
Along  with  the  type  there  is  a  male  from  Fajardo,  Porto  Rico, 
February,  1899  (A  Busck),  which  belongs  here.  It  differs 
only  in  having  the  frons  slightly  less  than  one-third  the  head 
width  and  though  in  poor  condition  is  evidently,  in  other 
respects,  identical  with  the  female. 

Food-plant  unknown. 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  325 


51.     Agromyza  websteri,  new  species. 

Male  and  Female:  Frons  deep  black;  center  stripe  opaque,  orbits 
and  oceilar  triangle  glossy;  width  of  frons  almost  one-half  that  of 
head,  narrower  at  anterior  margin  than  posteriorly ;  width  of  each  orbit 
about  one-fourth  that  of  center  stripe;  five  orbital  bristles  generally 
present,  but  sometimes  there  are  six  in  aberrant  specimens;  besides  the 
bristles,  which  are  situated  on  close  to  inner  margin  of  orbit,  there 
is  an  outer  irregular  row  of  short  black  hairs;  antennae  of  moderate 
size,  black  with  sometimes  whitish  pollinosity;  second  joint  with  dis- 
tinct dorsal  bristles,  and  weak  apical  hairs;  third  joint  rounded,  dis- 
tinctly shorter  than  broad,  pilosity  very  short,  whitish;  arista  with  a 
•distinct,  elongate  thickening  at  base,  which  occupies  almost  one-third 
the  length  of  arista;  pubescence  very  indistinct;  length  of  arista  equal 
to  from  its  base  to  middle  of  orbit;  face  opaque  black;  concave  in 
profile,  the  mouth  margin  slightly  produced;  cheek  opaque  black; 
of  almost  equal  height  on  its  entire  length,  which  is  equal  to  about 
■one-fourth  the  eye  height,  marginal  bristles  in  a  double  row,  the  upper 
slightly  upturned,  of  moderate  length;  vibrissa  distinctly  differentiated; 
proboscis  yellow-brown  at  apex;  palpi  black,  slightly  spatulate,  weakly 
l>ristled.  Mesonotimi  subshining  black,  with  slight  indications  of 
grayish  pollinosity,  especially  on  sides;  disk  very  thickly  covered 
with  short,  upright,  black  setulae;  three  pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present, 
the  anterior  pair  weak,  and  occasionally  there  are  2-3  setulse  in  line 
with  those,  which  are  distinctly  longer  than  the  other  discal  setulae,  but 
which  are  clearly  not  macrochaeta;  no  differentiated  bristles  between 
the  posterior  dorso-centrals;  pleurae  black,  siibshining,  sutures  brownish; 
squamas  brown,  or  gray,  the  margin  blackish,  fringe  black-brown; 
scutellimi  concolorous  with  disk  of  mesonotum.  Abdomen  shining 
black;  broadly  ovate;  segments  with  distinct  dorsal  setulae,  those  on 
posterior  margins,  and  especially  on  sixth  segment,  in  female,  longer; 
sixth  segment  slightly  elongated;  base  of  ovipositor  glossy  black; 
male  hypop^^gium  small,  shining  black.  Legs  black,  shining;  femora 
strong;  no  bristles  distinguishable  on  mid  tibia  in  any  of  the  specimens 
before  me.  Wings  grayish;  veins  brown-black;  first  costal  division 
distinctly  more  than  one-half  as  long  as  second;  subcostal  vein  distinct; 
fused  with  first  at  apex;  inner  cross  vein  below  end  of  first  vein;  outer 
cross  vein  not  upright,  its  upper  extremity  nearer  to  wing  tip  than  its 
lower,  situated  at  generally  less  than  its  o-wti  length  from  inner  cross 
vein,  and  its  upper  extremity  just  before  wing  middle;  veins  3-4  dis- 
tinctly divergent  at  their  apices;  last  section  and  penultimate  section 
-of  fifth  vein  subequal.     Halteres  black. 

Length  3.5-4  m.m. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15587,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Seattle,  Washington,  issued  January  21,  1913, 
from  galls  on  twigs  of  pink  wistaria  from  Japan,  (F.  M.  Rhoder). 
Another  specimen  from  same  lot,  in  poor  condition  January 


326  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI,. 

19,  1913  from  same  lot  of  galls.  There  are  four  specimens 
representing  both  sexes  marked  Ex.  galls  on  pink  wistaria, 
Japan,  B.  B.  Whitney,  No.  745. 

This  species  has  been  recorded  as  Agromyza  schineri  Gi- 
raud,*  on  the  authority  of  Aldrich.  Schineri  was  reared  from, 
poplar  by  Giraud  in  Europe,!  and  is  a  much  smaller  species. 
The  description  of  Giraud 's  species  is  brief  but  does  not 
permit  of  one  identifying  it  with  the  Japanese  species. 
I  include  this  imported  species  in  my  paper  because  it  evi- 
dently has  every  chance  of  becoming  established  in  this 
country.  One  striking  peculiarity  of  the  specimens  before  me 
of  this  species  is  the  amount  of  variation  in  the  number  of 
bristles  on  head,  thorax  and  scutellum.  In  many  cases  the 
normal  bristle  is  duplicated  and  the  number  on  any  one  part 
is  not  so  consistent  as  in  the  other  species  of  Agromyza.  The 
distance  between  the  cross  veins  of  the  wing  is  also  very  var- 
iable. In  the  figure  of  the  wing  given  in  the  California  pub- 
lication the  costa  is  carried  only  to  the  third  vein  whereas  in 
all  my  specimens  it  is  continued  to  the  fourth. 

52.     Agromyza  longiseta,  new  species. 

Plate  XXXI,  Fig.  30. 

Female:  Frons  deep  black;  center  stripe  opaque;  orbits,  and 
ocellar  region  shining;  oceliar  triangle  not  defined;  width  of  frons 
barely  one-third  that  of  head;  orbits  ill  defined,  each  one  not  one-fifth 
as  wide  as  center  stripe;  four  strong  orbital  bristles  present;  only  a 
few  short  hairs  on  orbits  besides  the  bristles;  frons  unprojecting,  but 
head  somewhat  buccate  in  profile;  antennas  rather  small,  black;  third 
joint  regularly  rounded  in  front,  about  as  long  as  broad,  covered  with 
short  pilosity;  dorsal  bristle  on  second  joint  distinct;  arista  very  slightly, 
and  shortly,  swollen  at  base,  distinctly  pubescent,  the  pubescence  as 
long  as  diameter  of  base  of  arista,  length  of  arista  as  long  as  from  its 
base  to  vertex;  face  opaque  black,  almost  perpendicular  in  profile j 
cheek  black,  of  almost  equal  height  on  its  entire  length,  and  not  over 
one-sixth  the  height  of  eye,  marginal  bristles  numerous  and  of  moder- 
ate size,  carried  higher  in  front  than  level  of  the  differentiated  vibrissa; 
proboscis  brown;  palpi  black,  very  slightly  broadened  at  ends,  and 
weakly  bristled;  occiput  not  projecting.  Mesonotum  glossy  black, 
with  a  slight  greenish  or  bluish  tinge;  two  pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present; 
squamge  very  dark,  the  margin  almost  black,  fringe  blackish.  Abdomen 
concolorous  with  mesoUotum;  the  posterior  margin  of  sixth  segment 
with  rather  long  bristles;  base  of  ovipositor  highly  glossy,  the  surface 

*Bull.  Cal.  State  Com.  Hort.,  Vol.  I,  No.  10,  p.  730,  1912. 
tVerh.  zool-bot.  Ges.  Wien.,  Vol.  II,  1861,  p.  484. 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  327 

bare  except  apically  on  sides,  as  long  as  the  elongate  sixth  segment. 
Legs  shining  black;  the  posterior  bristles  on  mid  tibia  distinct.  Wings 
grayish;  veins  black-brown;  subcostal  vein  distinct,  fused  with  first 
at  its  apex;  outer  cross  vein  at  wing  middle,  and  at  its  own  length  from 
inner  cross  vein;  inner  at  distinctly  beyond  middle  of  discal  cell;  last 
section  of  fifth  vein  not  two-thirds  as  long  as  penultimate  section; 
veins  3-4  slightly  divergent  at  apices.  Halteres  black. 
Length  2  mm.. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15588,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:     Frontera,   Tabasco,   Mexico,   March,   (C.   H.   T, 
Townsend).     One  female. 
Food-plant  unknown. 

53.     Agromyza  tiliae  Couden. 

Syn:  Agromyza  tilicB  Couden,  Proc.  Wash.  Ent.  Soc,  Vol.  IX,  1907,  p.  34. 

Female:  This  species  is  very  similar  to  A.  websteri,  but  differs 
as  follows:  The  antennse  are  smaller,  the  third  joint  being  rather 
below  the  average  size;  the  arista  is  not  so  distinctly  thickened  at 
the  base,  nor  for  such  a  long  distance,  the  thickening  tapering  gradually; 
the  mesonotum  is  shining  black;  with  two  pairs  of  dorso-centrals ; 
the  pleuree,  scutellum,  and  abdomen  glossy  black;  the  squamas  and 
legs  are  similar  in  color  to  websteri,  but  the  mid  tibiae  has  the  posterior 
bristles  distinct,  though  small;  and  in  size  tilice  averages  less,  2-3  mm. 
The  venation  in  both  species  is  rather  variable,  but  the  outer  cross 
vein  is  generally  at  less  than  its  own  length  from  the  inner. 

The  type  series  which  is  in  rather  poor  condition,  was 
reared  from  the  galls  on  twigs  of  lime  trees.  Locality:  Jen- 
nings, Missouri,  March-April,  1907,  (Mrs.  Hickey). 

The  twig  in  collection  shows  the  galls  arranged  on  the 
surface,  independent  of  the  position  of  the  leaf  buds,  whereas 
in  websteri  the  galls  are  apparently  confined  to  the  bases  of  the 
buds.  There  are  two  specimens  in  collection,  one  male  Veitch, 
Virginia,  June  9,  1912,  (F.  Knab),  and  one  female,  Delaware 
County,  Pennsylvania,  July  23,  1892  (no  collector's  name),  the 
former  at  least  of  which  belongs  to  this  species. 

54.     Agromyza  schineri  Giraud. 

Syn:  Agromyza  schineri  Giraud,   Verb,   zool.-bot.   Ges.   Wien,   Vol.   II,   1861, 
p.  484. 

Male  and  Female:  This  species  is  very  similar  to  tilicB  but  difters 
as  follows:  The  frons  is  distinctly  broader,  being  over  one-third  as 
wide  as  head;  the  orbits  are  broader,  the  ocellar  triangle  is  broader 
and  shorter  than  in  tilice,  the  ocelli  not  forming  an  equilateral  triangle 
as  in  that  species,  the  distance  between  the  posterior  pair  being  dis- 
tinctly greater  than  that  between  those  and  the  anterior  one;  the 


328  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

I 

arista  is  comparatively  shorter  and  more  distinctly  swollen  in  schineri 
than  in  tilice;  and  the  posterior  surface  of  mid  tibia  in  schineri  has  no 
distinct  bristles. 

Length  2-2.5  mm. 

Originally  described  from  Europe. 

Locality  of  specimens  in  U.  S.  National  Museum  collection: 
Toronto,  Canada,  (collection  W.  Brodie) ;  I  have  seen  two 
specimens  reared  from  galls  on  Poplar  by  C.  A.  Frost,  Framing- 
ham,  Massachusetts,  submitted  by  C.  W.  Johnson. 

55.     Agromyza  congregata,  new  species. 

Male:  This  species  is  very  similar  to  tilicB,  but  differs  as  follows: 
The  orbital  bristles  are  four  in  number,  strong  and  equally  spaced; 
the  cheeks  are  comparatively  higher,  being  at  center  rather  more  than 
one-third  the  height  of  eye;  the  marginal  mouth  bristles  are  strong, 
and  form  a  group  at  the  anterior  angle  of  cheek,  amongst  which  the 
vibrissa  is  hardly  distinguishable;  the  entire  color  of  insect  is  a  deep 
black;  the  legs  are  strong  and  there  is  no  trace  of  the  posterior  bristles 
on  the  mid  tibia;  the  wing  venation  is  similar  to  tilicB. 

Length  L75  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.   15589,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:  Williams,  Arizona,  May,  (H.  S.  Barber),  one 
male. 

Food-plant  unknown. 

5G.     Agromyza  minima,  new  species. 

Male:  Frons  black,  center  stripe  opaque,  orbits  and  frontal 
triangle  glossy;  breadth  of  frons  one-third  that  of  head;  orbits  narrow, 
•each  not  one-fourth  as  wide  as  center  stripe;  four  rather  weak  orbital 
bristles  present,  the  orbits  with  additional  short  hairs;  face  black, 
opaque,  concave  in  profile,  mouth  margin  produced;  cheek  black, 
short,  highest  at  center,  where  it  is  about  one-fourth  as  high  as  eye; 
marginal  bristles  of  moderate  strength,  the  vibrissa  weakly  differen- 
tiated; occiput  not  projecting;  antennas  of  moderate  size;  third  joint 
regularly  rounded,  distinctly  shorter  than  broad;  arista  not  much  swollen 
at  base,  tapering,  almost  bare,  its  length  equal  to  from  its  base  to  almost 
upper  orbital  bristle.  Mesonotum  glossy  black,  with  a  slight  bluish 
tinge;  two  pairs  of  dorso-centrals  present;  pleurae  concolorous  with 
disk  of  mesonotum;  squamae  gray,  margin  and  fringe  brown.  Abdomen 
glossy  black,  with  a  distinct  metallic  bluish  tinge.  Legs  black;  the 
posterior  mid  tibial  bristles  distinct,  though  small.  Wings  grayish; 
inner  cross  vein  at  slightly  beyond  end  of  first  vein,  and  at  slightly 
beyond  middle  of  discal  cell;  outer  cross  vein  at  about  its  own  length 
from  inner,  and  at  slightly  beyond  wing  middle;  last  section  of  fifth 
vein  barely  more  than  one-half  as  long  as  penultimate  section;  veins 
3-4  almost  parallel  on  their  last  section. 

Length  slightly  over  1  mm. 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  329 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15590,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Locality:     Trinidad,    West    Indies,    June,    (A   Busck). 

Paratypes:  Three  females.  Those  are  identical  with  the 
male  in  all  essential  characters.  Localities:  Mayaguez,  Porto 
Rico,  January,  1899  (A.  Busck) ;  Utica,  Mississippi,  August 
(no  other  data) ;  and  one  specimen  taken  on  flowers  of  Bige- 
lovia  graveolans,  Mescalero,  Mexico,  October  2,  1896  (T.  D.  A. 
Cockerell).     Food-plant  unknown. 

Williston's  description  of  Agromyza  anthrax. 

Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lon'd.  1896,  p.  430. 

"Agromyza  anthrax,  n.  sp." 

"Male:  Black,  but  little  shining.  Front  very  broad,  nearly 
square,  its  width  rather  exceeding  its  length;  opaque  black,  on  its 
lower  margin  yellowish.  Antennas  black,  third  joint  rounded,  large, 
pubescent,  arista  very  short  pubescent.  Face  receding,  excavated, 
not  at  all  visible  from  the  sides;  cheeks  linear,  with  black  bristles 
along  the  oral  margin,  and  a  rather  stout  vibrissal  bristle  in  front. 
Palpi  projecting  beyond  the  oral  margin,  yellow.  Mesonotum  and 
scutellum  a  little  shining.  Abdomen  opaque,  oval.  Halteres  ye) low. 
Knees  and  tarsi  yellow,  the  distal  joints  of  the  latter  brownish.  Wings 
lightly  tinged;  the  third  vein  terminates  in  the  apex  of  the  wing; 
penultimate  section  of  fourth  vein  about  one-third  as  long  as  the 
ultimate  section  of  fifth." 

"Length   1_3^  mm." 

"One  specimen,   St.   Vincent." 

Owing  to  the  omission  to  mention  the  number  of  dorso- 
central  bristles  in  this  species,  and  some  other  essential  char- 
acters, I  cannot  place  this  species  in  my  synoptic  table,  but  in 
general  appearance  it  must  approach  very  closely  to  varifrons 
Coquillett. 

Williston's  description  of  Agromyza  innominata. 

Trans.  Ent.  Soc.  Lond.  1896,  p.  443. 

"Agromyza  innominata,  n.  sp." 

"Male:  Head  yellow,  a  blackish  spot  at  the  ocelli;  front  broad. 
Antennas  yellow;  third  joint  longer  than  broad;  arista  finely  pubescent. 
Face  short,  gently  excavated  in  profile;  cheeks  rather  broad.  Palpi 
elongate,  dilated.  Thorax  obscurely  reddish  yellow;  mesonotum 
with  black  hairs.  Scutellum  large,  with  two  stout,  remote,  black 
bristles.  Abdomen  brown  or  blackish,  yellowish  at  base.  Legs  light 
yellow;  hind  femora  black  at  the  immediate  tip.  Wings  cinereous 
hyaline;  basal  cells  complete;  penultimate  section  of  fourth  vein  a 
little  longer  than  the  posterior." 

"Length   l\i  mm." 

"One    specimen . ' ' 

"Locality:     St.  Vincent,  West  Indies." 


330  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

I  have  not  seen  this  species,  and  cannot  place  it  in  my 
synoptic  table  from  the  characters  given  in  the  description. 
No  species  of  Agromyza  that  I  have  seen  has  only  two  scutellar 
bristles,  and  the  palpi  are  remarkably  large  for  a  species  of  this 
genus.  The  head,  with  the  exception  of  the  palpi,  as  figured, 
looks  like  an  Agromyza,  but  the  arista  is  rather  strongly  pubes- 
cent, for  most  of  the  species  in  that  genus.  I  suspect  that  it 
does  not  belong  here,  and  the  head  figured  on  page  292  in 
Williston's  Manual,  which  is  quite  evidently  a  reproduction 
of  his  figure  158  on  Plate  14  of  the  original  publication  of  the 
description,  being  given  as  "Agromyza  (nov.  gen.?)"  in  the 
Manual,  would  seem  to  indicate  that  Williston  also  thought 
so  in  1903,  whatever  he  may  have  thought  in  1896.  No 
indication  is  given  as  to  the  specific  identity  of  the  species, 
or  source  from  which  figure  came  in  the  Manual. 

Lundbeck's  description  of  Agromyza  arctica. 

Vidensk.  Meddel.  Copenhagen,  1899,  p.  304. 

"  148.    A.  arctica  n.  sp.     Fig.  4." 

"  Brunneocinerea,  thorace  opaco,  abdomine  subnitido,  lateribus 
thoracis  maculis  flavis  ornatis,  lateribus  abdominis  fiavis,  segmentis 
abdominis  margine  posteriore  anguste  flavescente.  Fronte  sordide 
flava,  lunula  supra  antennas  flava;  antennis  fiavis,  basi  et  margine 
exteriore  articuli  tertii  brunnescentibus,  arista  nigra.  Epistomate 
flavo.  Alis  hyalinis,  leviter  flavescentibus,  nervo  longitudinali  quarto 
in  apice  alse  excurrente,  costa  ad  apieem  nervi  longitudinali  quarti 
producta.  Halteribus  fiavis.  Pedibus  cinerascentibus,  geniculiset 
lateribus  inferioribus  femorum  fiavis.     cf    9  .     Long.  2  mm. 

"A.  geniculatas  affinis.  Mas.  Brunneocinereus,  thorax  opacus, 
abdomen  subnitidum,  thorax  longe  sed  parce  pilosus.  abdomen  brevius 
pilosimi,  scutellum  in  margine  posteriore  quattour  setis  longis  instruc- 
tmn;  latera  thoracis  dilute  cinerea,  maculis  fiavis  ornata,  latera  abdo- 
minis tota  flava,  margines  posteriores  segmentorum  anguste  flaves- 
centes  (saepe  obsolete),  metanotum  sub  scutellimi  linea  flava  omatum. 
Frons  sordide  flava,  supra  antennas  lunula  flava.  Antennas  flavse, 
basi  et  margine  dorsali  articuli  tertii  brunnescentibus,  arista  nigra. 
Epistoma  flavum,  occiput  brunneogriseimi.  Alas  hyalinae,  leviter 
flavescentes,  nervus  longitudinalis  secundus  et  tertius  leviter  arcuati, 
ad  apieem  reflexi,  nervus  longitudinalis  quartus  rectus,  in  apieem  alas 
excurrehs,  costa  ad  apieem  nervi  longitudinali  quarti  producta,  nerve 
transversali  appropinquati,  posterior  ante  mediam  alam  situs.  Hal- 
teres  flavi.  Pedes  cinerei,  geniculis  et  femorum  lateribus  inferioribus 
flavis  sive  refuscentibus.  Fem.  Mari  similis,  abdomen  ovipositore 
conico,  nigrobrunneo,  valde  nitido,  daubus  lamellis  nigris,  parvis 
terminato. " 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  331 

"Individua  plures  adsunt  colore  toto  et  praesertim  abdominis 
dilutiore  versimiliter  immatura. " 

"Synes  at  forekomme  temmelig  almindelig  langs  hele  Vestkysten 
idet  mindste  op  til  69°  N.  Br.;  traeffes  isasr  i  Pilekrattet,  Larven  lever 
maaske  i  Pileblade.  Igaliko-Fjord,  Tunugdliarfikfjord,  Tassiusak 
Kristianshaab,  Sydostbugten  (Forf.). 

This  species  bears  a  resemblance  to  borealis  described  on  a 
previous  page,  the  venation  being  almost  identical  in  Lund- 
beck's  figure  with  that  given  in  this  paper  for  borealis,  but  his 
description  is  lacking  in  several  essentials,  so  that  it  is  not 
possible  to  say  definitely  whether  the  species  are  really  the 
same  or  not. 

Cerodontha  Rondani. 

Syn:  Cerodontha  Rondani,  Dipt.  Ital.  prod.  Vol.  IV,  1861,  p.  10. 

Odontocera  Macquart,  Suit  a  BufiEon,  Vol.  11,1835,  p.  615  ''Preocc). 
Ceralomyza  Schiner,  Wien.  entom.  Monatschr.  Vol.  VI,  1862,  p.  434, 

Characters  of  the  Genus. 
Similar  in  most  respects  to  Agromyza,  but  the  third  antennal 
joint  terminates,  on  the  upper  surface,  in  a  thorn-like  point. 
The  frontal  and  thoracic  bristling  is  similar  in  nature  to  that 
of  Agromyza,  but  in  no  case  have  I  seen  more  than  two  scutellar 
bristles  on  the  species  I  have  examined;  nor  do  I  know  of  any 
species  in  which  more  than  two  are  present.  The  mid  tibia 
has  no  posterior  bristles,  and  the  costa  always  reaches  to  the 
fourth  vein. 

Cerodontha  dorsalis  Loew. 

Plate  XXXI,  Figs.  33,  39. 

Syn:  Odontocera  dorsalis   Loew,    Dipt.   Amer.    Sept.,    Indig.,    Cent.    1..    1861, 
species  99. 

Male  and  Female:  Frons  yellow,  opaque,  in  breadth  about  one- 
half  that  of  head;  orbits  sometimes  blackened,  very  narrow,  on  upper 
half  each  not  over  one-sixth  as  wide  as  center  stripe;  three  distinct 
orbital  bristles  present,  and  on  lower  portions  a  few  short  hairs;  procli- 
nate  ocellar  bristles  parallel,  or  slightly  divergent,  separated  at  base 
by  as  wide  a  space  as  posterior  ocelli;  antennae  yellow,  third  joint 
black,  one  and  one-half  times  as  long  as  broad,  ending  in  a  thorn- 
like  point  on  upper  side;  arista  black,  distinctly  thickened  at  base  and 
tapering  to  near  its  middle,  pubescence  indistinguishable,  length  of 
arista  short  of  twice  the  length  of  antennas;  face  yellow,  slightly  concave, 
central  keel  rounded;  cheeks  yellow,  higher  posteriorly  than  anteriorly, 
and  at  highest  point  about  one-half  as  high  as  eye,  marginal  bristles 
distinct;  vibrissa  strong,  differentiated  from  marginal  bristles;  proboscis 
and  palpi  yellow;  occiput  unprojecting  on  upper  half.  Meson otum 
with  disk  entirely  glossy  black,  with  sometimes  an  indication  of  grayish 


332  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI,. 

pollen,  or  with  the  central  portion  in  front  of  scutelltim  yellow,  more- 
rarely  with  two  narrow  black  stripes  on  sides,  and  the  central  yellow 
portion  carried  forward  at  its  anterior  margin,  slightly  beyond  middle, 
as  narrow  lines  which  more  or  less  distinctly  intersect  the  broad  discal 
black  mark,  giving  the  disk  the  appearance  of  having  five  stripes,  or  a 
pattern  somewhat  similar  to  that  of  Agromyza  we/aw/'yga; lateral  margins 
of  mesonotum  broadly  yellow;  humeri  with  a  black  spot;  four  pairs 
of  dorso-central  bristles  on  mesonotum;  no  setulee  on  disk;  pleurae 
yellow  with  black  varigations;  squamae  yellow,  the  fringe  brownish 
or  grayish;  scutellum  all  black  or  with  the  disk  yellow,  two  scutellar 
bristles  present.  Abdomen  from  almost  entirely  yellow  to  almost 
entirely  black,  posterior  margins  of  segments  narrowly  yellow.  Legs 
slender,  yellow,  sometimes  with  fore  tibife  and  tarsi  blackened,  all 
tarsi  brownish.  Wings  as  figure. 
Length  2-2.5  mm. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  States  from  which  I  have  seen 
specimens:  Connecticut,  Massachusetts,  low^a,  Florida,  Geor- 
gia, District  of  Columbia,  Kentucky,  Indiana,  Nevada,  New 
Mexico,  Texas,  Utah,  Washington,  Tennessee,  Nebraska, 
Michigan,    Illinois    and    California. 

I  have  also  seen  specimens  from  Mexico  and  Porto  Rico. 
The  larva  mines  the  stems  of  grains  and  grasses. 

ADDENDA. 

Agromyza  quadrisetosa,  new  species. 

Female:  Back  subshining.  Head  yellow,  ocellar  spot,  upper 
third  of  orbits,  back  of  head,  3rd  antennal  joint,  palpi  and  upper  mouth 
margin  black.  Mesonotum  with  lateral  margins  broadly  pale,  whitish 
yellow,  humeri  with  a  black  spot;  pleurae  with  upper  margin  concolorous 
with  margin  of  mesonotiim;  scutellum  yellow,  margined  on  sides  with 
black,  squamas  yellow.  Abdomen  black,  glossy,  the  segments  with 
narrow,  yellow,  posterior  margins.  Legs  entirely  shining  black.  Wings 
clear,  basal  portion  of  veins  pale  yellow,  outer  portions  brownish. 
Halteres   yellow. 

Frons  about  one  and  one-third  times  as  long  as  broad  at  vertex;, 
orbits  glossy,  six  orbital  bristles  present,  incurved,  situated  on  middle 
of  orbit  and  of  good  length;  orbits  otherwise  bare;  antennae  of  moderate 
size,  third  joint  rounded,  second  joint  with  dorsal  bristle  distinct; 
arista  tapering,  bare,  brown  in  color,  equal  in  length  to  from  its  base 
to  second  uppermost  orbital  bristle;  cheeks  at  anterior  margin  about 
equal  in  height  to  breadth  of  third  antennal  joint,  at  posterior  margin 
equal  to  slightly  more  than  half  of  the  height  of  the  eye.  Mesonotum 
with  4  pairs  of  dorso-centrals,  between  which  are  2-3  irregular  rows  of 
setulae  which  do  not  extend  to  posterior  dorso-centrals;  scutellar  bristles 
(4)  subequal.  Abdomen  with  apices  of  all  segments  anned  with 
rather  strong  bristle-like  hairs.  Legs  with  mid  tibial  posterior  bristles 
absent  or  very  weak.     Wings  with  costa  to  fourth  vein;  veins  3-4 


1913]  Agromyza  and  Cerodontha.  333 

divergent;  outer  cross  vein  at  less  than  its  own  length  from  inner  and 
but  little  beyond  end  of  first  vein;  last  section  of  fifth  vein  twice  as  long 
as  penultimate  section 
Length  2  mm. 

Type:     Cat.  No.  15957,  U.  S.  N.  M. 

Type  locality:  San  Antonio,  Texas,  April  8,  1907  (F.  C. 
Pratt).     Nothing  recorded  of  early  stages. 

This  species  belongs  to  the  pusilla  group,  but  may  readily 
be  separated  from  any  of  those  in  this  paper  by  the  black 
palpi,  third  antennal  joint  and  legs.  It  is  distinct  from  any 
of  the  European  species  I  have  examined. 

Agromyza  melampyga  Loew. 
This  species  has  been  bred  by  C.  R.  Jones  at  San  Antonio, 
Texas,  from  root  of  Plantago  media. 

Agromyza  citreijrons  Malloch. 
I  had  some  doubt  as  to  the  distinction  of  this  species  from 
hilarella  Zetterstedt,  but  I  have  since  examined  specimens 
belonging  to  the  National  Museum  in  Budapest,  and  consider 
them  quite  distinct.  Hilarella  has  the  frons  darker  than 
citreijrons,  the  antennae  darkened  on  upper  surface  of  third 
joint,  the  face  less  receding,  the  eyes  longer  than  high,  the 
wings  narrower,  the  inner  cross  vein  distinctly  before  middle  of 
discal  cell,  and  the  last  section  of  fifth  vein  very  distinctly 
longer  than  the  penultimate  section, 

Agromyza  longipennis  Loew. 
I  have  examined  specimens  from  Europe,  of  geniculata  since 
writing  the  above,  and  find  they  are  -distinct  from  longipennis 
in  having  the  legs  less  broadly  yellow  on  joints,  the  arista 
almost  bare,  as  against  the  distinct  pubescence  of  longipennis, 
and  the  last  section  of  fifth  vein  distinctly  shorter  than  penul- 
timate  section. 

Agromyza  angulata  Loew. 
Two  specimens  submitted  as  luctuosa  Meigen  from  Buda- 
pest represent  two  distinct  species,  one  of  which  is  very  close 
to  angulata  Loew.  Under  the  circumstances  I  consider  that  it 
is  not  desirable  to  question  the  retention  of  angulata  as  the  name 
for  the  American  species. 


334  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

Agromyza  ahnormalis  Malloch. 
This  species  differs  from  obscuritarsis  Rondani  in  being 
more  robust,  darker  in  color  throughout,  and  particularly 
in  that  the  frons  and  halteres,  and  in  neuration,  the  last  section 
of  fifth  vein  in  obscuritarsis  being  about  one  and  one-half 
times  as  long  as  penultimate  section.  Both  species  have  4 
pairs  of  dorso-centrals. 

Agromyza  kincaidi  Malloch. 

On  comparison  of  the  type  of  this  species  with  specimens 
submitted  from  Budapest  museum  as  nigripes,  I  find  that  the 
European  form  has  over  all  a  more  glossy  black  color,  the 
frons  is  much  narrower,  being  barely  wider  than  width  of 
either  eye,  and  narrowed  anteriorly,  the  arista  is  almost  bare, 
the  squamae  are  darker,  with  brown  fringes,  and  the  last 
section  of  fifth  vein  is  almost  as  long  as  the  penultimate  section. 

An  example  from  Hampton,  N.  H.  (S.  A.  Shaw)  agrees  in 
almost  every  particular  with  those  from  Europe  so  that  this 
species  may  be  added  to  the  American  list  and  the  name 
changed  to  subnigripes  n.  nom.  for  the  reasons  stated  in  this 
paper. 

Agromyza  pruinosa  Coquillett. 
This  species  has  been  reared  from  larvae  mining  under 
bark  on  birch  trees  by  C.  T.  Green  of  the  Division  of  Forest 
Insects,  at  Falls  Church,  Va.  I  have  examined  two  males 
which  agree  in  every  particular  with  the  type,  except  in  being 
rather  larger. 

Agromyza  ccerulea  Malloch. 
I  have  examined  a  series  of  8  specimens  reared  from  Ipomoea 
sinuata  and  5 '  from  Ipomoea  lacunosa,  at  Victoria,  Texas, 
in  September,  1907,  and  7  from  same  locality  August,  1907, 
labelled  Ipomoea,  by  J.  D.  Mitchell.  They  agree  with  the 
Mexican  specimen  in  all  particulars. 

Agromyza  texana  Malloch. 
Two  pairs  taken  in  copula  at   Kerrville,   Texas,  June   19, 
1907  (F.  C.  Pratt). 


1913] 


Agromyza  and  Cerodontha. 


335 


INDEX  TO  GENERA  AND  SPECIES. 

Names  in  italics  are  synonyms. 


abbreviata      (Agromyza) 285 

abnormalis     (        "  ) 320,  334 

affinis  (         "  ) 317 

Agromyza 270 

Agromyza) 278 


amcena 

angulata 

anthrax 

arctica 

bicornis 

blanda 

borealis 


304 
329 
330 

318 

278 
280 


brassiccB  (Oscinis) 278 

brevicostalis  (Agromyza) 283 

burgessi  (         "  ) 323 

cserulea  (         "  ) 322 

canadensis      (         "  ) 299 

capitata  (         "  ) 297 

Ceratomyza 331 

Cerodontha 331 

citreifrons       (Agromyza) 290,  333 


coloradensis  ( 

congregata  ( 

coquelletti  ( 

coronata  ( 

curvipaplis  ( 

davisi  ( 


295 
328 
297 
293 
318 
284 


diminuta  (Phyllomyza) 278 

discalis  (Agromyza) 277 

Domomyza 286 

dorsalis  (Cerodontha) 331 


dubitata 

exilis 

flaveola 

flaviventris 

flavonigra 

fragariae 

geniculata 

grossicornis 

immaculata 

inconspicua 

indecisa 

innominata 

insularis 

isolata 

jucunda 

kincaidi 

lateralis 

laterella 

longipennis 

longispinosa 

longiseta 


Agromyza 


311 

278 

280 

282 

281 

307 

333 

300 

289 

310 

292 

....  329 

....  318 

....  306 

293 

285 

....  293 
....  300 
.296,  333 
....  276 
326 


maculosa        (Agromyza) 302 

magnicornis     (         "  ) 300 

malvcB  (Oscinis) 293 

marginalis  var  (Agromyza 

melampyga) 283 

298 

....282,  333 

328 

309 

286 

288 


marginata  (Agromyza 
melampyga  ( 
minima  ( 

neptis  ( 

nigripes         ( 
nitida  ( 

Odinia 289 

Odontocera 331 

orbona  (Agromyza) 278 

ornata  (Odinia) 290 

parvicella    (Agromyza) 287 

parvicomis(         "  ) 312 

Phy tomyza 27 " 


picta 

pictella 

platyptera 

plumiseta 

posticata 

pruinosa 

puella 

pusilla 

pusio 

quadrisetosa 

salicis 

schineri 

scutellata 

setosa 

simplex 

sorosis 

strigata 

subnigripes 

tceniola 

terminalis 

texana 

tilias 

trifolii  (Oscinis) 

variata 

varifrons 

vibrissata 

virens 

viridula 

waltoni 

websteri 

winnemannae 

xanthocephala( 

xanthophora  ( 


Agromyza) 


Agromyza) 


275 
....  280 
....  293 
....  324 
....  30g 
....  291 
....  278 
....  278 
....  278. 
....  332 
....  314 
....  327 
....  280 
....  305 
....  315 
....  282 
....  27S 
....  334 
....  30S 
....  308 
.319,  334 
....  327 
....  278: 
....  277 
....  292 
....  316 
....  321 
....  313 
....  303 
....  325 
....  314 
....  297 
....  275 


336 


Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 


>    LIST    OF 

FIGURES 

Plate  XXVIII. 

Plate  XXIX. 

Fig.    1. 

Wing  of  A .  nitida. 

Fig.    9. 

Wing  of  A .  abnormalis. 

Fig.    2. 

« 

'     vibrissata. 

Fig.  10. 

" 

'     borealis. 

Fig.    3. 

'     immacidata. 

Fig.  11. 

u 

'     parvicornis. 

Fig.    4. 

'     parvicella. 

Fig.  12. 

" 

'     kincaidi. 

Fig.    5. 

'    fragarice. 

Fig.  13. 

" 

'     ccerulea. 

Fig.    6. 

'     waltoni. 

Fig.  14. 

(I 

'     variata. 

Fig.    7. 

'     davisi. 

Fig.  15. 

a 

'     salicis. 

Fig.    8. 

"         "     brevic  OS  talis. 

Fig.  16. 

"        "     angulata. 

Plate  XXX. 

Plate  XXXI. 

Fig.  17. 

Head  of  A .  parvicella. 

Fig.  29. 

Hypopygium  of  A.  posticata. 

Fig.  18. 

'     angulata. 

male. 

Fig.  19. 

'     canadensis. 

Fig.  30. 

Head  of  A .  longiseta. 

Fig.  20. 

1 

'     melampyga. 

Fig.  31. 

Mesonotum  of  A.  melampyga. 

Fig.  21. 

'     discalis. 

Fig.  32. 

Wing  of  A.  abbreviata. 

Fig.  22. 

'     longispinosa. 

Fig.  33. 

Wing  of  Cerodontha  dorsalis. 

Fig.  23. 

'     borealis. 

Fig.  34. 

Head  of  A .  burgessi. 

Fig.  24. 

'     vibrissata,  male. 

Fig.  35. 

Hypopygium  of  ^.  parvicornis, 

Fig.  25. 

'            "          female. 

male. 

Fig.  26. 

'     nitida. 

Fig.  36. 

Head  of  A .  waltoni. 

Fig.  27. 

'    flavonigra. 

Fig.  37. 

"        "     parvicornis. 

Fig.  28. 

"        "     coquilletti. 

Fig.  38. 

"        "     insularis. 

Fig.  39. 

u 

'     Cerodontha  dorsalis 

The  Plates  were  drawn  by  W.  R.  Walton,  with  the  exception  of  Figures  14, 
15,  30,  34,  and  38,  which  are  by  the  author. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXVIII. 


J.  R.  Malloch. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXIX. 


J.  R.  Malloch. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXX. 


17 


18 


19 


20 


22 


23 


25 


26 


28 


27 


J.  R.  Malloch. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXXI. 


'/fM 


29 


30 


J.  R.  Malloch. 


THE  WING  VENATION  OF  THE  FULGORID^. 

Z.  p.  Metcalf. 

The  present  paper  is  a  continuation  of  my  work  on  the 
homologies  of  the  wing  veins  of  Homopterous  insects,  a  paper 
having  previously  been  published  on  the  wing  venation  of  the 
Jassidee.* 

The  present  paper  is  based  upon  a  study  of  the  wing  pads 
of  eleven  genera  of  Fulgoridae.  These  eleven  genera  are  dis- 
tributed among  seven  of  the  eleven  commonly  recognized 
sub-families  of  Fulgoridae.  Two  of  the  sub-families  not  repre- 
sented in  this  study  are  not  found  in  our  territory  and  I  have 
not  been  able  to  secure  representatives  of  the  two  remaining 
sub-families,  Achilida  and  Fulgorida.  The  venation  of  these 
two  sub-families  presents  no  special  difficulties  when  viewed 
in  the  light  of  our  knowledge  of  other  Fulgoridae  which  have 
been  carefully  studied. 

The  same  technique  has  been  used  in  preparing  the  material 
for  studying  the  wing  venation  of  the  Fulgoridae  that  was 
used  for  studying  the  Jassidas.  The  nymphal  wings  being 
removed  as  carefully  as  possible  were  mounted  in  water.  The 
wing  pad  was  then  either  drawn  with  the  aid  of  a  camera 
lucida  or  a  photomicrograph  made.  Afterward  a  pen  and  ink 
drawing  was  made  from  the  photomicrograph  uniform  with  the 
camera  lucida  drawings.  The  drawings  of  the  adult  wings 
were  made  from  balsam  mounts  with  the  aid  of  the  Edinger 
drawing  apparatus.'  The  magnifications  used  in  both  cases 
varied  greatly  being  adapted  as  far  as  possible  to  the  needs 
of  individual  cases. 

The  relation  of  the  main  tracheae  of  the  wing  pads  to  the 
body  tracheae  is  an  interesting  one  and  one  upon  which  much 
stress  has  been  laid  in  the  past.  The  relationships  of  the  main 
trachea  of  the  wing  pads  can  be  much  better  understood  if 
they  can  be  traced  back  to  their  origin  from  the  main  body 
tracheae. 

Unfortunately,  however,  the  wing  pads  of  most  insects 
are.  so  placed  that  the  body  tracheae  lie  very  deep.  This  makes 
it  practically  impossible  to  secure .  the  body  tracheae  by  the 


*Annals  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  America,  Vol.  VI,  No.  1. 

341 


342  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

ordinary  methods  of  dissection.  If  the  wing  is  carefully 
removed,  however,  the  relationships  of  the  main  tracheae 
need  not  be  disturbed.  Some  emphasis  has  also  been  placed 
on  the  fact  that  in  some  families  the  tracheae  of  the  wing  pads 
arise  from  a  single  basal  trachea,  whereas  in  certain  other 
families  the  radio-medial  group  of  tracheae  arises  from  a  cephalic 
body  trachea  while  the  cubito-anal  group  arises  from  a  caudal 
body  trachea.  In  certain  cases  this  character  has  been  used 
to  indicate  that  one  family  is  more  primitive  structurally 
than  another.  That  such  a  position  is  untenable  is  clearly 
shown  in  at  least  two  genera  of  the  Fulgoridae  in  which  I  was 
so  fortunate  as  to  secure  enough  of  the  body  tracheee  as  to 
determine  this  point.  In  Thionia  (Figs.  27,  28)  the  tracheae 
of  the  fore  wing  pad  arise  from  a  single  body  trachea  while  the 
tracheae  of  the  hind  wing  pad  arise  from  a  cephalic  and  a  caudal 
body  trachea.  In  Amphiscepa  (Figs.  5,  6),  on  the  other 
hand,  the  tracheae  of  the  fore  wing  arise  from  two  body  trachese 
whereas  the  tracheae  of  the  hind  wing  arise  from  a  single  body 
trachea. 

THE    FORE    WING. 

Unlike  the  fore  wings  of  the  Jassidae,  the  fore  wings  of  the 
Fulgoridae  are  exceedingly  variable.  As  is  well  known,  the 
adults  of  many  Fulgoridce  occur  in  two  forms,  a  long-winged 
or  macropterous  form,  and  a  short-winged  or  brachypterojis  form. 
This  is  especially  true  of  certain  genera.  While  the  problem 
of  the  origin  and  significance  of  this  variation  is  an  exceedingly 
interesting  one,  it  has  not  been  taken  into  consideration  in 
this  paper,  and  as  a  rule,  only  macropterous  forms  have  been 
considered  with  the  exception  of  a  few  cases  where  the  brachyp- 
teroiis  forms  are  the  usual  ones. 

The  wings  of  the  Fulgoridae  show  two  marked  forms  of 
specialization  from  the  hypothetical  type,  the  one  by  the  ad- 
dition of  accessory  branches  to  the  main  veins  and  the  other 
by  the  reduction  of  the  number  of  branches  of  the  main  veins. 
The  one  may  be  known  as  specialization  by  addition,  and  the 
other  as  specialization  by  reduction.  An  almost  perfect 
series  can  be  traced  from  the  one  extreme  to  the  other.  Forms 
like  Ormenis  (Fig.  13),  show  as  great  specialization  by  addition 
as  is  found  in  any  insect  of  any  order,  while  forms  like  Briich- 
omorpha  (Fig.  33),  show  a  great  deal  of  specialization  by  re- 


1913]  Wing  Venation  of  Fulgoridce.  343 

duction.  While  the  wing  venation  of  most  of  the  insects 
that  have  been  studied  extensively  so  far  can  be  reduced  to  a 
more  or  less  uniform  type  for  the  family,  in  the  Fulgoridag 
no  such  typical  form  can  be  given.  In  the  following  discussion 
of  the  individual  tracheae  the  differences  in  the  characters  of 
the  same  trachea  in  different  genera  will  not  be  emphasized 
so  much  as  their  resemblances. 

The  Costa  of  the  Fore  Wing. 
The  costa  of  the  fore  wing  is  usually  present  in  the  Ful- 
goridae,  in  fact  it  was  found  in  practically  every  genus  studied. 
Typically,  costa  is  a  single  unbranched  trachea  usually  of 
somewhat  less  extent  than  subcosta.  In  Ormenis  (Fig.  3), 
however,  there  are  many  small  lateral  tracheae  formed  along 
the  entire  length  of  the  costal  trachea,  and  in  Amphiscepa 
(Fig  5),  the  tip  of  the  costal  trachea  breaks  up  into  several 
smaller  tracheae.  In  Thionia  (Fig.  27),  the  costal  trachea 
shows  a  strong  lateral  branch  near  its  base.  This  branch 
runs  parallel  with  the  main  branch  of  costa  and  seems  to  be 
included  in  the  same  forming  vein. 

The  Subcosta  of  the  Fore  Wing. 
The  subcosta  has  been  found  present  in  all  of  the  genera 
studied.  In  many  of  the  genera  subcosta  is  a  larger  and 
more  important  trachea  than  radius.  In  nearly  all  cases 
it  lies  parallel  with  radius  for  the  greater  part  of  its  length, 
while  in  Scolops  (Fig.  23),  it  lies  parallel  with  radius  for  its 
entire  length.  Subcosta  is  typically  two  branched  in  the 
Delphacida  (Figs.  43,  45),  and  in  the  Cixiida  (Fig.  47),  while  in 
Amphiscepa  (Fig.  5),  and  Ormenis  (Fig.  3),  the  tip  of  the  sub- 
costa breaks  up  into  several  small  tracheae. 

The  Radius  of  the  Fore  Wing. 
Radius  in  the  Fulgoridae  occupies  a  much  less  important 
position  than  in  the  wings  of  most  other  insects  which  have 
been  studied  in  detail  up  to  the  present  time.  In  most  cases 
the  radial  trachea  lies  parallel  with  the  subcostal  trachea  and 
usually  only  a  single  vein  is  formed  in  the  region  occupied  by 
these  two  tracheae.  In  Stobcera  (Fig.  45),  radius  is  a  single 
unbranched  trachea  lying  parallel  with  subcosta  for  more 
than  half  of  its  length  then  diverging  and  running  parallel 
with  one  of  the  branches  of  medius  for  a  short   distance  it 


344  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI,. 

diverges  toward  the  costal  border.  Radius  occupies  a 
somewhat  similar  position  in  Myndiis  (Fig.  47),  except  that 
there  are  three  or  four  small  branches  near  the  tip  and  the 
trachea  does  not  coalesce  with  medius  in  any  part  of  its  course. 
The  condition  of  the  radial  trachea  in  Dictyophara  (Fig.  25), 
is  almost  identical  with  that  in  Myndus,  except  that  there 
are  small  lateral  branches  toward  the  tip.  In  Thionia  (Fig. 
27)  and  Scolops  (Fig.  23),  the  radial  trachea  is  quite  similar  in 
appearance  to  that  in  the  genera  discussed  above  except  that  sep- 
arate veins  are  formed  along  these  two  trachea  in  Thionia.  In 
both  of  these  genera  the  lateral  branches  near  the  tip  are  much 
weaker  and  more  uncertain  in  their  position  and  are  not  the 
fore-runners  of  typical  and  fairly  constant  longitudinal  veins, 
but  of  rather  uncertain  cross  veins  which  are  fairly  common 
in  these  genera.  In  Amphiscepa  (Fig.  5),  and  Acanalonia 
(Fig.  1)  radius  is  a  single  unbranched  trachea.  In  Ormenis 
(Fig.  3),  the  radial  trachea  consists  of  two  main  tracheae  which 
separate  into  several  smaller  branches  before  reaching  the 
tip. 

The  Medius  of  the  Fore  Wing. 

In  all  the  genera  studied  the  medial  trachea  is  the  most 
important  trachea  of  the  fore  wing  and  its  branches  occupy 
more  area  than  the  branches  of  any  other  trachea.  In  the 
genera  studied  medius  seems  to  be  typically  four  branched 
only  in  Amphiscepa  (Fig.  5).  Each  one  of  these  branches, 
however,  branches  one  or  more  times  before  reaching  the  tip 
of  the  wing.  In  Ormenis  (Fig.  3),  medius  divides  into  twO' 
branches  each  branch  again  dividing  into  two  branches.  Each 
of  these  branches,  however,  is  several  times  divided  before 
reaching  the  tip  of  the  wing  pad.  In  Acanalo?iia  (Fig.  1), 
medius  is  three  branched,  these  branches  representing  medius 
one,  medius  two  and  medius  three  plus  four.  In  Scolops 
(Fig.  23),  Dictyophara  (Fig.  25)  and  Thionia  (Fig.  27),  medius 
is  typically  two  branched,  although  these  branches  may  divide 
one  or  more  times  before  reaching  the  tip  of  the  wing  pad. 
The  veins  which  form  along  these  secondary  branches  are  not 
at  all  constant  in  position  and  relative  importance.  In  Stobcera 
(Fig.  45),  medius  divides  into  two  main  branches.  These 
branches  represent  medius  one  plus  two  and  medius  three 
plus  four,  medius  one  and  medius  two  separating  before  reach- 


1913]  Wing  Venation  of  Fulgoridce.  345 

ing  the  tip  of  the  wing  pad.  In  Myndus  (Fig.  47),  medius  is 
typically  four  branched  with  an  accessory  branch  between 
medius  one  and  medius  two. 

The  Cubitus  and  the  First  Anal  of  the  Fore  Wing. 
As  in  the  Jassidce  the  cubital-first  anal  group  forms  the 
most  characteristic  land-mark  in  the  tracheation  of  the  Ful- 
goridas.  These  two  trachea  are  united  for  a  short  distance 
from  the  body  trachea  and  cubitus  is  usually  two  branched. 
In  Thionia  (Fig.  27),  Dictyophara  (Fig.  25)  and  Acanalonia 
(Fig.  1),  cubitus  is  unbranched,  while  in  Phylloscelis  (Fig.  7), 
cubitus  is  two  branched  and  in  Stobcera  (Fig.  45),  there  is  an 
accessory  branch  between  cubitus  one  and  cubitus  two. 

The  Second  and  Third  Anal  of  the  Fore  Wing. 
The  second  anal  trachea  is  a  simple  unbranched  trachea 
and  usually  lies  parallel  with  the  first  anal  trachea.  The  third 
anal  trachea  is  nearly  always  present  in  Fulgoridee  and  is  usually 
two  branched.  The  second  branch  when  present  usually 
forms  the  anal  border  of  the  fore  wing. 

THE   HIND  WING. 

The  hind  wing  of  the  Fulgoridas  is  almost  as  variable  as 
the  fore  wing,  very  little  similarity  being  observed  in  the 
different  genera  of  some  of  the  sub-families.  Quite  a  little 
variation  is  frequently  observed  in  different  individuals  of  the 
same   species. 

The  Costa  of  the  Hind  Wing. 
The  costal  trachea  is  present  in  the  following  widely  sepa- 
rated genera:  Myndus  (Fig.  48),  Scolops  (Fig.  24),  Dictyophara 
(Fig.  26),  Thionia  (Fig.  28),  Acanalonia  (Fig.  2),  and  Phyllos- 
celis (Fig.  8).  In  Thionia,  -Phylloscelis  and  Myndus  it  is  united 
with  subcosta  for  some  distance  from  the  body  trachea.  In 
Scolops  it  is  present  only  as  a  weak  trachea  at  the  base  of 
the  wing. 

The  Subcosta  of  the  Hind  Wing. 

The   subcostal   trachea   was   found   in   all   the   wing   pads 

studied.     In  most  of  the  genera  it  runs  parallel  with  radius 

for   almost   its   entire   length   and   diverges   at   the   tip.     The 

radial  and  subcostal  trachea  are  included  in  a  common  vein 


346  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI,, 

except  at  the  tip  where  subcosta  diverges  and  the  vein  which 
forms  along  this  tip  in  the  adult  resembles  a  branch  of  the  radial 
vein.  This  condition  is  especially  apparent  in  Stobcera  (Fig. 
46),  Myyidus  (Fig.  48),  Dictyophara  (Fig.  26)  and  Amphiscepa 
(Fig.  6).  In  Scolops  (Fig.  24),  subcosta  appears  merely  as 
a  weak  trachea  lying  parallel  with  radius  along  its  base. 

The  Radius  of  the  Hind  Wing. 
In  nearly  all  cases  radius  of  the  hind  wing  is  a  single  un- 
branched  trachea.  In  certain  genera,  however,  such  as  Scolops 
(Fig.  24),  Dictyophara  (Fig.  26)  and  Acanalonia  (Fig.  2),  radius 
shows  more  or  less  tendency  to  branch  near  the  tip.  These 
branches  are  rather  variable  as  an  examination  of  different 
individuals  of  the  same  species  clearly  shows.  Therefore  I 
have  made  no  attempt  to  homologize  these  branches. 

The  Medius  of  the  Hind  Wing. 
A  typical  medius  of  the  hind  wing  of  Fulgoridae  is  two 
branched,  but  frequently  these  branches  show  a  decided 
tendency  to  branch  again  before  reaching  the  tip  of  the  wing 
pad.  In  Stobcera  (Fig.  46)  and  Thionia  (Fig.  28)  medius  is  a 
simple  unbranched  trachea  which  in  Stobcera  runs  parallel  with 
cubitus  for  a  considerable  distance,  the  veins  of  the  adult 
coalescing   at   this  point. 

The  Cubitus  of  the  Hind  Wing. 
In  many  genera  cubitus  of  the  hind  wing  occupies  the 
greatest  area  and  bears  somewhat  the  same  relationship  to  the 
other  tracheae  of  the  hind  wing  that  medius  bears  to  the  other 
tracheae  of  the  fore  wing.  In  Myndus  (Fig.  48)  and  Phylloscelis 
(Fig.  8),  cubitus  is  unbranched.  In  Stobcera  (Fig.  46),  Thionia 
(Fig.  28)  and  Scolops  (Fig.  24)  cubitus  is  typical.  In  the  other 
genera  studied  cubitus  has  two  principal  branches,  each  of 
which  bears  one  or  more  accessor}^  branches. 

The  Anals  of  the  Hind  Wing. 
The  first  anal  of  the  hind  wing  bears  the  same  relation 
to  cubitus  that  it  does  in  the  fore  wing.  The  second  anal 
trachea  is  usually  simple  and  unbranched,  and  lies  parallel 
with  the  first  anal.  The  third  anal  trachea  has  been  found 
in  all  of  the  genera  studied  and  is  usually  branched.  Although 
in  some  cases  Thionia,  Dictyophara  and  Scolops  the  third 
anal  trachea  is  three  branched. 


1913]  Wing   Venation  of  Fulgoridce.  347 


SUMMARY. 

Owing  to  the  fact  that  the  aduh  wings  of  the  Fulgoridas 
vary  so  much  it  has  seemed  best  to  summarize  the  homologies 
of  adult  wing  veins  by  giving  a  discussion  of  the  characters 
of  the  adult  wings  of  the  various  subfamilies. 

Sub-family  Fulgorida. 
Both  the  fore  and  hind  wings  of  this  sub-family  are  char- 
acterized by  a  large  amount  of  reticulation.  Nearly  all  the 
members  of  this  sub-family  are  characterized  by  having  a 
large  number  of  accessory  veins.  These  accessory  veins 
may  be  added  to  radius,  medius  or  cubitus,  but  in  some  cases, 
as  in  Poiocera  (Fig.  9)  all  three  of  these  veins  bear  accessory 
veins.  In  the  hind  wing  radius  and  medius  do  not  usually 
bear  many  accessory  veins,  but  cubitus  usually  has  several 
accessory  veins.  Another  characteristic  of  the  hind  wings  is 
the  fact  that  the  cross  veins  are  apt  to  be  connected  together 
forming  false  veins  between  the  principal  veins.  These  false 
veins  usually  lie  along  the  folds  of  the  wing. 

Sub-family  Flatida. 
The  chief  characteristics  of  this  sub-family  are:  First, 
that  the  costal  vein  is  remote  from  the  costal  border  of  the 
wing  and  connected  with  it  by  means  of  a  number  of  cross 
veins;  second,  that  radius  and  medius  are  provided  with  a 
large  number  of  accessory  veins;  and  third,  that  these  accessory 
veins  are  usually  connected  by  a  definite  series  of  cross  veins  at 
a  uniform  distance  from  the  apical  border  of  the  wing.  The 
hind  wing  is  chiefly  characterized  by  the  great  development 
of  the  anal  area  of  the  wing,  and  by  a  large  number  of  accessory 
veins  attached  to  cubitus. 

Sub-family  Acanaloniida. 

The  fore  wings  of  the  members  of  this  sub-family  are 
characterized  by  having  a  large  number  of  cross  veins  between 
the  branches  of  the  principal  veins.  They  are  also  characterized 
by  having  radius  simple  and  unbranched,  and  the  larger  area 
of  the  wing  occupied  by  the  branches  of  the  medius.  In  some 
cases,  Amphiscepa  (Fig.  15),  medius  is  typically  four  branched 
with  the  addition  of  accessory  veins  to  some  of  the  branches. 
In  other  cases,  Acanalonia  (Fig.  17),  medius  is  three  branched,. 


348  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

the  branches  representing  medius  one,  medius  two  and  medius 
three  plus  four.  The  hind  wing  is  characterized  by  the  great 
development  of  cubitus,  and  the  fact  that  in  certain  cases, 
Amphiscepa  (Fig.  16),  radius  and  medius  coalesce  for  a  con- 
siderable distance  from  the  base  of  the  wing. 

Sub-family  Achilida. 
The  fore  wings  in  this  sub-family  are  characterized  by  the 
fact  that  subcosta  and  radius  are  coalesced  for  a  considerable 
distance  from  the  base,  and  the  fact  that  there  are  usually 
several  cross  veins  between  subcosta  and  the  costal  border 
of  the  wing".  Radius  and  medius  offer  no  special  characters 
and  cubitus  is  typically  two  branched,  although  there  are 
frequently  accessory  cross  veins  between  cubitus  two  and  the 
anal  border  of  the  wing. 

Sub-family  Dictyopharida. 

The  chief  characteristics  of  this  sub-family  are  to  be  found 
in  the  complete  or  all  but  complete  coalescence  of  silbcosta  and 
radius.  In  Scolops  (Fig.  29),  they  are  completely  coalesced. 
In  Dictyophara  (Fig.  31),  nearly  completely  coalesced,  but  in 
Phylloscelis  (Fig.  22),  are  not  coalesced  except  for  a  short  dis- 
tance at  the  base.  Medius  is  typically  two  branched,  but 
in  Scolops  (Fig.  29),  there  are  several  accessory  branches. 
In  Scolops  (Fig.  29),  and  Dictyophara  (Fig.  31),  cubitus  is 
typically  two  branched,  but  in  Phylloscelis  (Fig.  22),  cubitus 
bears  several  accessory  branches. 

Sub-family  Issida. 
I  have  studied  only  a  few  genera  in  this  sub-family.  In 
Thionia  (Fig.  35),  all  of  the  branches  of  the  principal  veins 
are  reduced,  medius  alone  being  typically  two  branched. 
All  of  the  veins  are  connected  by  a  number  of  cross  veins. 
In  Bruchomorpha  (Fig.  33),  a  study  of  the  adult  wing  alone 
seems  to  indicate  a  condition  closely  approximating  the  con- 
dition found  in  the  Delphacida,  in  which  radius  and  medius 
are  coalesced  for  a  considerable  distance,  radius  diverging 
strongly  and  coalescing  with  medius  throughout  the  middle  of 
its  course,  and  then  diverging  strongly  toward  the  costal  border 
of  the  wing.  In  all  of  the  Issida  that  I  have  examined  second 
and  third  anal  are  coalesced  for  nearly  half  of  their  course  at 


1913]  Wing  Venation  of  FulgoridcB.  349 

the  tip.  In  Thionia  (Fig.  36),  the  anal  area  of  the  hind  wing 
is  larger  than  the  preanal  area,  and  third  anal  is  characterized 
by  the  addition  of  a  large  number  of  acce'ssory  veins.  In 
Bruchomorpha  (Fig.  34),  the  hind  wing  is  greatly  reduced  in 
area,  and  the  principal  veins  only  are  represented  by  simple 
unbranched  veins. 

Sub-family  Derbida. 
In  this  sub-family,  also,  subcosta  and  radius  are  coalesced 
for  a  considerable  distance  from  the  base,  and  both  are  typically 
two  branched;  although  in  some  cases,  Otiocerus  (Fig.  39),  there 
are  a  number  of  cross  veins  between  subcosta  and  the  costal 
border.  Medius  is  typically  four  branched  with  a  number  of 
accessory  veins  added  to  medius  one.  In  Anotia  (Fig.  37), 
and  Otiocerus  (Fig.  39),  there  is  an  accessory  vein  between 
medius  three  and  four.  In  Lamenia  (Fig.  41),  there  are  no 
accessory  veins  between  medius  three  and  medius  four,  and 
only  a  single  accessory  vein  between  medius  one  and  medius 
two.  Cubitus  is  typically  two  branched,  but  in  Otiocerus 
and  Anotia  these  branches  do  not  extend  to  the  anal  border 
of  the  wing,  but  unite  with  the  coalesced  anals  at  some  little 
distance  from  the  border  of  the  wing.  In  the  hind  wings, 
subcosta  and  radius  are  coalesced,  and  medius  is  two  branched 
in  Anotia  (Fig.  38)  and  Otiocerus  (Fig.  40),  but  unbranched 
in  Lamenia  (Fig.  42) .  Cubitus  of  the  hind  wing  is  two  branched 
in  all  of  the  members  of  this  sub-family  which  I  have  examined. 

Sub-family  Cixiida. 

This  sub-family  also  is  characterized  by  the  fact  that 
subcosta  and  radius  are  coalesced  for  some  distance  from  the 
base.  Subcosta  is  typically  two  branched,  although  in  Both- 
riocera  (Fig.  60),  Oliarus  (Fig.  58)  and  CEcleus  (Fig.  62)  super- 
numerary veins  are  added  between  subcosta  one  and  subcosta 
two.  Radius  is  typically  three  branched,  although  these 
branches  are  somewhat  variable  in  their  relationships.  Medius 
is  typically  four  branched  with  an  accessory  vein  between 
medius  one  and  medius  two,  although  in  Oliarus  (Fig.  58), 
both  medius  one  and  medius  two  bear  accessory  veins.  Cubitus 
of  the  fore  wing  is  typically  two  branched,  and  second  and  third 
anals  are  coalesced  at  the  tip.  In  the  hind  wing  subcosta  and 
radius  are  coalesced  for  a  considerable  distance  from  the  base, 


350  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

and  radius  has  two  branches  except  in  Myndus  (Fig.  56). 
Medius  is  typically  three  branched  except  in  CEcleus  (Fig.  63), 
where  it  is  onl^  two  branched.  Cubitus  is  unbranched  in 
Myndus,  and  two  branched  in  all  of  the  other  members  of 
this  subfamily  that  I  have  examined. 

Sub-family  Delphacida. 

In  the  fore  wing,  subcosta  is  typically  two  branched.  Radius 
is  coalesced  with  subcosta  for  about  half  of  its  length,  when  it 
diverges  suddenly,  then  coalesces  near  the  middle  of  its  course 
with  medius  one  plus  two.  It  then  diverges  toward  the  costal 
border  of  the  wing.  Medius  is  typically  three  branched, 
the  branches  represented  being  medius  one,  medius  two  and 
medius  three  plus  four.  Medius  three  plus  four  frequently 
coalesces  for  a  short  distance  with  cubitus  one,  as  in  Liburnia 
(Fig.  53)  and  Stenocranus  (Fig.  49).  In  Stobara  (Fig.  51), 
these  two  veins  are  connected  by  a  short  cross  vein.  Cubitus 
is  three  branched  an  accessory  vein  being  developed  along 
the  anal  side  of  cubitus  one.  In  the  hind  wing,  subcosta  and 
radius  are  coalesced  for  more  than  half  of  their  length  and 
medius  is  unbranched.  Cubitus  is  typically  two  branched, 
cubitus  one  coalescing  for  almost  its  entire  length  with  medius, 
being  separated  only  at  its  tip.  The  anal  area  of  the  hind  wing 
is  considerably  enlarged  and  the  third  anal  is  frequently  three 
branched. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. 

The  writer  wishes  to  express  his  appreciation  for  the  kindly 
advice  of  Professor  Herbert  Osborn,  and  for  the  helpful  criti- 
cisms of  C.  L.  Metcalf,  who  furnished,  also,  the  specimens  of 
Myndus  radicis,  Osb.,  the  only  species  of  the  subfamily  Cixiida 
available  for  study.  C.  S.  Brimley  and  Rev.  A.  H.  Manee 
have  furnished  some  material,  but  Luella  Correll  Metcalf 
has  collected  most  of  the  material  which  was  used  as  a  basis 
for  this  paper. 


1913] 


Wing  Venation  of  Fulgoridcs. 


351 


REFERENCES. 

Ashmead,  W.  H.  1889.     A  Generic  Synopsis  of  the  Fulgoridae.     Ent.  Amer.,  V,  1-6 

and  21-28. 
Edwards,  J.  A.  1896.     The  Hemiptera  Homoptera  of  the  British  Islands. 
Melichar,  L.  1896.     Cicadinen  von  Mittel-Europa. 
Melichar,  L.  1898.     Monographic  der  Ricaniiden. 
Melichar,  L.     Monographic  der  Acanaloniidcn  und  Flatiden. 
Melichar,  L.  1906.     Monographic  der  Issiden. 
Metcalf,  Z.  P.  1913.     The  Wing  Venation  of  the  Jassidae.     Ann.  of  the  Ent.  Soc, 

of  Amer.     VI,  103-115. 
Osbom,  H.  1903.     A  Subterranean  Root-infesting  Fulgorid.     Ohio  Nat.  IV,  42-44. 
Osbom,  H.  1904.     Note  on  Alate  form  of  Phylloscclis.     Ohio  Nat.  IV,  93-94. 
Swezey,  O.  H.  1903.     Life  History  Notes  on  Two  Fulgoridae.     Ohio  Nat.  Ill, 

354-357. 
Swezey,  O.  H.  1904.     A  Preliminary  Catalogue  of  the  Described  Species  of  the 

Family  Fulgoridae  of  North  America  North  of  Mexico.     Bull.  No.  3.    Ohio 

Dept.  of  Agr.  ' 

Van  Duzee,  E.  P.  1897.     A  Preliminary  Review  of  the  North  American  Delphacidae. 

Bui.  Buf.  Soc.  Nat.  Sci.  V,  225-261. 
Van  Duzee,  E.  P.   1908.     Studies  in  North  American  Fulgoridae.     Proc.  Acad. 

Nat.  Sci.  of  Phila.  December,  1907. 
Westwood,  J.  O.  1840.     Observations  on  the  Genus  Derbe  of  Fabricius.    Trans,  of 

the  Linn.  Soc.  XIX,  1-21. 


Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 


EXPLANATION  OF  PLATES. 

Plate  XXXII. 
Fore  wing  pad  of  Acanalonia  sp. 


Hind 
Fore 
Hind 
Fore 
Hind 
Fore 
Hind 


Acanalonia  sp. 
Ormcnis  septentrionalis  Spin. 
Ormenis  septentironalis  Spin. 
Amphiscepa  bivittata  Say. 
Amphiscepa  bivittata  Say. 
Phylloscelis  atra  Germ. 
Phylloscclis  atra  Germ. 


Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 
Fig 


Plate  XXXII I. 

9.  Fore  wing  of  Poiocera  fuliginosa  Uhl. 

10.  Hind  "  Poiocera  fuliginosa  Uhl. 

11.  Fore  "  Cyrpoptus  belfragei  Stal. 

12.  Hind  "  Cyrpoptus  belfragei  Stal. 

13.  Fore  "  Ormenis  septentrionalis  Spin. 

14.  Hind  "  Ormenis  septentrionalis  Spin. 

15.  Fore  "  Amphiscepa  bivittata  Say. 

16.  Hind  "  Amphiscepa  bivittata  Say. 

17.  Fore  "  Acanalonia  latifrons  Walk. 

18.  Fore  "  Elidiptcra  opaca  Say. 

19.  Hind  "  Elidiptcra  opaca  Say. 

20.  Fore  "  Catonia  sp. 

21.  Hind  "  Catonia  sp. 

22.  Fore  "  Phylloscelis  atra  Germ. 


352 


Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 


Plate  XXXIV. 

Fig.  23.  Fore  wing  pad  of  Scolops  sp. 

Fig.  24.  Hind     "  "        Scolops  sp. 

Fig.  25.  Fore     "  "        Dictyopha: 

Fig.  26.  Hind     "  "        Dictyophai 

Fig.  27.  Fore     "  "        Thionia  sir 

Fig.  28.  Hind     "  "        Thionia  sir 


Scolops  sp. 
Dictyophara  sp. 
Dictyophara  sp. 
Thionia  simplex  Germ. 
Thionia  simplex  Germ. 


Plate  XXXV. 

Fig.  29.  Fore  wing  of  Scolops  perdix  Uhl. 

Fig.  30.  Hind       "         Scolops  perdix  Uhl. 

Fig.  31.  Fore       "         Dictyophara  florens  Stal. 

Fig.  32.  Hind       "         Dictyophara  florens  Stal. 

Fig.  33.  Fore       "         Bruchomorpha  oculata  Newm. 

Fig.  34.  Hind       "         Bruchomorpha  oculata  Newm. 

Fig.  35.  Fore       "         Thionia  bullata  Say. 

Fig.  36.  Hind       "         Thionia  bullata  Say. 

Fig.  37.  Fore        "         Anotia  sp. 

Fig.  38.  Hind       "         Anotia  sp. 

Fig.  39.  Fore       "         Otiocerus  coquebertii  Kirby. 

Fig.  40.  Hind       "         Otiocerus  coquebertii  Kirby. 

Fig.  41.  Fore        "         Lamenia  vulgaris  Fitch. 

Fig.  42.  Hind       "         Lamenia  vulgaris  Fitch. 

Plate  XXXVI . 

Fig.  43.  Fore  wing  pad  of  Stenocranus  sp. 

Fig.  44.  Hind     "  "        Stenocranus  sp. 

Fig.  45.  Fore     "  "        Stobsera  tricarinata  Say. 

Fig.  46.  Hind     "  "        Stobaera  tricarinata  Say. 

Fig.  47.  Fore      "  "       Myndus  radicis  Osb. 

Fig.  48.  Hind     "  "       Myndus  radicis  Osb. 

Plate  XXXVII. 

Fig.  49.  Fore  wing  of  Stenocranus  lautus  V.  D. 

Fig.  50.  Hind       "         Stenocranus  lautus  V.  D. 

Fig.  51.  Fore       "         Stobaera  tricarinata  Say. 

Fig.  52.  Hind       "         Stobaera  tricarinata  Say. 

Fig.  53.  Fore       "         Liburnia  ornata  Stal. 

Fig.  54.  Hind       "         Liburnia  ornata  Stal. 

Fig.  55.  Fore       "        Myndus  sp. 

Fig.  56.  Hind       "         Myndus  sp. 

Fig.  57.  Fore       "         Cixius  sp. 

Fig.  58.  Fore       "         Oliarus  5-lineatus  Say. 

Fig.  59.  Hind       "         Oliarus  5-lineatus  Say. 

Fig.  60.  Fore       "         Bothriocera  pro-signoretti. 

Fig.  61.  Hind       "         Bothriocera  pro-signoretti. 

Fig.  62.  Fore       "        CEcleus  decens  Stal. 

Fig.  63.  Hind      "        CEcleus  decens  Stal. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI.  Plate  XXXII. 


Z.  P.  Metcalf. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXXIII. 


Z.  P.  Melcalf. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXXIV. 


28 


Z.  p.  Melcalf. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXXV. 


Z.  P.  Metcalf. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXXVI. 


Z.  P.  Melcalf. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXXVII. 


Z.  P.  Metcalf. 


THE   PRINCETON    COLLECTION    OF   FOSSIL   BEETLES 
FROM  FLORISSANT. 

By  H.  F.  WiCKHAM,  Iowa  City,  Iowa. 

Through  the  kindness  of  Professor  Gilbert  van  Ingen, 
of  the  Department  of  Geology  of  Princeton  University,  I  have 
been  allowed  to  study  the  collection  of  Florissant  fossil  beetles 
in  his  care.  The  series  is  of  particular  interest  since  it  forms 
a  part  of  the  material  used  by  Scudder  in  working  up  two 
of  his  principal  papers  on  the  Tertiary  insects*  and  contains 
many  of  his  types  and  cotypes.  He  studied  the  present  col- 
lection with  special  reference  to  the  Adephaga,  Clavicornia 
and  Rhynchophora  and  in  these  groups  described  practically 
all  of  the  novelties  which  were  in  sufficiently  good  condition 
for  that  purpose.  With  the  exception  of  Atcenius  patescens, 
for  the  determination  of  which  I  am  responsible,  all  of  the  species 
attributed  to  his  authorship  in  the  following  list  were  identified 
by  him  and  the  specimens  represent  the  originals  which  served 
as  the  bases  of  his  descriptions.  Those  attributed  to  myself 
are  either  lately  published  or  now  in  press  elsewhere.  Ten 
are  described  as  new.  The  drawings  are  made  with  a  camera 
lucida  and  represent  only  what  actually  remains  of  the  specimens, 
there  being  no  attempt  to  restore  lost  parts  or  to  idealize  any  of 
the    characters. 

As  in  all  collections  of  fossil  insects,  a  good  many  of  the 
specimens  are  in  too  poor  preservation  to  repay  study,  but 
it  is  possible  to  recognize  the  forty-two  species  listed  below. 


Carabidse. 
Bembidium  tumulorum  Scudd. 
Pterostichus  walcotti  Scudd. 
Amara  danas  Scudd. 
sterilis  Scudd. 
Harpalus  whitfieldii  Scudd. 

Staphylinidce. 
Staphylinus  lesleyi  Scudd. 
Philonthus  abavus  Scudd. 
-Xantholinus  tenebrarius  Scudd. 
Lithocharis  scottii  Scudd. 
Bledius  morsel  Scudd.  (?) 
osborni  Scudd. 


Coccinellid^. 
Coccinella  sodoma  n.  sp. 

Cryptophagidae. 
Antherophagus  megalops  n.  sp. 

Dermestidae. 
Dermestes  tertiarius  Wickh. 
Attagenus  aboriginalis  n.  sp. 

Byrrhidae. 
Byrrhus  romingeri  Scudd. 

Buprestidse. 
Melanophila  handlirschi  Wickh. 


*Monographs  of  the  United  States  Geological  Survey,  Vols.  XXI  and  XL. 


360 


Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI ^ 


Lampyridas. 
Podabrus  wheeleri  Wickh. 

cupesoides  Wickh. 
Telephorus  humatus  n.  sp. 
Trypherus  aboriginalis  n.  sp. 

Ptinidae. 
Xestobium  (?)  alutaceum  n.  sp. 

Scarabasidae. 
Ataenius  patescens  Scudd. 
Aphodius  aboriginalis  Wickh. 

Cerambycidae. 
Callidiopsites  grandiceps  n.  sp. 
Leptura  leidyi  n.  sp. 

Chrysomelidse. 
Crioceridea  dubia  Wickh. 


Cistelidae. 
Cistela  antiqua  n.  sp. 
Capnochroa  senilis  n.  sp. 

Rhynchitidae. 
Paltorhynchus  narwhal  Scudd. 
Trypanorhynchus  depratus  Scudd. 

Otiorhynchitidae. 
Evopes  occubatus  Scudd. 
Eudomus  robustus  Scudd. 
pinguis  Scudd. 

Curculionidae. 
Geralophus  occultus  Scudd. 

fossicius  Scudd.  (?) 

lassatus  Scudd. 
Cleonus  priinoris  Scudd. 
Cremastorhynchus  stabilis  Scudd. 
Anthonomus  arctus  Scudd. 
Tychuis  evolatus  Scudd. 
Aulobaris  damnata  Scudd. 


Coccinella  Linn. 

C.  sodoma  n.  sp.  (Plate  II,  Fig.  1).  Outline  subcircular,  of  the 
ordinary  fonn  of  Coccinella  if  allowance  be  made  for  flattening.  Sculp- 
ture extremely  fine,  consisting  only  of  the  alutaceous  roughening 
common  in  the  genus.  Scutellum  a  little  larger  than  in  the  recent 
North  American  species  of  Coccinella.     Length,  7.75  mm. 

Type  in  the  Museum  of  Princeton  University,  number 
6561. 

An  extended  description  seems  unnecessary,  since  the 
figure  will  show  the  proportions  of  the  different  parts  of  the 
body.  While  it  is  safer  to  consider  the  generic  reference 
as  applying  in  the  Linnaean  sense,  there  is  nothing  about 
the  specimen  which  would  seem  to  throw  it  out  of  Coccinella 
proper.  It  is  a  little  larger  than  the  average  C.  transver- 
soguttata,  the  common  species  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  today. 
No   definite   color   pattern   can   be   distinguished. 


Antherophagus  Latr. 

A.  megalops  n.  sp.  (Plate  I,  Fig.  1).  Form  subparallel  and 
moderately  elongate,  the  entire  surface  devoid  of  any  distinct  sculpture 
though  there  are  faint  signs  of  shallow,  broad,  elytral  sulcations,  a 
few  small  punctures  towards  the  sides  of  the  pronotum  and  what  seem 
to  be  hair  marks  on  the  prothorax  and  elytra.  Head  large,  about  one 
and  one-half  times  as  long  as  the  pronotum,  slightly  longer  than  wide, 
sides  a  little  convergent  anteriorly,  front  margin  indistinctly  preserved, 
but  apparently  about  truncate.  Eyes  submedian  in  position,  large 
and  rounded,  separated  above  by  less  than  the  width  of  one  of  them. 


1913]  Fossil  Beetles  from  Florissant.  361 

Antennas  submonjliform,  slightly  incrassate  exteriorly,  first  joint 
large,  second  short,  third  longer  than  the  fourth,  though  not  much  so, 
fourth  to  eighth  subequal,  the  remaining  three  forming  a  weak  club. 
The  eleventh  joint  is  damaged  in  this  specimen,  so  that  the  exact  form 
cannot  be  made  out.  Prothorax  ver}^  short,  about  twice  as  broad  as 
long,  the  form  of  the  sides  distorted,  one  appearing  to  be  straight 
with  the  anterior  angle  distinct  while  the  other  is  arcuate  with  the 
angles  nearl}'  obliterated.  Scutellum  absent  or  not  defined.  Elytra 
about  one  and  one-half  times  as  long  as  broad,  apices,  in  life,  probably 
conjointly  rounding  through  as  preserved  they  are  separately  sub- 
cuminate  at  tip.     Legs  wanting.     Length,  4.30  mm. 

Type  in  the  Museum  of  Princeton  University,  obverse  and 
reverse,   numbers  6564  and  6535. 

The  head  is  larger  than  in  the  modern  species  of  Antheropha- 
gus  that  I  know  and  the  eyes  are  of  much  greater  size  in  the 
fossil.  It  may  be  necessary,  some  day,  to  erect  a  new  genus 
for  this  insect,  but  for  the  present,  it  seems  better  to  allow 
it  to  remain  in  Anther ophagus. 

Dermestes  Linn. 

D.  tertiarius  Wickh.  (Plate  II,  Figs.  2  and  3).  A  specimen  con- 
tained in  this  collection  is  in  much  more  perfect  condition  than  the 
type  and  shows  a  few  additional  features.  The  head  is  of  normal 
size  and  punctured  a  little  more  strongly  than  the  prothorax.  The 
right  antenna  is  displayed  in  sufficiently  good  preservation  to  show 
that  it  is  very  similar  to  that  of  the  recent  D.  marmoratus  except  that 
the  two  joints  immediately  preceding  the  club  are  a  trifle  broader. 
The  vestiture,  punctuation  and  size  are  as  described  for  the  type. 

On  account  of  the  imperfection  of  the  type,  which  was  used 
for  the  original  figure,  new  drawings  from  the  Princeton  speci- 
men are  given  herewith.  The  generic  reference  seems  to 
be  completely  sustained  by  this  example.  It  carries  the 
Princeton  Museum  number  6613. 

Attagenus  Latr. 

A.  aboriginalis  n.  sp.  (Plate  II,  Fig.  4).  Form  elongate,  sub- 
elliptical.  Head  of  moderate  size,  deeply  inserted  in  the  prothorax, 
ininutely  sparsely  punctulate,  eye  rather  small.  Prothorax  along 
middle  a  little  less  than  one-half  the  basal  width,  sides  arcuate,  dis- 
similarly so  in  the  specimen,  front  and  hind  angles  well  defined,  apical 
emargination  moderately  deep,  base  rather  strongly  lobed  at  middle 
and  sinuate  each  side,  disk  minutely  punctulate  or  nearly  smooth. 
Scutellum  small,  triangular.  Elytra  about  three  and  three-fourths 
times  the  length  of  the  prothoracic  median  line,  not  striate,  punctuation 
minute,  surface  with  signs  of  a  fine  hairy  vestiture.     Length,  5.00  mm. 


362  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

Type  in  the  Museum  of  Princeton  University,  number 
6290. 

The  form,  size,  thoracic  outline  (especially  the  shape  of  the 
base),  the  proportions  of  the  abdominal  segments  and  the 
vestiture  all  point  to  this  generic  assignment.  The  sculpture- 
seems  to  have  been  finer  than  that  of  any  of  the  recent  North 
American  species  with  which  I  am  acquainted,  and  this  char- 
acter will  separate  it  from  the  fossil  A.  sopitus. 

Telephorus  Schaff. 

T.  humatus  n.  sp.  (Plate  I,  Fig.  2).  Form  subparallel,  rather 
narrow.  Head  crushed  so  as  to  appear  excessively  large,  particularly 
since  the  basal  antennal  joints  are  thereby  merged  with  the  genae. 
Eye  moderately  large,  rounded.  AntenricE  equal  to  a  little  more  than 
one-half  the  body  length,  first  joint  not  distinguishable,  second  small,, 
third  shorter  than  the  fourth,  remainder  subequal  in  length,  all  except 
the  distal  three  with  the  inner  angles  produced  so  as  to  appear  moder- 
ately serrate.  Prothorax  transverse,  sides  and  apex  rounded.  Scutel- 
lum  of  nonnal  size,  triangular.  Elytra  four  times  the  length  of  the 
prothoracic  median  line,  rounded  at  apices.  Legs  rather  short.  Lengthy 
7.50  mm. 

Type  in  the  Museum  of  Princeton  University,  number 
5984. 

In  form  and  size  this  insect  resembles  the  recent  T.  bili?ieatus 
quite  closely.  The  sculpture  is  of  the  fine  alutaceous  type 
common  in  the  genus. 

/  Trypherus  Lee. 

T.  aboriginalis  n.  sp.  (Plate  I,  Fig.  3).  Form  similar  to  that 
of  the  recent  T.  latipennis.  Head  a  little  distorted,  but  evidently 
of  moderate  size.  Antennas  slender,  filiform,  the  joints  net  serrate, 
but  too  poorly  preserved  to  describe  as  to  their  relative  lengths.  Pro-- 
thorax  about  as  wide  as  the  head,  transverse,  apex  narrower  than  the 
base,  sides  moderately  strongly  rounded.  Elytral  length  equal  to 
twice  the  prothoracic  width,  apices  narrowed,  but  rounded,  sculpture- 
strongly  scabrous.  Abdomen  with  several  segments  exposed  beyond 
the  elytral  tips,  without  visible  terminal  appendages.  Legs  wanting, 
except  one  femur,  which  is  rather  slender.     Length,  8.75  mm. 

Type  in  the  Museum  of  Princeton  University,  number 
6527. 

There  is  little  doubt  that  this  insect  is  closely  allied  to- 
Trypherus  if  not  an  actual  member  of  the  genus.  It  has  the 
size,  form,  sculpture  and  general  appearance  of  the  recent 
T.  latipennis,  common  in  the  eastern  half  of  North  America.. 


1913]  Fossil  Beetles  from  Florissant.  363 

The  hind  wings  are  spread  and  exposed,  showing  the  basal 
portions  of  the  venation  quite  well.  A  comparison  of  the 
figure  of  the  fossil  with  the  accompanying  one  of  the  wing  of 
T.  latipennis  will  show  the  close  general  correspondence  be- 
tween them.  The  dotted  lines  in  the  latter  figure  show  as 
transparent  markings  on  the  general  ground,  but  in  the  fossil 
the  upper  one  of  these  is  not  visible  while  the  lower  one  seems 
to  have  been  strongly  pigmented. 

Xestobium  Motsch. 

X.  (?)  alutaceum  n.  sp.  (Plate  I,  Fig.  5).  Form  nor  very  elongate. 
Head  large,  deflexed,  eye  about  circular  and  rather  small  compared 
with  that  of  most  recent  Anobiini.  Pronotum  somewhat  gibbous 
dorsally  at  about  the  middle,  projecting  anteriorly  over  the  head. 
Elytron  with  a  rather  weak  epipletiral  lobe  within  which  is  a  fine  but 
distinct  stria,  apex  apparently  rounded.  Legs  short  and  only  moder- 
ately stout.  Length,  from  front  of  pronotum  to  abdominal  apex, 
6.65  nun. 

Type  in  the  Museum  of  Princeton  University,  number 
6575. 

In  a  general  way,  this  species  slightly  resembles  the  Floris- 
sant fossil  Xylobiops  laciistre,  but  the  proportions  are  different 
and  the  sculpture  of  the  present  species  is  very  fine.  The 
entire  upper  surface  shows  traces  of  a  minute  scabrosity, 
but  the  abdomen  is  almost  entirely  smooth.  The  elytra 
are  not  striate  except  inside  the  epipleural  margin.  By  the 
small  eyes,  the  size,  sculpture  and  general  form,  this  seems 
to  approach  Xestobium,  but  the  generic  reference  must  be 
considered  provisional,  the  most  dubious  character  being  the 
large    head. 

Callidiopsites  n.   gen. 

This  generic  name  is  proposed  for  a  Cerambycid  fossil 
which  shows  affinities  with  Callidium  in  the  broad  short  form, 
short  stout  antennse,  heavy  legs,  transverse  and  nearly  or 
quite  confluent  front  coxal  cavities,  and  coarse  elytral  scuplture. 
It  differs  in  the  mesosternum,  being  much  narrower  between 
the  middle  coxse  and  the  head  very  much  larger.  It  is  not 
entirely  in  agreement  with  any  of  the  recent  genera  of  Callid- 
ioides  known  to  me  and  it  seems  better  to  give  it  a  separate 
generic  assignment.  The  type  is  C.  grandiceps,  described 
below. 


364  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

C.  grandiceps  n.  sp.  (Plate  III).  Form  rather  short  and  stout, 
outline,  as  preserved,  not  unlike  some  species  of  Patrobus  in  the  Car- 
abidae.  Head  large,  nearly  as  long  as  broad  and  decidedly  longer  than 
the  prothorax.  Eyes  not  definable.  Antennae  extending  a  little 
beyond  elytral  two-thirds,  moderately  stout,  the  first  joint  large  and 
thick,  third  not  greatly  elongate,  tenth  and  eleventh  distinctly  shorter 
than  the  two  preceding.  The  joints  are  apparently  carinate  along 
their  faces.  Prothorax  very  short,  a  little  wider  than  the  head.  Elytra 
(likely  enough  from  abdominal  distention  due  to  maceration)  not 
completely  covering  the  dorsal  segments,  their  apices  separately  rounded, 
surface  coarsely  closely  punctured  mth  some  indication  of  striae  at 
the  outer  margins.  Thighs  heavy,  somewhat  cla\ate,  especiall}^  the 
middle  and  hind  pairs.  Apex  of  abdomen  extruded,  displaying  a 
simple,  straight  sex  organ.  Length,  to  extended  tip  of  abdomen, 
15.25  mm.;  of  elytra,  8.25  mm. 

Station  number  13B.  One  specimen,  collector  not  speci- 
fied, was  received  from  Professor  Cockerell.  The  type  is 
in  the  Museum  of  the  University  of  Colorado.  Another  is 
contained  in  the  Princeton  collection,  with  the  number  6543, 

This  looks  like  a  Carabid,  but  what  can  be  seen  of  the  struct- 
ure of  the  underside  together  with  the  large  antennas  incline 
to  the  assignment  given  above.  The  antenna  figured  is  a 
trifle  too  slender,  since  it  is  a  camera  lucida  drawing  and  the 
edges  of  the  organ  were- not  entirely  freed  from  the  matrix. 

Leptura  Serv. 
L.  leidyi  n.  sp.  (Plate  I,  Fig.  6).  Fonn,  judging  from  the  remains, 
subparallel,  as  in  the  recent  L.  sphaericollis.  Head  apparently  in- 
complete in  front  of  the  eye,  which  is  reniform,  distinctly  emarginate 
and  of  rather  small  size.  Antennae  not  preserved,  except  a  few  of  the 
basal  joints  which  are  relatively  shorter  than  usual  in  the  living  forms. 
Prothorax  a  little  damaged,  but  apparently  not  strongly  campanulate. 
Elytra  subparallel  to  apices  which  are  separately  rounded  and  not 
much  narrowed,  f^urface  sculpture  everywhere  very  fine,  the  elytra 
seemingly  with  a  delicate  pubescence.  Legs  moderately  long.  Length, 
from  front  of  head  to  abdominal  apex,  7.50  mm. 

Type  in  the  Museum  of  Princeton  University,  number 
6512. 

The  small  size  will  at  once  separate  this  from  any  of  the 
other  described  species  of  Florissant  Lepturas,  and  the  fine 
sculpture  serves  to  differentiate  it  from  L.  antecurrens  which 
comes  nearest  in  length.  Like  the  other  fossils  from  Florissant 
ascribed  to  this  genus,  it  must  be  considered  a  Leptura  in  the 
wide  sense  only.  It  is  named  after  Joseph  Leidy,  zoologist 
and  palaeontologist. 


1913]  Fossil  Beetles  from  Florissant.  365 


Cistela  Fabr. 

C.  antiqua  n.  sp.  (Plate  IV).  Form  fairly  stout.  Head  finely 
rather  densely  punctulate  and  hairy.  Eyes,  as  shown  by  their  sockets, 
moderately  large.  Antennee  slender,  the  basal  two  joints  not  definable, 
the  remainder  sub-equal,  scarcely  serrate,  the  distal  ones  not  incrassate; 
if  directed  backwards,  the  antenna  would  reach  nearly  to  the  basal 
fourth  of  the  elytra.  Prothorax  broad  at  base,  narrowed  at  apex, 
sides  gently  arcuate,  surface  finely  punctulate  and  hairy  like  the  head, 
but  more  distinctly.  Scutellum  of  moderate  size,  sculptured  like  the 
thorax.  Elytra  not  alike  in  outline  on  account  of  the  specimen  being 
crushed  askew,  but  the  left  one,  which  seems  to  be  the  better  preserved, 
is  a  little  more  than  four  times  the  length  of  the  prothoracic  median 
line,  tapering  to  the  rather  sharply  rounded  apex.  Elytral  sculpture 
and  vestiture  like  that  of  the  pronotimi.  Legs  wanting.  Length, 
from  front  of  head  to  elytral  apex,  13.10  mm. 

Type  in  the  Museum  of  Princeton  University,  number 
6534. 

The  appearance  of  this  insect  is  that  of  a  Cistela  with 
estriate  elytra  and  slender  antennae.  Compared  with  the  North 
American  species  known  to  me,  it  comes  closest  to  C.  pinguis 
from  Colorado,  It  is  about  the  size  of  the  fossil  Capnochroa 
senilis,  but  that  insect  has  striatopunctate  elytra. 

Capnochroa  Lee. 

C.  senilis  n.  sp.  (Plate  II,  Fig.  5).  Form  elongate,  subparallel 
as  far  as  shown,  but  the  el^^tral  apices  are  broken  off.  Head  rather 
large  for  this  genus,  transversely  finely  subrugose.  Eyes,  as  displayed, 
transversely  elliptical  and  of  good  size.  Palpus  (probably  the  maxil- 
lary) with  the  terminal  joint  roughly  triangular,  moderately  dilated. 
Antenna  relatively  less  elongate  than  in  the  recent  C.  fuliginosa,  not 
serrate,  second  joint  shorter  than  the  third,  which  is  not  so  long  as  the 
fourth.  Prothorax  narrowed  anteriorly,  the  more  perfect  side  about 
straight,  anterior  coxee  narrowly  separated  by  the  presternum.  Scu- 
tellum of  moderate  size.  Elytra  long,  if  complete  they  would  be  about 
six  and  one-half  times  the  median  prothoracic  length,  rather  coarsely 
striate  and  punctate.  Legs  moderate  or  rather  short,  not  excessively 
slender,  the  tarsi,  as  far  as  shown,  a  little  shorter  than  the  tibise,  claws 
large,  the  front  ones  apparently  pectinate.  Length  of  fragment,  12.40 
mm. ;  if  entire,  the  insect  would  reach  about  14.00  mm. 

Type  in  the  Museum  of  Princeton  University,  number 
6902. 

While  the  generic  reference  must  be  considered  somewhat 
doubtful,  it  seems  safe  to  assume  that  the  fossil  represents 
a  large  Cistelid  belonging  in  the  same  neighborhood  as  Cap- 
nochroa.    The  texture  is  very  like  that  of  the  Cistelidae,  the 


366  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America      [Vol.  VI, 

prosternum  being  strikingly  like  that  of  Capnochroa  and  set- 
ting up  strongly  in  the  same  way.  The  arrangement  of  the 
coxae  is  as  in  that  genus  and  the  front  tarsi  correspond  very 
well.  The  form  of  the  palpus  is  similar.  Under  high  power, 
the  claws  show  transverse  markings,  which  I  think  are  the 
somewhat  obscured  pectinations.  The  strength  of  the  elytral 
sculpture  is  indicated  by  its  showing  through,  although  the 
specimen  is  preserved  as  an  underside.  A  disturbing  element 
is  introduced  by  the  antennae,  which  are  shorter  and  less  serrate 
than  in  the  modern  species,  but  I  dislike  to  found  a  new 
genus  upon  this  character  alone.  Our  living  Capnochroa 
fuliginosa  occurs  in  the  Atlantic  district  and  as  far  west  as 
the  Mississippi  Valley. 


EXPLANATION  OF  PLATES. 

Plate  L 

Fig.  1.  Antherophagus  megalops  n.  sp. 

Fig.  2.  Telephorus  humatus  n.  sp. 

Fig.  3.  Trypherus  aboriginalis  n.  sp. 

Fig.  4.  Trypherus  latipennis,  (recent),  hind  wing. 

Fig.  5.  Xestobium  (?)  alutaceum  n.  sp. 

Fig.  6.  Leptura  leidyi  n.  sp. 

Plate  IL 
Fig.  1.     Coccinella  sodoma  n.  sp. 
Fig.  2.     Dermestes  tertiarius  Wickh. 
Fig.  3.     Dermestes  tertiarius,  antenna. 
Fig.  4.     Attagenus  aboriginalis  n.  sp. 
Fig.  5.     Capnochroa  senilis  n.  sp. 

Plate  IIL 
Callidiopsites  grandiceps  n.  'sp.  ^ 

Plate  IV. 
Cistela  antiqua  n.  sp. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXXVIII. 


H.  P.  Wickham. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XXXIX. 


H.  F.  Wickham. 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI,  Plate  XL. 


H.  F,  Wickham, 


Annals  E.  S.  A. 


Vol.  VI.  Plate  XLI. 


H.  F.  Wickham. 


A  CONTRIBUTION  TO  THE  BIOLOGY  OF  MAY-FLIES,* 

Anna  H.  Morgan. 

CONTENTS. 

I.     Introduction 371 

II.     Historical 372 

III.  Life  Cycle 377 

Embryo,  Nymph,  Sub-imago,  Imago. 

IV.  Modifications  of  structures  of  the  nymph 380> 

Habitat,  Shape  of  body.  Gills,  Food,  Mouth-parts,  Legs. 

V.     Modifications  of  Adult  Structures '.  .  . .   392: 

Mating,  Alimentary  Canal,  Legs,  Genitalia. 

VI.     Eggs 397 

VII.     Bibliography  of  the  Order 401 

I.    INTRODUCTION. 

This  is  a  study  of  the  habits  and  structure  of  May-flies. 
It  describes  the  situations  in  which  they  Hve  and  some  of  the 
adjustments  which  they  have  made  to  the  conditions  in  them. 
The  two  problems  which  face  every  organism  are  those  of 
maintaining  its  own  life  and  continuing  its  race.  Its  youth  is 
devoted  entirely  to  satisfying  its  individual  needs  for  food  and 
safety;  its  adult  life  is  devoted  to  the  race,  but  the  necessities 
of  the  individual  are  still  satisfied  though  they  may  be  secured 
in  an  entirely  different  way.  The  immature  life  of  May-flies 
is  aquatic,  and  to  it  all  adjustments  concerned  with  food 
or  safety  are  exclusively  confined.  The  mature  or  adult  life 
is  aerial.  It  is  solely  devoted  to  reproduction.  There  is  no 
provision  for  food  or  for  other  means  of  lengthening  its 
life.  It  gives  an  opportunity  for  studying  ways  of  getting 
a  living  which  have  been  completely  isolated  from  ways  of 
reproducing.  The  study  which  follows  has  been  divided 
into  five  sections. 

1.  The  historical  sketch,  in  which  the  more  important 
papers  which  have  dealt  with  May-fly  biology  are  briefly 
discussed. 

2.  The  life  cycle  which  consists  of  a  brief  statement 
of  the  characteristics  of  the  three  stages  of  life. 

3.  The  evolution  of  the  nymphs  in  which  progress  from  a 
generalized  to  a  specialized  condition  is  shown  in  changes  of 
shape  and  function  of  gills,  mouthparts,  and  legs. 

*Contribution  from  the  Limnological  Laboratory  of  Cornell  University. 
This  work  was  done  under  the  direction  of  Professor  James  G.  Needham,  of  whose 
kindly  criticism  and  stimulating  interest  I  wish  to  express  my  appreciation.  I 
wish  also  to  thank  Miss  Anna  C.  Stryke  for  her  many  helpful  suggestions  regarding 
the  drawings  and  the  photographs  from  which  some  of  the  drawings  have  been 
taken. 

371 


372  Annals  Entomological  Society  of  America       [Vol.  VI, 

4.  The  evolution  of  the  adult  in  which  specialization  is 
shown  by  changes  of  function  and  developments  for  the  fur- 
therance of  reproduction. 

5.  Adjustments  for  aquatic  situations  shown  in  the  struc- 
tures of  the  eggs. 

6.  A  Bibliography  of  biological,  morphological,  and  the 
more  important  systematic  works  dealing  with  this  group. 

II.      HISTORICAL. 

In  the  following  historical  sketch  I  have  tried  to  select 
the  more  important  papers  of  biological  significance.  In 
many  cases,  however,  systematic,  morphological,  and  biological 
work  have  been  so  closely  related  that  such  a  separation  has 
been  impossible. 

Swammerdam.  1661.  The  foundation  study  of  the  bio- 
logy of  May-flies  was  made  by  Johann  Swammerdam,  at 
Culenburg,  on  the  Rhine,  in  1661.  As  a  field  naturalist, 
he  learned  the  most  important  facts  concerning  the  life  of 
Ephemerus,  (probably  Palingenia  longicauda  Oliv.).  As  an 
anatomist  he  dissected  and  studied  its  internal  and  external 
structure  with  great  care.  He  described  the  emergence  of 
the  nymph,  the  sub-imago  stage  in  males,  and  the  final  or 
imago  stage  in  which  he  believed  that  the  eggs  and  the  sperm 
were  deposited  separately  in  the  water.  He  concluded  that 
no  food  was  taken  during  aerial  life,  and  that  copulation  did 
not  occur.  He  examined  the  eggs  and  tested  their  power  of 
dispersal  by  letting  them  fall  into  the  water  from  the  end  of  a 
knife.  His  work  is  a  remarkably  truthful  and  interesting 
record.  Later  works  have  added  and  corrected,  but  none 
have  contributed  better  biology. 

Reaumur.  1742.  In  Memoires  des  Insectes,  1742,  Reaumur 
reviewed  much  which  had  already  been  told  by  Swammerdam, 
and  illustrated  more  profusely  the  life  history  of  a  burrowing 
May-fly,  probably  also  Palingenia.  Some  of  Reaumur's  obser- 
vations were  made  upon  nocturnal  species.  After  he  had 
noticed  them  swarming  about  a  light  near  the  river  bank, 
he  placed  a  tub  of  water  in  his  own  garden.  By  holding  a 
light  above  this,  in  the  evening,  he  was  able  to  gather  great 
numbers  of  May-flies  and  to  watch  their  transformation  from 
the  sub-imago  to  the  imago  stage,  and  to  see  them  lay  their 


1913]  Biology  of  May-flies.  373 

eggs  in  the  water.  He  counted  the  eggs  which  he  found  pro- 
truding from  the  abdomens  and  determined  the  average  num- 
ber to  be  750  to  800  for  each  female.  He  disagreed  with 
Swammerdam  regarding  the  fertihzation  of  the  eggs,  and  stated 
that  the  males  and  females  probably  did  mate,  and  that  the 
forceps  of  the  male  were  evidently  for  the  purpose  of  seizing 
the  female. 

DeGeer.  1748.  In  1748  DeGeer  saw  the  mating*  ac- 
tually take  place.  Two  years  later  he  again  saw  the  mating 
flight  and  the  mating,  and  this  time  was  able  to  give  more 
facts  concerning  it.  The  swarm  consisted  mostly  of  males. 
In  mating  the  male  was  beneath  the  female  with  his  abdomen 
recurved  upward  so  that  its  tip  rested  against  the  two  openings 
of  the  oviducts,  between  the  eighth  and  ninth  segments.  Cop- 
ulation lasted  but  an  instant,  and  De  Geer  was  not  able  to 
observe  the  process  in  detail.  He  described  several  different 
varieties  of  May-flies,  distinguishing  them  by  descriptive 
color  names.  The  double  eyes  of  a  diurnal  May-fly  (possibly 
a  Leptophlebia)  were  mentioned,  the  larger  eyes  being  named 
the  turbinate  eyes.f 

G^offroy.  1764.  Geoffroy,  1764,  saw  great  swarms  of  May- 
flies near  Paris  and  noted  that  there  they  were  called  "manne 
de  poissons,"  because  great  numbers  fell  down  into  the  streams 
to  the  fishes.  He  accurately  figured  and  described  as  a  Crus- 
tacean,'! "the  May-fly,  later  determined  by  Vayssiere  as  Pro- 
sopistoma,  which  he  found  in  the  riffles  of  a  stream  near  Paris. 

Newman,  1836.  In  discussing  the  transformations  of  in- 
sects, Newman,  1836,  wrote  of  May-flies  as  follows:  "Here 
then  we  have  the  strange  fact  of  an  insect's  flying  before  it 
reaches  the  imago;  that  is,  flying  in  the  penultimate  state. 
It  thus  appears  that  although  until  the  final  ecdysis,  no  insect 
arrives  at  perfection;  yet  before  that  period,  even  in  the  state 
immediately  preceding,  it  may  feed,  run  and  even  fly;  or  it 
may  swim,  crawl,  barely  move,  or  be  without  motion." 

Bowerbank,  1833.  Bowerbank  studied  the  circulation  of 
the  blood  in  young  nymphs  of  Ephemera  marginata.  He 
carefully  examined  the  dorsal  vessel  with  its  valves  and  de- 
scribed the  circulation  of  the